Son of Frankenstein

Last updated

Son of Frankenstein
Son of Frankenstein - theatrical poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Rowland V. Lee
Screenplay by Willis Cooper [1]
Produced byRowland V. Lee [1]
Starring
Cinematography George Robinson [1]
Edited by Ted Kent [1]
Music by Frank Skinner [1]
Production
company
Distributed byUniversal Pictures Co.
Release date
  • January 13, 1939 (1939-01-13)
Running time
99 minutes [1]
CountryUnited States [2]
LanguageEnglish
Budget$420,000

Son of Frankenstein is a 1939 American horror film that was directed by Rowland V. Lee and stars Basil Rathbone, Boris Karloff and Bela Lugosi. The film is the third in Universal Pictures' Frankenstein series and is the follow-up to Bride of Frankenstein . Son of Frankenstein stars Rathbone as Baron Wolf von Frankenstein who, with his wife Elsa (Josephine Hutchinson) and son Peter (Donnie Dunagan), return to his late father's estate. Near the castle lives Ygor (Bela Lugosi), a crazed shepherd whose neck was broken in an unsuccessful hanging attempt. Among the castle's remains, Frankenstein discovers the remains of the monster (Boris Karloff) and decides to try to save his family name by resurrecting the creature to prove his father was correct. He finds, however, the monster only responds to Ygor's commands.

Contents

The film was originally announced in August 1938 after a successful theatrical reissue of Dracula and Frankenstein . Son of Frankenstein was initially announced under the title After Frankenstein. The screenplay written by Willis Cooper was initially rejected and early script drafts included only the characters that would be used in the final film. The original budget was set at $250,000 but Lee increased it to $300,000 and had a 27-day shooting schedule. Difficulties in production arose when Lee was unsatisfied with the script. Production was delayed until November 9 due to inclement weather and other problems, and filming was completed on January 5, 1939, with a final cost of $420,000. The film was released on January 13, 1939, and received positive reviews from The New York Daily News , The New York Times , Variety and the Monthly Film Bulletin . A sequel, The Ghost of Frankenstein , was released in 1942.

Plot

Baron Wolf von Frankenstein, son of Henry Frankenstein, relocates his wife Elsa and their young son Peter to the family castle. Wolf wants to redeem his father's reputation but finds this will be more difficult than he thought after he encounters hostility from the villagers, who resent him for the destruction his father's monster wreaked years ago. Wolf's only other friend is the local police Inspector Krogh, who wears an artificial arm because Frankenstein's creature ripped out his real arm when he was a child. While investigating his father's castle, Wolf meets Ygor, an embittered blacksmith who survived being hanged for graverobbing and has a deformed neck as a result. Wolf finds the monster's comatose body in the crypt where his grandfather and father were buried; his father's sarcophagus bears the phrase "Heinrich von Frankenstein: Maker of Monsters" written in chalk. He decides to revive the monster to prove his father was correct and to restore honor to his family. Wolf uses a torch to scratch out the word "Monsters" on the casket and writes "Men" beneath it.

Wolf revives the monster but it only responds to Ygor's commands and commits a series of murders, the victims of which were jurors at Ygor's trial. Krogh strongly suspects Wolf has created a murderous monster similar to his father's due to marks on the victims' bodies but Wolf denies it and tries to frame Ygor as the murderer. Krogh doesn't believe Ygor is the killer and so arrests Wolf for the disappearance of the Frankenstein family butler, Benson. Krogh then orders Wolf not to leave the castle. Nevertheless, Wolf is determined to throw Ygor off of his property and begins searching the castle for him. Later Wolf finds Ygor in the castle's laboratory and shoots him after Ygor threatens him with a hammer. Ygor collapses, apparently dead. The monster abducts Wolf's son in revenge but cannot bring himself to kill the child. Krogh and Wolf pursue the monster to the laboratory where a struggle ensues during which the monster tears out Krogh's false arm. Wolf swings on a rope and knocks the monster into a pit of molten sulfur beneath the laboratory, saving his son. Wolf leaves the keys of the Frankenstein castle to the villagers, who turn out to cheer the family as they leave by train.

