|Native name||VLT Carioca|
|Owner||Municipality of Rio de Janeiro|
|Locale||Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil|
|Transit type||Light rail|
|Number of lines||3|
|Number of stations||42|
|Began operation||5 June 2016|
|Operator(s)||Operação Urbana Porto Maravilha|
|Number of vehicles||32 Alstom Citadis 402 trams|
|Train length||44 m (144 ft 4 1⁄4 in)|
30 minutes (night)
|System length||28 km (17 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Electrification||750 V DC (Alstom APS/SRS)|
|Average speed||15 km/h (9.3 mph)|
Rio de Janeiro Light Rail (Portuguese : VLT do Rio de Janeiro) is a modern light rail system serving Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The system is among several new public transport developments in the region ahead of the city's successful bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics. Its official name is VLT Carioca, the initialism "VLT" (which stands for veículo leve sobre trilhos, literally Light vehicle on rails) being equivalent to the English term light rail .
Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone" (Lusófono).
Light rail, light rail transit(LRT), tram or fast tram is a form of tramway or urban rail transit, using rolling stock, that constitutes a form of tram. They operate at a higher capacity than most historical tramways, and often on an exclusive right-of-way.
Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape.
The first phase, consisting of a single 15-kilometre line between the Novo Rio Bus Terminal and Santos Dumont Airport and 18 stops,was inaugurated on 5 June 2016, two months ahead of the Olympics opening ceremony, with regular service beginning the following day. For the first month of operation, it was free of charge to ride, but only two trams were in service between noon and 15:00 on the section between Parada dos Museus in Praça Mauá and Santos Dumont Airport. The remainder of the line was opened and service was expanded to full-time operation on 12 July, although only 16 of the 18 stops on the line are in use.
Novo Rio Bus Terminal is the main bus station in Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The terminal was constructed in 1965 and was built for the proximity to Centro and key routes in and out of Rio de Janeiro.
Santos Dumont Airport is the second major airport serving Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is named after the Brazilian aviation pioneer Alberto Santos Dumont (1873–1932). It is operated by Infraero.
A tram stop, tram station, streetcar stop, or light rail station is a place designated for a tram, streetcar, or light rail vehicle to stop so passengers can board or alight it. Generally, tram stops share most characteristics of bus stops, but because trams operate on rails, they often include railway platforms, especially if stepless entries are provided for accessibility. However, trams may also be used with bus stop type flags and with mid-street pavements as platforms, in street running mode.
The network uses 32 Alstom Citadis 402 low-floor trams carrying 420 passengers each. They are bi-directional, air-conditioned, have seven sections, and eight doors per side. The first five trams were built in Alstom's facility in La Rochelle, France and shipped to Rio in July 2015,and the remaining 27 were built in Alstom's facility in Taubaté, in the state of São Paulo.
The Alstom Citadis is a family of low-floor trams (streetcars) and light rail vehicles built by Alstom. As of 2017, over 2,300 Citadis trams have been sold and 1,800 tramways are in revenue service throughout the world, with operations in all six inhabited continents. An evolution of Alstom's earlier TFS vehicle, most Citadis vehicles are made in Alstom's factories in La Rochelle, Reichshoffen and Valenciennes, France, and in Barcelona, Spain, and Annaba, Algeria.
A low-floor tram is a tram that has no stairsteps between one or more entrances and part or all of the passenger cabin. The low-floor design improves the accessibility of the tram for the public, and also may provide larger windows and more airspace.
A bi-directional vehicle is a vehicle that can be driven in either direction, forwards or backwards. Usually, the term refers to rail vehicles, such as trains or trams, that are equipped with operating cabs at both ends. These vehicles generally have entry and exit doors on either side of the vehicle.
There are no overhead lines installed along the entire route. Instead, Alstom has equipped approximately 80% of the line with its proprietary ground-level power supply (APS) system. The remaining 20% uses on-board supercapacitor-based energy storage (SRS), also developed by Alstom.Trams are still equipped with pantographs for use in the maintenance facility.
Ground-level power supply, also known as surface current collection and Alimentation Par le Sol, is a modern method of third-rail electrical pick-up for street trams instead of more common overhead lines, thus it is one of the methods that could allow construction of catenary-free light rail system. It was invented for the Bordeaux tramway, which was constructed from 2000 and opened in 2003. From 2011, the technology has been used as part of other systems around the world, with Reims Tramway, Rio de Janeiro VLT, Angers tramway and Dubai Tram all having adopted the technology.
A supercapacitor (SC), also called an ultracapacitor, is a high-capacity capacitor with a capacitance value much higher than other capacitors, but with lower voltage limits, that bridges the gap between electrolytic capacitors and rechargeable batteries. It typically stores 10 to 100 times more energy per unit volume or mass than electrolytic capacitors, can accept and deliver charge much faster than batteries, and tolerates many more charge and discharge cycles than rechargeable batteries.
Energy storage is the capture of energy produced at one time for use at a later time. A device that stores energy is generally called an accumulator or battery. Energy comes in multiple forms including radiation, chemical, gravitational potential, electrical potential, electricity, elevated temperature, latent heat and kinetic. Energy storage involves converting energy from forms that are difficult to store to more conveniently or economically storable forms.
