Threadfin jack

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Threadfin jack
Threadfin jack 2.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Carangiformes
Family: Carangidae
Genus: Carangoides
Species:
C. otrynter
Binomial name
Carangoides otrynter
Carangoides otrynter distribution.png
Approximate range of the threadfin jack
Synonyms
  • Caranx otrynter
    Jordan & Gilbert, 1883
  • Carangoides dorsalis
    Gill, 1863
  • Caranx dorsalis
    (Gill, 1863)
  • Citula dorsalis
    (Gill, 1863)

The threadfin jack or thread pompano (Carangoides otrynter) is a species of coastal marine fish in the jack family Carangidae. The species inhabits the tropical waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California in the north to Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands in the south. It is a moderately large fish, growing to 60 cm (24 in) and may be recognized by its filamentous dorsal and anal fin lobes. The threadfin jack inhabits both deeper coastal waters and inshore environments, including reefs and estuaries, where it preys on minute benthic and pelagic organisms, including small fishes and crustaceans. Very little is known about the ecology and reproductive cycle in the species. The threadfin jack is of importance to fisheries throughout its distribution, caught by hook-and-line and net methods and marketed fresh and salted, and is considered a very good table fish. The species was named Carangoides dorsalis by Theodore Gill 20 years before the name Caranx otrynter was introduced, but confusion with Vomer dorsalis led to the proposal of the new name to separate the two species.

Contents

Taxonomy and naming

The threadfin jack is classified within the genus Carangoides , one of a number of groups of fish referred to as jacks and trevallies. Carangoides falls into the jack and horse mackerel family Carangidae, the Carangidae are part of the order Carangiformes. [2]

The species was first scientifically described by the American ichthyologist Theodore Gill, who named the species Carangoides dorsalis based on the holotype taken from the west coast of Central America. [3] This name and description was published in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, in which Gill one year previously described another carangid, Vomer dorsalis. [4] The state of carangid taxonomy at the time was rather confusing, with many synonymous genera and species present in the literature, and Vomer dorsalis was soon moved to Caranx, as was Carangoides dorsalis, creating a taxonomic homonym. To address this problem, the American ichthyologists David Starr Jordan and Charles Henry Gilbert in 1883 created the name Caranx otrynter as a replacement for the species originally named Carangoides dorsalis, basing their description on a new holotype specimen taken from Mazatlán, Mexico. [5] The authors indicated that if Vomer was found to be a valid genus or subgenus, Vomer dorsalis could be reinstated and the original combination of Caranx dorsalis be restored. Despite V. dorsalis being transferred to Selene dorsalis , this never occurred and in a 1994 publication, Gerald Allen and D. Ross Robertson placed Caranx otrynter into the genus Carangoides, [6] where it has remained ever since. The specific name otrynter is derived from Latin, and means a driver, in allusion to the whip-like ray of the second dorsal fin. [5] The common names of the species, threadfin jack and thread pompano, also refer to the filamentous, threadlike dorsal fin.

Description

The threadlike dorsal and anal fin tips are characteristic. Threadfin jack.jpg
The threadlike dorsal and anal fin tips are characteristic.

The threadfin jack is a moderately large species, growing to a known maximum length of 60 cm. [7] The species is similar in appearance to a number of jacks in the genera Carangoides and Alectis in its adult form, having a compressed, oblong body, with the dorsal and ventral profiles approximately equal in concavity. The head profile is quite angular, being most steep immediately above the mouth, and being moderately steep to the nape, becoming more horizontal posteriorly. The juveniles have a more oval to diamond shape, looking much like juveniles of the genus Alectis. [8] The dorsal fin is in two parts, the first being greatly diminished and consisting of eight spines entirely embedded in the skin, with the second dorsal fin composed of one spine and 18 or 19 soft rays. The anal fin is composed of two anteriorly detached spines followed by one spine and 16 or 17 soft rays. [8] Both juveniles and adults have highly elongated second dorsal and anal fin lobes, extended out into long filaments; they are most pronounced in juveniles. [9] The lateral line has a moderate, regular arch anteriorly, which is roughly equal in length to the straight posterior section. The straight section has no to 15 scales followed by 40 to 52 small scutes. The breast is devoid of scales ventrally to behind the pelvic fin origin and diagonally up to the pectoral fin base. Both jaws contain uniform bands of small, weak teeth becoming wider posteriorly and irregular conical outer teeth in adults. It has 21 to 23 gill rakers and 24 vertebrae. [8]