Cast

Cast sourced from the American Film Institute and the book Universal Horrors: [1] [2] [3]

Production

Development

Following the release of Dracula's Daughter in May 1936, all horror film productions were dropped from Universal Pictures production schedules. [4] The studio resumed horror film production after a two-year break with the announcement of Son of Frankenstein in August 1938. [3] [5] Initially, Universal considered remaking their earlier films The Old Dark House and The Raven but instead decided to make a new Frankenstein film after the success of the triple bill of Dracula , Frankenstein and Son of Kong at Los Angeles' Regina Theatre on Wilshire Boulevard. [3] The screenings at the 659-seat theater packed houses for five weeks, leading Universal to reissue Frankenstein and Dracula on one program in theaters across the United States. [3]

Pre-production

Son of Frankenstein was first mentioned in trade papers on August 29, 1938, when an article in The Hollywood Reporter said Universal was negotiating a two-horror-picture deal with Boris Karloff, the first one being a sequel to Frankenstein. [5] By September 2, the magazine reported Universal had announced the film as After Frankenstein. [5] Bela Lugosi and Basil Rathbone were announced as cast members on October 20, and on October 24, Universal announced in The Hollywood Reporter plans to hire Karloff, Lugosi and Peter Lorre, but the latter had fallen through because the company could not borrow Lorre from 20th Century Fox. [5] According to the press release, Lorre had turned down the offer as he stopped working in horror films to become Mr. Moto and "did not want to risk being 'on another meanie'". [5] Claude Rains was also briefly considered for the role of Wolf Frankenstein, which eventually went to Rathbone. [1] [5] Lugosi spoke about the role with Ed Sullivan shortly before the film's release, stating he had to stretch eight weeks of pay over one-hundred and four weeks due the lack of work. [6] Lugosi received a call from Eric Umann to appear at the Regina Theatre for the screenings of Dracula, Frankenstein and Son of Kong, and shortly after was cast in Son of Frankenstein. [7] Lugosi said: "I owe it all to that little man at the Regina Theatre. I was dead and he brought me to life". [8] Director Rowland V. Lee said his crew let Lugosi "work on the characterization; the interpretation he gave us was imaginative and totally unexpected ... when we finished shooting, there was no doubt in anyone's mind that he stole the show. Karloff's monster was weak by comparison". [9]

Among the cast was Josephine Hutchinson, who had signed on for a two-picture deal with Universal, first appearing in The Crime of Doctor Hallet . Hutchinson later stated, "doing a Frankenstein film is kind of a phony bit – you don't have to delve too deeply". [10] The role of Peter was played by Donnie Dunagan, who had worked with Lee on Mother Carey's Chickens . [10] Dunagan later called his performance "corny" and said: "They had this little kid in there with this loud voice. They kept saying 'Speak up!' because I didn't speak that loud then ... And as you speak up, your accent is always accentuated. So here's this little curly-headed jerk runnin' around there with this very deep Memphis-Texas accent! They had the courage to do that". [10]

The director and producer for the film was Rowland V. Lee, who was 45 years old and had been working in the film industry since he was 19. [3] It was Lee's second film for Universal. [11] Wyllis Cooper, the creator of the radio show Lights Out , submitted an original screenplay for Son of Frankenstein that was initially rejected. [5] This screenplay, which was dated October 20, 1938, involved Wolf, his wife Else and their young son Erwin arriving at Castle Frankenstein to claim their inheritance. [5] Wolf's father's will stipulates the monster remain out of commission for at least 25 years following the watchtower explosion before any inheritance can be claimed. [5] Cooper's original script had several other references to Bride of Frankenstein, including the finding of the skeletal remains of Doctor Septimus Pretorius and the Bride of Frankenstein. [5] The script continues with the monster surviving the explosion at the end of the 1935 film and confronting Wolf to make a friend for him, and threatening to kill Else and Erwin if Wolf disobeys. [12]

