Thrombopoietin mimetics are drugs that considerably increase platelet production by stimulating the receptor for the hormone thrombopoietin; Romiplastin and Eltrombopag are examples.Thrombopoietin mimetics are a type of thrombopoietic agents. There has been a development of a registry of pregnant patients that were treated with these drugs.
A drug is any substance that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are a component of blood whose function is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot. Platelets have no cell nucleus: they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes of the bone marrow, and then enter the circulation. Circulating unactivated platelets are biconvex discoid (lens-shaped) structures, 2–3 µm in greatest diameter. Platelets are found only in mammals, whereas in other animals thrombocytes circulate as intact mononuclear cells.
Thrombopoietin (THPO) also known as megakaryocyte growth and development factor (MGDF) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the THPO gene.
Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously. Transfusions are used for various medical conditions to replace lost components of the blood. Early transfusions used whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, clotting factors, and platelets.
Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.
A megakaryocyte is a large bone marrow cell with a lobated nucleus responsible for the production of blood thrombocytes (platelets), which are necessary for normal blood clotting. Megakaryocytes usually account for 1 out of 10,000 bone marrow cells in normal people, but can increase in number nearly 10-fold during the course of certain diseases. Owing to variations in combining forms and spelling, synonyms include megalokaryocyte and megacaryocyte.
Primary myelofibrosis is a relatively rare bone marrow cancer. It is currently classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm, in which the proliferation of an abnormal clone of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and other sites results in fibrosis, or the replacement of the marrow with scar tissue.
Exenatide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist medication used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Byetta is given as an injection under the skin within 60 minutes before the first and last meal of the day. A once-weekly injection is sold as Bydureon.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious blood transfusion complication characterized by the acute onset of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema following transfusion of blood products.
Eptifibatide, is an antiplatelet drug of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor class. Eptifibatide is a cyclic heptapeptide derived from a protein found in the venom of the southeastern pygmy rattlesnake. It belongs to the class of the arginin-glycin-aspartat-mimetics and reversibly binds to platelets. Eptifibatide has a short half-life. The drug is the third inhibitor of GPIIb/IIIa that has found broad acceptance after the specific antibody abciximab and the non-peptide tirofiban entered the global market.
Mangafodipir is a contrast agent delivered intravenously to enhance contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver. It has two parts, paramagnetic manganese (II) ions and the chelating agent fodipir. Normal liver tissue absorbs the manganese more than abnormal or cancerous tissue. The manganese shortens the longitudinal relaxation time (T1), making the normal tissue appear brighter in MRIs. This enhanced contrast allows lesions to be more easily identified.
Thrombopoietic agents are drugs that induce the growth and maturation of megakaryocytes. Some of them are currently in clinical use: romiplostim, eltrombopag, oprelvekin and thrombopoietin. Several others are under clinical investigation such as lusutrombopag and avatrombopag.
Eltrombopag is a medication that has been developed for certain conditions that lead to thrombocytopenia. It is a small molecule agonist of the c-mpl (TpoR) receptor, which is the physiological target of the hormone thrombopoietin. Eltrombopag was discovered as a result of research collaboration between GlaxoSmithKline and Ligand Pharmaceuticals. Designated an orphan drug in the United States and European Union, it is being manufactured and marketed by Novartis under the trade name Promacta in the USA and is marketed as Revolade in the EU. Novartis acquired the drug as a part of its asset swap deal with GlaxoSmithKline.
The thrombopoietin receptor also known as the myeloproliferative leukemia protein or CD110 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MPL oncogene.
Romiplostim is a fusion protein analog of thrombopoietin, a hormone that regulates platelet production.
Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT) is a rare inherited disorder.
The term morbilliform refers to a rash that looks like measles. The rash consists of macular lesions that are red and usually 2–10 mm in diameter but may be confluent in places. A morbilliform rash is a rose-red flat (macular) or slightly elevated (maculopapular) eruption, showing circular or elliptical lesions varying in diameter from 1 to 3 mm, with healthy-looking skin intervening.
JWH-193 is a drug from the aminoalkylindole family which acts as a cannabinoid receptor agonist. It was invented by the pharmaceutical company Sanofi-Winthrop in the early 1990s. JWH-193 has a binding affinity at the CB1 receptor of 6nM, binding around seven times more tightly than the parent compound JWH-200, though with closer to twice the potency of JWH-200 in activity tests. A structural isomer of JWH-193 with the methyl group on the indole ring instead of the naphthoyl ring, was also found to be of similarly increased potency over JWH-200.
Daratumumab is an anti-cancer drug. It binds to CD38, which multiple myeloma cells overexpress. Daratumumab was originally developed by Genmab, but it is now being jointly developed by Genmab along with the Johnson & Johnson subsidiary Janssen Biotech, which acquired worldwide commercialization rights to the drug from Genmab.
A protein mimetic is a molecule such as a peptide, a modified peptide or any other molecule that biologically mimics the action or activity of some other protein. Protein mimetics are commonly used in drug design and discovery.
Tavilermide (INN) is a selective, cyclic peptide partial agonist of TrkA. It is under development by Mimetogen Pharmaceuticals as an ophthalmic solution for the treatment of dry eyes, and is in phase III clinical trials for this indication. Tavilermide is currently being evaluated in two multi-center phase III clinical studies in the United States for the treatment of dry eye disease. Tavilermide is also in phase I clinical trials for the treatment of glaucoma; studies are ongoing.