In life, the threadfin jack is a silvery-blue above, becoming silvery-white on the underside, with golden to yellow reflections. The first dorsal and pelvic fin is grey, while the second dorsal, anal, pectoral, and caudal fins are hyaline or grey with a yellow tinge. Juveniles have clear, dark, vertical bands, fading with age. Much like the shadow trevally, small black spots occur on the bases of soft dorsal rays and the body immediately below them that increase in size with age, with a small black blotch on the upper operculum. [8]

Distribution and habitat

The threadfin jack is distributed throughout the tropical regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean, inhabiting the western coast of the Americas. The northern limit to the species range is southern Baja California, with its range extending south to Mexico and Central America to a southern limit of Ecuador, with the species also recorded from the Galapagos Islands. [7] It is one of only two species of the genus Carangoides found on the western coastline of the Americas, with the other species being the widely distributed island trevally, Carangoides orthogrammus. [8]

The species appears to undergo a major transition in lifestyle after its juvenile phase, with young individuals leading a pelagic lifestyle, able to be transported to offshore islands such as the Galapagos by currents. Older individuals are more benthic in nature, inhabiting the bottom of the water column in mostly coastal waters on reefs. [10] Smaller fish have been recorded from estuaries, mangrove-lined creeks, shallow bays, and lagoons, [11] although larger fish live in much deeper waters up to 50 m (160 ft) in depth. [12]

Biology and fishery

Much of biology and ecology of the threadfin jack is unknown, with the species' diet the only studied aspect of its biology. A study in fishes of the continental shelf of Colombia found the species takes predominantly small, benthic fishes of the families Triglidae, Synodontidae, and Batrachoididae. Other common prey included benthic crustaceans, including various crabs and shrimp. [13] Nothing is known of its reproductive cycle.

The threadfin jack is of some importance to fisheries throughout its range, although individual catch statistics for the species are not kept. It is often caught by hook-and-line methods or by gill nets and various artisanal traps. It is considered to be good to excellent table fare, and is marketed both fresh and salted. [8] The species has also been found at a number of archaeological sites in both Panama and Ecuador, indicating it has been caught by humans for food for at least 3450 years. [11] [14] The threadfin jack is also of interest to anglers who catch the species occasionally, and is considered a minor gamefish. Juveniles are occasionally caught from shore, such as piers and breakwaters, while larger individuals are caught over deeper reefs. The species takes a variety of bait, including fish and prawns, but they also take lures, including hard and small, fly-like Sabiki lures. [12]

Related Research Articles

Bigeye trevally species of fish

The bigeye trevally, also known as the bigeye jack, great trevally, six-banded trevally and dusky jack, is a species of widespread large marine fish classified in the jack family Carangidae. The bigeye trevally is distributed throughout the tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, ranging from South Africa in the west to California and Ecuador in the east, including Australia to the south and Japan in the north. The bigeye trevally is best distinguished by its colouration, having a dark second dorsal fin with a white tip on the lobe, and also possessing a small dark spot on the operculum. Other more detailed anatomical features also set the species apart from other members of Caranx. The species is known to grow to a length of 120 cm and 18 kg.