Wolf's antagonist in this script is Inspector Neumüllerr, who vows vengeance against the monster for killing his father. [12] After Wolf fails to make a friend for the monster using corpses, the monster steals Erwin, intending to take him to the lab and carry out brain surgery on him. [12] He is stopped as Wolf enters, and Neumüller and his forces shoot the monster, who falls into a pit. [12] The script was changed to keep most of the characters intact; Neumuller becoming Krogh, who has lost an arm instead of a father, and changed the child's name to Peter. [12] The new version also eliminated the monster's ability to speak and added the character Ygor. [12] The film was originally set at a budget of $250,000 but this sum was increased to $300,000 and received a planned 27-day shooting schedule. [12] Lee briefly considered shooting the film in color but this idea was abandoned after Karloff's makeup looked poor in George Robinson's color tests. [12]

Filming and post-production

Production of Son of Frankenstein began on October 17, 1938, but filming was delayed until November 9 due to Lee's dissatisfaction with Cooper's screenplay. [12] [13] The cast was already on salary so the studio gave orders for Lee to go ahead, which led to the budget growing to $500,000. [13] The lack of a completed script led to actors receiving freshly written pages minutes before scenes were set up to be filmed. [10] The finishing date of the production was postponed from December 10 to 17. [10] According to actor Josephine Hutchinson, director Lee did some rewriting on set. [10]

Filming was further delayed by problems including rain and cold weather, which forced Lee to halt some filming. [10] [14] In the November 30 issue of The Hollywood Reporter, Universal announced the staff working on the cutting and scoring of Son of Frankenstein had been doubled to meet its scheduled release date. [14] The head of the editorial, sound and music departments - Maurice Pivar, Bernard B. Brown and Charles Previn respectively - alerted their staff about the possibility of working until the New Year holiday to meet the shipping date of the first 20 prints of the film. [14] By December 24, filming had not been completed, and the cast and crew worked until 6:15 pm rather than the usual noon finish. [14]

Production on the film was completed on January 5, 1939. [14] Dunagan said the film took a toll on Karloff, that the monster make-up "was punishing him" due to its weight, and that "when we got through with that movie, my sense was that he did not like that role. And I can promise you he didn't like the costume, which had to hurt him physically". [6] Son of Frankenstein was Karloff's final appearance as the monster in the series; he only portrayed him again for unique appearances on the television show Route 66 and at an all-star baseball game. [6] In 1948, Karloff said: "After Son, I decided the character no longer had any potentialities – the makeup did all the work. Anybody who can take that makeup every morning deserves respect". [6]

Post-production units only had a few days before the set January 7 preview dates. The first cut of the film ran over 100 minutes and was reduced. The final cost of the production was $420,000. [14]

Release

Photo of promotional image for Son of Frankenstein from 1939. SLNSW 24728 Twentyfour sheeter for Son of Frankenstein at Balmain Theatre.jpg
Photo of promotional image for Son of Frankenstein from 1939.

Son of Frankenstein was distributed theatrically by Universal Pictures on January 13, 1939. [2] The film performed well at the US box office; according to The Hollywood Reporter, the film had reaped greater returns than any prior horror film in key city openings. [15] The first-weekend revenue in Los Angeles, Boston and Richmond exceeded those of previous Universal film openings in those three cities. [15]