The remainder of the three-line, 28-km network will open in stages by the end of 2017. It is estimated that when the entire network is at full capacity, it would be able to eliminate 60% of buses and 15% of automobile traffic circulating in the city centre.
A tram-train is a light-rail public transport system where trams run through from an urban tramway network to main-line railway lines which are shared with conventional trains. This combines the tram's flexibility and accessibility with a train's greater speed, and bridges the distance between main railway stations and a city centre.
Translohr is a rubber-tired tramway system, originally developed by Lohr Industrie of France and now run by a consortium of Alstom Transport and Fonds stratégique d'investissement (FSI) as newTL, which took over from Lohr in 2012. It is used in Paris and Clermont-Ferrand, France, Medellín, Colombia, Tianjin and Shanghai, China, and Venice-Mestre and Padua in Italy. In June 2012, Alstom Group and the Strategic Investment Fund acquired Translohr for €35 million.
The Bordeaux tramway network consists of three lines serving the city of Bordeaux in Aquitaine in southwestern France.
The Valenciennes tramway is a tram system serving Valenciennes and part of its surrounding areas, in the Nord department of France. Since 2014 the network consists of two lines with a total of 33.8 mi (54.4 km) of track and 48 stations.
The Carioca Aqueduct is an aqueduct in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aqueduct was built in the middle of the 18th century to bring fresh water from the Carioca River to the population of the city. It is an impressive example of colonial architecture and engineering.
Reims tramway is a tram system in the French city of Reims, which opened in April 2011. It travels north to south, through the city, along 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) of route.
Rail transport in Brazil began in the 19th century and there were many different railway companies. The railways were nationalised under RFFSA in 1957. Between 1999 and 2007, RFFSA was broken up and services are now operated by a variety of private and public operators, including América Latina Logística, Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos and SuperVia.
The Santa Teresa Tram is a historic tram line in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It connects the city centre with the primarily residential, inner-city neighbourhood of Santa Teresa, in the hills immediately southwest of downtown. It is mainly maintained as a tourist attraction and is nowadays considered a heritage tramway system, having been designated a national historic monument in 1988. The line has a very unusual gauge: 1,100 mm. The main line is 6.0 kilometres long.
Trams in France date from 1837 when a 15 km steam tram line connected Montrond-les-Bains and Montbrison in the Loire. With the development of electric trams at the end of the 19th century, networks proliferated in French cities over a period of 15 years. Although nearly all of the country's tram systems were replaced by bus services in the 1930s or shortly after the Second World War, France is now in the forefront of the revival of tramways and light rail systems around the globe. Only tram lines in Lille and Saint-Étienne have operated continuously since the 19th century; the Marseille tramway system ran continuously until 2004 and only closed then for 3 years for extensive refurbishment into a modern tram network. Since the opening of the Nantes tramway in 1985, more than twenty towns and cities across France have built new tram lines. As of 2013, there are 25 operational tram networks in France, with 3 under construction and 4 more planned. France is also home to Alstom, a leading tram manufacturer.
The Istanbul Tram is a modern tram system on the European side of Istanbul. The first section, the T1 opened in 1992, followed by the T2, which opened in 2006, and the T4, which opened in 2007. In 2011, the T1 and T2 merged, with the line retaining the T1 name.
Zona Central is the historical, administrative, and financial centre of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It has been undergoing a major revitalisation since it was rediscovered by locals in the 1990s.
The Casablanca Tramway is a low-floor tram system in Casablanca, Morocco. As of 2019, it consists of two lines—ط1 (T1) from Sidi Moumen to Lissasfa, and ط2 (T2) from Sidi Bernoussi to Ain Diab—which intersect at 2 points and form a 47 km network with 71 stations. Two additional lines, ط3 and ط4, are scheduled to open in 2022.
The Jaén Tramway is a tramway/light rail system constructed in the city of Jaén, Spain (Andalusia), which was built in 2009–2011 but operated only very briefly for passenger service, never opened for full regular service, and now might never open.
The Algiers Tramway is a tram system which commenced service on May 8, 2011 on part of the yet to be fully completed line in the Algerian capital, Algiers. By June 2012, the opened sections had a length of 16.2 kilometres (10.1 mi) and 28 stops and were operated by ETUSA, the public transport operator for the Algiers metropolitan area, using Alstom Citadis trams. An extension, to take the tramway to a total length of 23.2 kilometres (14.4 mi), is currently (2013) under construction.
The Rabat-Salé tramway is a tram system in the Moroccan agglomeration of Rabat and Salé cities which opened on 23 May 2011.
The Dijon tramway is a tramway system opened in Dijon, France, in September 2012. The tramway consists of two lines totaling 20 kilometres (12.4 mi) in length and serving 37 stations.
Light rail is a commonly used mode of public transit in South America. The term light rail was coined in 1972 by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration to describe new streetcar transformations which were taking place in Europe and the United States. The Germans used the term Stadtbahn, which is the predecessor to North American light rail, to describe the concept, and many in the UMTA wanted to adopt the direct translation, which is city rail. However, in its reports the UMTA finally adopted the term light rail instead.
The Alstom Citadis Spirit is a low-floor articulated light rail vehicle developed by Alstom for Ottawa's O-Train. It is marketed as part of its Alstom Citadis family which includes other models of light rail vehicles.
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