African pompano species of fish

The African pompano, also known as the pennant-fish or threadfin trevally, is a widely distributed species of tropical marine fish in the jack family, Carangidae. The species is found in tropical waters worldwide, with adults often inhabiting coastlines, while juveniles are usually pelagic, floating with ocean currents. The adult African pompano is similar in appearance to the other members of the genus Alectis, with the concave shape of the head near the eyes; the clearest distinguishing feature. The juveniles are similar to other members of Alectis, having long, filamentous dorsal and anal fin tips which are thought to discourage predators. The species lives in depths less than 100 m, consuming a range of crustaceans and small fishes. The species is of minor economic importance, often taken amongst other tropical midwater fishes by hook and line, while juveniles are occasionally caught in beach seines. African pompano are also highly rated game fish, often considered one of the strongest of the jacks in larger sizes.

Bludger (fish) species of fish

The bludger, also known as the bludger trevally, nakedbreast trevally or Bleeker's jackfish, is a widespread species of large marine fish in the jack family, Carangidae. The bludger inhabits the tropical and subtropical regions of the Indo-west Pacific Ocean, distributed from South Africa in the west to Japan and New Caledonia in the east. It is a large fish, growing to a maximum recorded length of 90 cm, and is very similar to the yellowspotted trevally, Carangoides fulvoguttatus, but can be separated by the complete absence of breast scales and a number of other anatomical features. The species inhabits moderately deep offshore coral and rocky reefs, where it preys on small crustaceans and fish. The reproductive biology of the species is poorly known, but it appears to move to more tropical waters to spawn. The bludger is of intermediate importance to fisheries throughout its range, taken by hook and line and various netting methods. It is of some value to anglers also, considered a good gamefish, but generally regarded as poor eating due to its soft oily flesh, which is used as bait by many anglers. The name ‘bludger’ is said to either refer to the blunt head of the species, or the destination of the fish when caught by professional fishermen who treat the fish as discard.

<i>Alectis</i> Genus of fish

Alectis is a genus of fish in the family Carangidae containing three extant species, all of which are large marine fishes. They are commonly known as threadfish, diamond trevallies or pompanos, although they have no close affiliation with the true pompano genus.

African threadfish species of fish

The African threadfish, also known as the Alexandria pompano, is a species of large marine fish in the jack family, Carangidae. The species is distributed along the coast of tropical Africa in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, extending to the Mediterranean Sea. Adults live predominantly in shallow waters shallower than 70 m deep, often forming small schools. The African threadfish is similar in appearance to the closely related and co-occurring African pompano, with the slightly concave shape of the species head profile the most definitive feature of the species. Like other members of the genus Alectis, the juveniles of the species have long trailing dorsal and anal fins. The African threadfish is of minor commercial importance, and is also considered to be a game fish.

Malabar trevally species of fish

The Malabar trevally, also known as the Malabar jack, Malabar kingfish or nakedshield kingfish, is a species of large inshore marine fish of the jack family, Carangidae. It is distributed throughout the Indian and west Pacific Oceans from South Africa in the west to Japan and Australia in the east, inhabiting reefs and sandy bays on the continental shelf. The Malabar trevally is similar to many of the other species in the genus Carangoides, with the number of gill rakers and the grey-brown colour of the tongue being the diagnostic features. The Malabar trevally is a predator, taking a variety of small fish, cephalopods and crustaceans. The species is of minor economic importance throughout its range, caught by a variety of net and handline methods.

<i>Carangoides</i> genus of fishes

Carangoides is a genus of tropical to subtropical marine fishes in the jack family, Carangidae. They are small- to large-sized, deep-bodied fish characterised by a certain gill raker and jaw morphology, often appearing very similar to jacks in the genus Caranx. They inhabit the subtropical and tropical regions of the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans, often occupying coastal areas, including reefs, bays, and estuaries, rarely venturing far offshore. They are all predatory fishes, taking a variety of smaller fishes, crustaceans and cephalopods as prey. The genus was first erected in 1851 by Pieter Bleeker for an unknown taxon and currently contains 20 species. Many make up significant proportions of various fisheries, although a number of ciguatera cases have been attributed to them.