In 1948, Realart Pictures Inc. secured the reissue rights to the majority of Universal Pictures' library, which included the Universal monster movies. [16] In 1952, the company re-released Son of Frankenstein theatrically. [17] In late 1957, a television subsidiary of Columbia Pictures put together a package of Universal's films and screened them in a series called Shock Theater across the United States. [17] This series included Son of Frankenstein. [17] [18] According to the book "Universal Horrors", the baby boomers generation primarily discovered these films through this television series. [18] [19] In 1987, Universal/MCA found an uncut print of Son of Frankenstein and debated whether to release it or the more familiar edited version on home video. [20] The company decided on the latter. [20] The film was released on DVD as part of "The Monster Legacy Collection" and "Frankenstein: The Legacy Collection" on April 27, 2004. [21]

Reception

Gary Don Rhodes wrote that Son of Frankenstein received "stronger reviews than generally met other horror films". [15] Among contemporary reviews, The Hollywood Reporter said the film was "a knockout of its type of production, acting and effects" because Lee's direction "keeps a chillingly sombre mood, and the grim humor that's in it, he handles very well indeed". [22] The Motion Picture Herald said the film "is a masterpiece in the demonstration of how production settings and effects can be made assets emphasizing literary melodrama". [23] Kate Cameron of The New York Daily News said Lee "created an eerie atmosphere for the story and he has put into the working out of the plot enough horror to send the chills and shivers racing up and down the spectators' backs". [23] B. R. Crisler of The New York Times said the film could be considered "the silliest picture ever made", yet implements "a very shrewd silliness, perpetrated by a good director in the best traditions of cinematic horror, so that even while you laugh at its nonsense you may be struck with the notion that perhaps that's as good a way of enjoying oneself at a movie as any". [24] [23] In a Variety review, the film was called "well mounted, nicely directed, and includes [a] cast of capable artists". [25] The Monthly Film Bulletin stated "since the whole atmosphere of the film is so far removed from everyday reality it is impossible to take the horrors very seriously", noting for a film of its genre, "the production is good and of a high technical quality", and praised the performances of Rathbone and Atwill. [26]

According to the authors of the book Universal Horrors (2007), Son of Frankenstein is "the last of the great Frankenstein films", and "every aspect of the picture, from the acting to the technical departs, is first-rate", concluding the film is "grandiose in scope, magnificent in design, it supplanted the quaint romanticsm and delicate fantasy flavoring of Bride of Frankenstein with a stark, grimly expressionistic approach to horror". [3] [27] Jim Hoberman of The Village Voice in 2011 praised Lugosi's performance as Ygor, writing he "pretty much steals the movie in his last really juicy role". [28] Richard Gilliam of AllMovie said the film is unusual because of its high quality despite being the third film in the series, and noted the "strong story, fine inherited production motifs, and an excellent cast" and that the film is still a step-down from the two previous Frankenstein films. [29]

In the book Horror Movies (2018), Kim Newman said Lugosi was in "his finest screen role", while Atwill and Rathbone made up for the lack of the British presence director James Whale had. [30] Less positive reviews mentioned Whale's absence as the film's director; Phil Edwards in Starburst in the early 1980s said Son of Frankenstein is "not particularly novel and the somewhat hackneyed story points the way to the sad direction which later Universal horrors would follow". [31] James Marriott dismissed the film as inferior to James Whale's earlier films in the series, finding the plot "wildly uneven" and that "Karloff sleepwalks through his performance, leaving Lugosi to outshine him for once". [30]

Legacy

After the success of Son of Frankenstein, Universal announced a follow-up film, The Ghost of Frankenstein , on November 13, 1941, saying they had been searching for a new lead to play the monster. [32] The next day, producer George Waggner was instructed to order the same type of makeup Karloff wore for the new actor, with instructions that changing the appearance may "kill the interest of Frankenstein follower". [32] Lon Chaney, Jr. was chosen to play the monster. [32] The Ghost of Frankenstein was released on March 13, 1942. [32]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bela Lugosi</span> Hungarian-American actor (1882–1956)

