|thymidylate synthase (FAD)|
Flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase tetramer, Thermotoga maritima
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / QuickGO|
In enzymology, a thymidylate synthase (FAD) (EC 184.108.40.206) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, dUMP, and FADH2, whereas its 3 products are dTMP, tetrahydrofolate, and FAD.
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, to be specific those transferring one-carbon group methyltransferases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate,FADH2:dUMP C-methyltransferase. Other names in common use include Thy1, and ThyX. This enzyme participates in pyrimidine metabolism and one carbon pool by folate.
Most organisms, including humans, use the thyA- or TYMS-encoded classic thymidylate synthase whereas some bacteria use the similar flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase (FDTS) instead.
As of late 2007, 3 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 2AF6, 2CFA, and 2GQ2.
Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the methyl cycle, and it is encoded by the MTHFR gene. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a cosubstrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. Natural variation in this gene is common in otherwise healthy people. Although some variants have been reported to influence susceptibility to occlusive vascular disease, neural tube defects, Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, colon cancer, and acute leukemia, findings from small early studies have not been reproduced. Some mutations in this gene are associated with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency. Complex I deficiency with recessive spastic paraparesis has also been linked to MTHFR variants. In addition, the aberrant promoter hypermethylation of this gene is associated with male infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion.
In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox-active coenzyme associated with various proteins, which is involved with several enzymatic reactions in metabolism. A flavoprotein is a protein that contains a flavin group, which may be in the form of FAD or flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Many flavoproteins are known: components of the succinate dehydrogenase complex, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
Methionine synthase also known as MS, MeSe, MetH is responsible for the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine. In humans it is encoded by the MTR gene. Methionine synthase forms part of the S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) biosynthesis and regeneration cycle. In animals this enzyme requires Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) as a cofactor, whereas the form found in plants is cobalamin-independent. Microorganisms express both cobalamin-dependent and cobalamin-independent forms.
HAT Medium is a selection medium for mammalian cell culture, which relies on the combination of aminopterin, a drug that acts as a powerful folate metabolism inhibitor by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase, with hypoxanthine and thymidine which are intermediates in DNA synthesis. The trick is that aminopterin blocks DNA de novo synthesis, which is absolutely required for cell division to proceed, but hypoxanthine and thymidine provide cells with the raw material to evade the blockage, provided that they have the right enzymes, which means having functioning copies of the genes that encode them.
Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP). Thymidine is one of the nucleotides in DNA. With inhibition of TS, an imbalance of deoxynucleotides and increased levels of dUMP arise. Both cause DNA damage.
5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate (N5,N10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate; 5,10-CH2-THF) is cofactor in several biochemical reactions. It exists in nature as the diastereoisomer [6R]-5,10-methylene-THF.
In enzymology, sarcosine dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N-demethylation of sarcosine to give glycine. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH group of donor with other acceptors. The systematic name of this enzyme class is sarcosine:acceptor oxidoreductase (demethylating). Other names in common use include sarcosine N-demethylase, monomethylglycine dehydrogenase, and sarcosine:(acceptor) oxidoreductase (demethylating). Sarcosine dehydrogenase is closely related to dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the demethylation reaction of dimethylglycine to sarcosine. Both sarcosine dehydrogenase and dimethylglycine dehydrogenase use FAD as a cofactor. Sarcosine dehydrogenase is linked by electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF) to the respiratory redox chain. The general chemical reaction catalyzed by sarcosine dehydrogenase is:
In enzymology, a methylenetetrahydrofolate-tRNA-(uracil-5-)-methyltransferase (EC 18.104.22.168) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
In enzymology, a tRNA (uracil-5-)-methyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-monooxygenase (EC 22.214.171.124) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
[Methionine synthase] reductase, or Methionine synthase reductase, encoded by the gene MTRR, is an enzyme that is responsible for the reduction of methionine synthase inside human body. This enzyme is crucial for maintaining the one carbon metabolism, specifically the folate cycle. The enzyme employs one coenzyme, flavoprotein.
In enzymology, a tetrahydrofolate synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
Methionine synthase reductase also known as MSR is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MTRR gene.
MTHFD1 is a gene located in humans on chromosome 14 that encodes for a protein with three distinct enzymatic activities. C-1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, cytoplasmic also known as C1-THF synthase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MTHFD1 gene.
Thymidylate synthase inhibitors are chemical agents which inhibit the enzyme thymidylate synthase and have potential as an anticancer chemotherapy. This inhibition prevents the methylation of C5 of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) thereby inhibiting the synthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP). The downstream effect is promotion of cell death because cells would not be able to properly undergo DNA synthesis if they are lacking dTMP, a necessary precursor to dTTP . Five agents were in clinical trials in 2002: raltitrexed, pemetrexed, nolatrexed, ZD9331, and GS7904L.
Monofunctional C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, mitochondrial also known as formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MTHFD1L gene.
Tryptophan 7-halogenase (EC 126.96.36.199, PrnA, RebH) is an enzyme with systematic name L-tryptophan:FADH2 oxidoreductase (7-halogenating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction:
Rowena Green Matthews, born in 1938, is the G. Robert Greenberg Distinguished University professor emeritus at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Her research focuses on the role of organic cofactors as partners of enzymes catalyzing difficult biochemical reactions, especially folic acid and cobalamin. Among other honors, she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2002 and the Institute of Medicine in 2004.
The flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) protein family specializes in the oxidation of xeno-substrates in order to facilitate the excretion of these compounds from living organisms. These enzymes can oxidize a wide array of heteroatoms, particularly soft nucleophiles, such as amines, sulfides, and phosphites. This reaction requires an oxygen, an NADPH cofactor, and an FAD prosthetic group. FMOs share several structural features, such as a NADPH binding domain, FAD binding domain, and a conserved arginine residue present in the active site. Recently, FMO enzymes have received a great deal of attention from the pharmaceutical industry both as a drug target for various diseases and as a means to metabolize pro-drug compounds into active pharmaceuticals. These monooxygenases are often misclassified because they share activity profiles similar to those of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), which is the major contributor to oxidative xenobiotic metabolism. However, a key difference between the two enzymes lies in how they proceed to oxidize their respective substrates; CYP enzymes make use of an oxygenated heme prosthetic group, while the FMO family utilizes FAD to oxidize its substrates.
Fluorodeoxyuridylate, also known as FdUMP, 5-Fluoro-2'-deoxyuridylate, or 5-Fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate sodium salt, is a molecule formed in vivo from 5-fluorouracil or 5-fluorodeoxyuridin.
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