Longfin trevally species of fish

The longfin trevally, also known as the longfin kingfish, longfin cavalla or armed trevally, is a species of inshore marine fish in the jack family, Carangidae. The species is common in tropical to subtropical waters of the Indo-Pacific, ranging from South Africa in the west to Japan in the east, typically inhabiting inshore reefs and bays. The species is easily distinguished by its elongate dorsal and anal fin lobes and filamentous dorsal rays, as well as its scaleless breast. Longfin trevally are pelagic predators, taking a variety of small fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, and reach sexual maturity at around 21 cm. The species has a maximum known length of 57 cm and weight of 3.5 kg. The longfin trevally has a very complex taxonomic history which is closely intertwined with another currently valid species, Carangoides ciliarius, which may yet prove to be synonymous. Longfin trevally are of minor importance to fisheries throughout their range and are considered good table fish, and are occasionally taken by anglers.

Longnose trevally treval

The longnose trevally, also known as the tea-leaf trevally, club-nosed trevally, grunting trevally or dusky trevally, is a species of inshore marine fish in the jack family, Carangidae. The species is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian and west Pacific Oceans from South Africa to New Zealand and Japan, inhabiting coastal waters, especially reefs, to a depth of 90 m. The longnose trevally is distinguished from similar species by a combination of a scaleless breast and the number of gill rakers and fin rays. It is a moderately large fish, growing to a maximum known length of 72 cm and 4.35 kg. The longnose trevally is a predatory fish, consuming small fish, crustaceans and molluscs. The species is of minor commercial importance throughout its range, and is considered to be a good table fish.

Coastal trevally species of fish

The coastal trevally, also known as the onion trevally, Japanese trevally or bluefin kingfish, is a species of inshore marine fish in the jack family Carangidae. The species is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian and west Pacific Oceans, from South Africa in the west to Japan and New Caledonia in the east, reaching as far south as Australia. The species is found on deep coastal reefs, both in schools and as solitary individuals, where they prey on small midwater organisms including crustaceans, small fish and cephalopods. The species is taken as bycatch in a number of fisheries throughout its range by a number of fishing methods and is of little commercial value, but is considered to be a good table fish. A mistype in the original volume in which Eduard Rüppell named the species led to the combination Carangoides caeruleopinnatus, which has incorrectly spread through the literature.

Shadow trevally species of fish

The shadow trevally, also known as the shadow kingfish, twothread trevally or Aldabra trevally, is a species of inshore marine fish in the jack family Carangidae. The species is patchily distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian and west Pacific Oceans, from South Africa in the west to Japan and Samoa in the east, reaching as far south as Indonesia and New Caledonia. It is most easily distinguished from similar species by as series of dark rectangular blotches under the second dorsal fin, giving a 'shadowed' appearance, from which its common name is derived. The shadow trevally is a reasonably large fish, growing to 85 cm in length and at least 2.6 kg in weight. It inhabits shallow coastal waters, including reefs, bays, and estuaries, where it takes small fish and benthic crustaceans as prey. Nothing is known of the species' ecology and reproductive biology. It is of little importance to fisheries, and is occasionally taken by bottom trawls and other artisanal fishing gear.

<i>Caranx</i> genus of fishes

Caranx is a genus of tropical to subtropical marine fishes in the jack family Carangidae, commonly known as jacks, trevallies and kingfishes. They are moderate- to large-sized, deep-bodied fishes which are distinguished from other carangid genera by specific gill raker, fin ray and dentition characteristics. The genus is represented in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans, inhabiting both inshore and offshore regions, ranging from estuaries and bays to deep reefs and offshore islands. All species are powerful predators, taking a variety of fish, crustaceans and cephalopods, while they in turn are prey to larger pelagic fishes and sharks. A number of fish in the genus have a reputation as powerful gamefish and are highly sought by anglers. They often make up high amounts of the catch in various fisheries, but are generally considered poor to fair table fishes.