Béla Ferenc Dezső Blaskó, known professionally as Bela Lugosi, was a Hungarian and American actor best remembered for portraying Count Dracula in the 1931 English-language Dracula, Ygor in Son of Frankenstein (1939) and his roles in many other horror films from 1931 through 1956.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Boris Karloff</span> English actor (1887–1969)

William Henry Pratt, better known by his stage name Boris Karloff, was an English actor who starred as Frankenstein's monster in the horror film Frankenstein (1931), which established him as a horror icon. He reprised the role in Bride of Frankenstein (1935) and Son of Frankenstein (1939). Karloff also appeared as Imhotep in The Mummy (1932), and voiced the Grinch, as well as narrating the animated television special of Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas! (1966), which won him a Grammy Award.

<i>Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein</i> 1948 American horror comedy film directed by Charles Barton

Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein is a 1948 American horror comedy film directed by Charles Barton. The film features Count Dracula who has become partners with Dr. Sandra Mornay, as Dracula requires a "simple, pliable" brain to reactivate Frankenstein's monster. Dracula discovers that the "ideal" brain belongs to Wilbur Grey who is wooed by Mornay to the operating table, despite the warnings of Lawrence Talbot.

<i>Frankenstein</i> (1931 film) 1931 film

Frankenstein is a 1931 American pre-Code science fiction horror film directed by James Whale, produced by Carl Laemmle Jr., and adapted from a 1927 play by Peggy Webling, which in turn was based on Mary Shelley's 1818 novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. The Webling play was adapted by John L. Balderston and the screenplay written by Francis Edward Faragoh and Garrett Fort, with uncredited contributions from Robert Florey and John Russell.

Baron Wolf von Frankenstein is a fictional character who appears in the 1939 Universal film Son of Frankenstein. He is played by Basil Rathbone.

<i>The Invisible Man Returns</i> 1940 film by Joe May

The Invisible Man Returns is a 1940 American horror science fiction film directed by Joe May. The film stars Cedric Hardwicke, Vincent Price, Nan Grey and John Sutton. The film is a sequel to the 1933 film The Invisible Man, and the second film in the Invisible Man film series. The film is about Sir Geoffrey Radcliffe (Price) who is condemned for a murder he did not commit, which leads to him begging Dr. Frank Griffin (Sutton) to inject him with the invisibility serum despite Griffin's warning that the serum will drive him mad.

<i>The Black Cat</i> (1941 film) 1941 film by Albert S. Rogell

The Black Cat is a 1941 American comedy horror mystery film directed by Albert S. Rogell. Inspired by darkly comedic "old dark house" films of the era as well as the 1843 short story "The Black Cat" by Edgar Allan Poe, the film stars Basil Rathbone as Montague Hartley, the head of a greedy family who await the death of Henrietta Winslow so that they can inherit her fortune. When she is found murdered, an investigation begins into who might be the culprit. Alongside Rathbone and Loftus, the film's cast includes Hugh Herbert, Broderick Crawford, and Bela Lugosi.

<i>The Invisible Ray</i> (1936 film) 1936 film

The Invisible Ray is a 1936 American science-fiction horror film directed by Lambert Hillyer. It stars Boris Karloff as Dr. Janos Rukh, a scientist who comes in contact with a meteorite composed of an element known as "Radium X". After exposure to its rays begins to make him glow in the dark, his touch becomes deadly, and he begins to be slowly driven mad. Alongside Karloff, the film's cast includes Bela Lugosi, Frances Drake, Frank Lawton, Walter Kingsford, Beulah Bondi, Violet Kemble Cooper, and Nydia Westman.

<i>The Ghost of Frankenstein</i> 1942 film by Erle C. Kenton

The Ghost of Frankenstein is a 1942 American horror film directed by Erle C. Kenton. It is the fourth film in the Frankenstein series by Universal Pictures, and the follow-up to Son of Frankenstein. The film's plot follows the previous film's: Frankenstein's Monster and his companion Ygor are chased out of town. They go to another small town to encourage the younger son of Henry Frankenstein to continue his father's experiments, so that Ygor can have revenge against his enemies and his brain transplanted into the Monster's skull.