Whitefin trevally species of fish

The whitefin trevally, also known as the horse trevally, is a species of deep water offshore fish in the jack family Carangidae. The species inhabits the tropical to temperate waters of the Indo-Pacific and central Pacific, ranging from South Africa in the west to Hawaii in the east. The whitefin trevally is a moderate-sized fish, growing to 37 cm, and is distinguished by a number of morphological traits, including fin size, gill raker count, and colour. It inhabits the continental shelf and slope at depths to 200 m over sand and mud substrates, where it preys on fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Studies in Japan indicate a length at sexual maturity of 17.4 cm on average, with spawning occurring between May and October, with each individual spawning multiple times. Whitefin trevallies are of high importance to fisheries in Japan, where they are taken by trawlers, although the catch numbers have halved since the 1980s. It is of minor importance elsewhere throughout its range, but is considered a good table fish.

Blue trevally species of fish

The blue trevally, also known as the banded trevally, barred trevally, Ferdau's trevally or Forskaal's jackfish, is a common, widespread species of pelagic marine fish classified in the jack family, Carangidae. The blue trevally is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indo-Pacific and central Pacific regions, ranging from South Africa in the west to Hawaii in the east. It is a moderately large fish, growing to a recorded maximum length of 70 cm, with the number of rays in the second dorsal fin and the colouring serving as diagnostic features of the species. The species inhabits waters to depths of 60 m, generally inhabiting reefs, beaches, lagoons, and areas with sandy substrates. It is a predatory fish, taking other fish, prawns, crabs, and molluscs, and very little is known of the species' reproductive biology. The blue trevally is of varying importance to fisheries throughout its range, with some regions having high catches of the fish. It is considered to be a gamefish, and is sought after for its excellent eating qualities.

Yellowspotted trevally species of fish

The yellowspotted trevally, also known as the yellowspotted kingfish, goldspotted trevally or tarrum, is a widespread species of large inshore marine fish in the jack family Carangidae. The yellowspotted trevally inhabits the tropical and subtropical waters of the western Indo-Pacific region, from South Africa in the west to Japan and Australia in the east. The species is known to grow to a maximum length of at least 1.2 m, and is distinguished by gill raker and fin morphology, as well as the distinctive golden spots which give the fish its name. The yellowspotted trevally generally prefers inshore rocky and coral reefs, but is occasionally found over deep offshore sand banks to a depth of 100 m. It is a predatory fish, taking fish, cephalopods, and crustaceans, and shows diet partitioning with other trevallies in studies conducted in Australian waters. Reproduction is poorly studied, although observational evidence suggests spawning occurs in aggregations, probably during summer in South Africa. It is generally of minor importance to commercial fisheries throughout its range, but is considered an excellent sportfish by anglers and spearfishermen, and a good table fish.

Bumpnose trevally species of fish

The bumpnose trevally, also known as the bumpnose kingfish or onion kingfish, is a species of relatively small inshore marine fish classified in the jack family Carangidae. The bumpnose trevally is fairly common in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indo-west Pacific region, ranging from South Africa in the west to Japan and Samoa in the east. It is a small species by carangid standards, reaching a maximum known length of 32 cm, and can be distinguished from the similarly shaped Carangoides armatus by a distinct 'bump' on the snout, which gives the fish its common name. The species inhabits coastal waters, often living along bays and beaches, where it takes shrimp, small crabs, and juvenile fish as prey. The bumpnose trevally is of minor importance to fisheries throughout its range, taken by hook and line, trawls, and seine nets. It is also of minor importance to anglers, taken by baits from beaches and piers, and is considered a modest table fish.

Duskyshoulder trevally species of fish

The duskyshoulder trevally or epaulet trevally, is a species of small inshore marine fish in the jack family, Carangidae. It is distributed through the eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans, ranging from eastern India to northern Australia and Taiwan. It is relatively small by carangid standards, reaching only 27 cm maximum length, and can be distinguished by the large, black blotches on its shoulders. The duskyshoulder trevally is an inshore fish living in waters less than 50 m deep, over sandy substrates in bays and on the continental shelf. It is a predatory fish, taking demersal fishes, crustaceans, and cephalopods, with nothing known of its reproductive habits. It is of little value to fisheries, often taken as bycatch in prawn trawling operations.