<i>Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man</i> 1943 US horror film directed by Roy William Neill

Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man is a 1943 American horror film directed by Roy William Neill. The film stars Lon Chaney Jr. as the Wolf Man and Bela Lugosi as Frankenstein's monster. This was the first of a series of later called "monster rallies" combining characters from several film series. This film's script written by Curt Siodmak follows The Ghost of Frankenstein, and The Wolf Man. The film involves Larry Talbot who is brought back to life. Seeking a way to return to his death to escape his werewolf curse, he meets with gypsy Maleva who advises him that the only way to stay dead is to confer with Dr. Frankenstein. The doctor is long dead but his equipment is in working condition, leading Talbot to seek the help of scientist Dr. Mannering and Frankenstein descendant Baroness Elsa Frankenstein. Talbot then attempts to have his life sucked from his body and transferred into Frankenstein's monster.

<i>House of Frankenstein</i> (film) 1944 film

House of Frankenstein is a 1944 American horror film starring Boris Karloff, Lon Chaney Jr. and John Carradine. The film was directed by Erle C. Kenton based on a story by Curt Siodmak, and produced by Universal Pictures. The film is about Dr. Gustav Niemann who escapes from prison and promises to create a new body for his assistant Daniel. The two murder Professor Lampini and take over his sideshow that involves the corpse of Count Dracula. After disposing of the Count, the two move on to the ruins of Castle Frankenstein where they find the body of Frankenstein's monster and Larry Talbot, the Wolf Man preserved in the castle. Niemann thaws them and promises to cure Talbot of his werewolf curse, but secretly plots to revive Frankenstein's monster instead.

<i>House of Dracula</i> 1945 film by Erle C. Kenton

House of Dracula is a 1945 American horror film released and distributed by Universal Pictures. Directed by Erle C. Kenton, the film features several Universal Horror properties meeting as they had done in the 1944 film House of Frankenstein. The film is set at the castle home of Dr. Franz Edelmann, who is visited first by Count Dracula and later by Larry Talbot, the Wolf Man, who are trying to cure their vampirism and lycanthropy, respectively. Talbot is eventually cured, which leads him to discover the body of Frankenstein's monster in a cave below the base of the castle. Edelemann takes the monster's body back to his laboratory but finds Count Dracula has awakened and by attacking his assistants, he captures Edelmann and forces a reverse blood transfusion, which gives Edelmann a split personality and makes him a killer.

<i>The Raven</i> (1935 film) 1935 film by Lew Landers

The Raven is a 1935 American horror film directed by Lew Landers and starring Boris Karloff and Béla Lugosi. The film is based on Edgar Allan Poe's 1845 homonymous poem, featuring Lugosi as a Poe-obsessed mad surgeon with a torture chamber in his basement and Karloff as a fugitive murderer on the run from the police.

<i>Tower of London</i> (1939 film) 1939 film by Rowland V. Lee

Tower of London is a 1939 black-and-white historical film directed and produced by Rowland V. Lee. It stars Basil Rathbone as the future King Richard III of England, and Boris Karloff as his fictitious club-footed executioner Mord. The film is based on the traditional depiction of Richard rising to become King of England in 1483 by eliminating everyone ahead of him. Each time Richard accomplishes a murder, he removes one figurine from a dollhouse resembling a throneroom. Once he has completed his task, he now needs to defeat the exiled Henry Tudor to retain the throne.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Universal Classic Monsters</span> Horror and science fiction films made by Universal Studios (1930s–1950s)

Universal Classic Monsters is a media franchise based on a series of horror films primarily produced by Universal Pictures from the 1930s to the 1950s. Although not initially conceived as a franchise, the enduring popularity and legacy of the films and the characters featured in them has led the studio to market them under the collective brand name of Universal Studios Monsters. Steve Jones of USA Today described Universal's most famous monsters as "pop culture icons", specifically Dracula, Frankenstein, the Mummy and the Wolf Man.

<i>Murders in the Rue Morgue</i> (1932 film) 1932 film

Murders in the Rue Morgue is a 1932 American horror film directed by Robert Florey, based on Edgar Allan Poe's 1841 short story "The Murders in the Rue Morgue", is about Doctor Mirakle, a carnival sideshow entertainer and scientist who kidnaps Parisian prostitutes to mix their blood with that of his pet gorilla. As his experiments fail because of the quality of his victims' blood, Mirakle meets with Camille L'Espanye, and has her kidnapped and her mother murdered, leading to suspicion falling on Camille's husband Pierre Dupin.

<i>The Cat Creeps</i> (1946 film) 1946 film

The Cat Creeps is a 1946 American film directed by Erle C. Kenton.

<i>Frankenstein</i> (Universal film series) American horror film series

Frankenstein is a film series of horror films from Universal Pictures based on the play version by Peggy Webling and the 1818 novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus by Mary Shelley. The series follow the story of a monster created by Henry Frankenstein who is made from body parts of corpses and brought back to life. The rest of the series generally follows the monsters continuously being revived and eventually focuses on a series of cross overs with other Universal horror film characters such as The Wolf Man. The series consists of the following films: Frankenstein (1931), Bride of Frankenstein (1935), Son of Frankenstein (1939), The Ghost of Frankenstein (1942), Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man (1943), House of Frankenstein (1944), House of Dracula (1945) and Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein (1948).

<i>Dracula</i> (Universal film series)

Dracula is a film series of horror films from Universal Pictures based on the 1897 novel Dracula by Bram Stoker and its 1927 play adaptation. The series is a loose collection of films, with historians stating that the films all reference characters, events or at least passing knowledge of the 1931 English-language production of Dracula, with historians noting that Dracula's Daughter and Son of Dracula are more closely related to the 1931 film while the character of Dracula would make smaller appearances in later films such as House of Frankenstein and House of Dracula. After Dracula's Daughter, the character of Dracula and other vampires in the series became more Americanized starting with the release of Son of Dracula, and the later House of films. The character of Dracula appears in all the films outside of Dracula's Daughter, where he is portrayed by Bela Lugosi, Lon Chaney, Jr., and John Carradine in the House of films.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of horror films</span>

The history of horror films is one that was described by author Siegbert Solomon Prawer as difficult to read as a linear historical path, with the genre changing throughout the decades, based on the state of cinema, audience tastes and contemporary world events.

References

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 182.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Son of Frankenstein (1939)". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on October 17, 2020. Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 183.
  4. Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 13.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 185.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 193.
  7. Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, pp. 193–194.
  8. Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 194.
  9. Edwards 1997.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 188.
  11. Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 184.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 186.
  13. 1 2 Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 187.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 189.
  15. 1 2 3 Rhodes 1997, p. 112.
  16. Okuda & Yurkiw 2016, p. 8.
  17. 1 2 3 Pettigrew 2014, p. 149.
  18. 1 2 Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 585.
  19. Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 584.
  20. 1 2 Buehrer 1993, p. 136.
  21. "Son of Frankenstein (1939) - Rowland V. Lee | Releases". AllMovie. Archived from the original on May 14, 2019. Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  22. Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, pp. 194–195.
  23. 1 2 3 Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 195.
  24. Crisler 1939.
  25. "Son of Frankenstein". Variety . Vol. 133, no. 6. January 18, 1939. p. 12.
  26. A.P. 1939, p. 21.
  27. Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 190.
  28. Hoberman 2011.
  29. Gilliam.
  30. 1 2 Marriott & Newman 2018, p. 50.
  31. Edwards.
  32. 1 2 3 4 Weaver, Brunas & Brunas 2007, p. 275.

Sources