Barcheek trevally species of fish

The barcheek trevally, Carangoides plagiotaenia, is a species of moderately large marine fish of the jack family Carangidae. The barcheek trevally is distributed throughout the tropical waters of the Indo-west Pacific region, ranging from South Africa in the west to Japan, Australia and a number of small central Pacific islands in the east. The species inhabits inshore and offshore waters, found along the slopes of lagoons and out to deeper reefs on the continental shelf, where it preys on small fish and benthic crustaceans. It is a moderately large fish, growing to a maximum recorded length of 50 cm, and can be distinguished from similar species by its somewhat protruding lower jaw and the dark banding on its operculum. It is of minor importance to fisheries throughout its range, taken by trawling, hook and line methods and various inshore fish netting methods.

Brownback trevally species of fish

The brownback trevally, also known as the brown-backed trevally, is a species of small inshore marine fish classified in the jack family, Carangidae. The brownback trevally is distributed in two populations through the tropical waters of the Indo-west Pacific region, ranging from the Persian Gulf east to India, South East Asia and the Indonesian islands. The species is distinguished from similar species by its completely scaled breast and black-tipped second dorsal fin, and is known to reach a maximum length of 25 cm. The brownback trevally inhabits inshore waters including bays and estuaries, where it preys on demersal crustaceans and small fish. Other aspects of its biology are poorly known, and it is of minor importance to fisheries, occasionally caught by hook and line or trawls. William Smith-Vaniz has recently suggested the two distinct populations may actually represent two distinct species.

Imposter trevally species of fish

The imposter trevally, also known as the imposter jack or white-tongued trevally, is a species of small coastal marine fish in the jack family Carangidae. The imposter trevally is distributed through the tropical waters of Indian and west Pacific oceans, from the Gulf of Oman in the west to Japan and Australia in the east. The species is quite similar to the Malabar trevally, but can be distinguished by its gill raker count, and is identifiable from other species by having a white to pale grey tongue. It is a relatively small species, growing to a maximum recorded length of 30 cm. The imposter trevally inhabits coastal waters of the continental shelf in depths of up to 140 m, often associating with closely related carangid species. It preys on a range of small fish, crustaceans and cephalopods, but little is known of its reproductive biology. The imposter trevally is of minor importance to fisheries throughout its range, taken by hook and line, bottom trawls and several types of artisanal gear.

References

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  4. Gill, Theodore N. (1862). "Synopsis of the carangoids of the eastern coast of North America". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 14 (9): 430–443.
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  10. Dominici-Arosemena, Arturo; Matthias Wolff (2006). "Reef fish community structure in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (Panama): living on a relatively stable rocky reef environment". Helgoland Marine Research. 60 (4): 287–305. doi: 10.1007/s10152-006-0045-4 .
  11. 1 2 Cooke, Richard (1992). "Prehistoric Nearshore and Littoral Fishing in the Eastern Tropical Pacific: An Ichthyological Evaluation". Journal of World Prehistory. 6 (1): 1–49. doi:10.1007/BF00997584.
  12. 1 2 "Threadfin Jack, Thread Pompano". Fish Identification. Mexfish.com. 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-27.
  13. López-Peraltaand, R.H.; C.A.T. Arcila (2002). "Diet Composition of Fish Species from the Southern Continental Shelf of Colombia" (PDF). Naga, WorldFish Center Quarterly. 25 (3–4): 23–29. Retrieved 2007-09-27.
  14. Stahl, Peter W. (2003). "The Zooarchaeological Record from Formative Ecuador". In Raymond, J.S. & Burger R.L. (ed.). Archaeology of Formative Ecuador. Washington D.C: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. p. 198. ISBN   978-0-88402-292-3.