Tiki Formation

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Tiki Formation
Stratigraphic range: Carnian-Norian
~235–208  Ma
Type Geological formation
Unit of Gondwana Group
Sub-unitsLower & Upper members
Primary Mudstone
Other Claystone, sandstone
Coordinates 23°54′N81°24′E / 23.9°N 81.4°E / 23.9; 81.4
Approximate paleocoordinates 42°36′S51°06′E / 42.6°S 51.1°E / -42.6; 51.1
Region Madhya Pradesh
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
Type section
Named forTiki village
India relief location map.jpg
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Tiki Formation (India)
India Madhya Pradesh relief map.svg
Pink ff0080 pog.svg
Tiki Formation (Madhya Pradesh)

The Tiki Formation is a Late Triassic (Carnian to Norian) geologic formation in Madhya Pradesh, northern India. [1] Dinosaur remains are among the fossils that have been recovered from the formation, although none have yet been referred to a specific genus. [2] Phytosaur remains attributable to the genus Volcanosuchus have also been found in the Tiki Formation. [3]


The genera Tikiodon , Tikitherium and Tikisuchus and species Rewaconodon tikiensis , Hyperodapedon tikiensis and Parvodus tikiensis have been named after the Tiki Formation.

Fossil content

The following fossils have been described from the formation: [1]


Cynodonts of the Tiki Formation
Gondwanadon [4] [5] G. tapaniA single molarA morganucodont
Inditherium [4] I. florisThree postcanine teethA dromatheriid
Rewaconodon [4] R. indicusA partial jaw and three postcanine teethA dromatheriid
R. tikiensis [6]
Ruberodon [4] [7] R. roychowdhuriiFive partial jawsA traversodontid
Tikiodon [4] T. cromptoniA single postcanine toothA mammaliamorph
Tikitherium [4] [8] T. copeiA single postcanine toothA mammaliaform related to Docodonta, or a Neogene shrew fossil that was reworked into the older deposit
Cynodontia indet.


Reptiles of the Tiki Formation
Colossosuchus C. techniensisKnown form multiple skeletons, all likely died togetherA Mystriosuchine Phytosaur
Hyperodapedon huxleyi [9] [6] H. huxleyiA Rhynchosaur
H.tikiensis [10] Various cranial and postcranial elements
Parasuchus [11] [6] P. hislopiTwo articulate skeletons and isolated skullsA basal Phytosaur
Tikisuchus [11] T. romeriThe skull and some postcranial elements of a young individualA Rauisuchid
Volcanosuchus [3] V. statisticaeA Phytosaur
Ornithischia indet. [12] [6]
Phytosauria indet. [12] [13]
Pseudosuchia indet. [14]
Sphenodontia indet. [12] [6]
Theropoda indet. [11]


Amphibians of the Tiki Formation
Eodiscoglossus [6] E. spPrehistoric frog
Compsocerops C. tikiensisA Chigutisaurid Temnospondyl
Metoposaurus [11] M. sp.A Temnospondyl


Fishes of the Tiki Formation
Cladodus [6] C. sp.An isolated toothA Cladoselachid
Lissodus [6] L. duffiniAn isolated toothA Hybodontid
Parvodus [6] P. tikiensisTeethA Hybodontid
Actinopterygii indet. [6]
Coelacanthidae indet. [6]



The Tiki Formation is considered a temporal equivalent of the Lower Maleri Formation. The majority of the Tiki Formation correlates with the Ischigualasto Formation of Argentina, the upper part of the Santa Maria Formation, and the overlying lower Caturrita Formation of Brazil, the Isalo II Beds of Madagascar, Lossiemouth Sandstone of Scotland, and the lower Tecovas Formation of the Chinle Group of North America. [1]

See also

Related Research Articles

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rhynchosaur</span> Extinct order of reptiles

Rhynchosaurs are a group of extinct herbivorous Triassic archosauromorph reptiles, belonging to the order Rhynchosauria. Members of the group are distinguished by their triangular skulls and elongated, beak like premaxillary bones. Rhynchosaurs first appeared in the Early Triassic, reaching their broadest abundance and a global distribution during the Carnian stage of the Late Triassic.

<i>Hyperodapedon</i> Extinct genus of reptiles

Hyperodapedon is an extinct genus of rhynchosaur reptiles which lived during Late Triassic period. Like other rhynchosaurs, it was an heavily built archosauromorph, distantly related to archosaurs such as crocodilians and dinosaurs. Hyperodapedon in particular was part of the subfamily Hyperodapedontinae, a specialized rhynchosaurian subgroup with broad skulls, beaked snouts, and crushing tooth plates on the roof of the mouth.

<i>Parasuchus</i> Extinct genus of reptiles

Parasuchus is an extinct genus of basal phytosaur known from the Late Triassic of Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, India. At its most restricted definition, Parasuchus contains a single species, Parasuchus hislopi. Parasuchus hislopi is one of several species belonging to a basal grade of phytosaurs, typified by the genus Paleorhinus. Historically, Paleorhinus has been known from better-described fossils, and many species have been lumped into that genus. Parasuchus hislopi, despite being described earlier than Paleorhinus, was considered an undiagnostic chimera until new neotype fossils were described in the late 1970s. Parasuchus hislopi and the two unambiguously valid species of Paleorhinus are all closely related; some authors have historically described them all under the species Paleorhinus, while others place the two Paleorhinus species into Parasuchus according to the principle of priority.

<i>Rutiodon</i> Extinct genus of reptiles

Rutiodon is an extinct genus of mystriosuchine phytosaurs from the Late Triassic of the eastern United States. The type species of Rutiodon, Rutiodon carolinensis, encompasses a large number of skulls and assorted postcranial fossils discovered in the Cumnock Formation of North Carolina. Fossils referable to the species are also known from Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Virginia. Rutiodon carolinensis is the most well-described species of phytosaur in eastern North America, though its validity as a natural taxon has been questioned. Some paleontologists also recognize a larger and more robust species, Rutiodon manhattanensis, which is known from teeth and postcranial fossils from New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Santa Maria Formation</span> Geologic formation in Brazil

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ischigualasto Formation</span> Geological formation in Argentina

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Caturrita Formation</span>

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Rewaconodon is an extinct genus of dromatheriid cynodonts which existed in India during the upper Triassic period. It is known from two species: R. tikiensis and R. indicus, both of which were found in the Tiki Formation. Other, undescribed species may have lived in North America.

<i>Isalorhynchus</i> Extinct genus of reptiles

Isalorhynchus is an extinct genus of hyperodapedontine rhynchosaur from the late Triassic period of Toliara Province, southwestern Madagascar. It is known from the holotype MDE-R18, a nearly complete maxilla and from other specimens from the same locality, Malio River area. It was found in the Makay Formation of the Morondava Basin. It was first named by Eric Buffetaut in 1983 and the type species is Isalorhynchus genovefae. The majority of Isalorhynchus specimens are isolated jaw bones, but two nearly complete skeletons were found in 1998. Langer et al., 2000 concluded that Isalorhynchus is a synonym of Hyperodapedon and referred it to a new species of Hyperodapedon. Whatley, 2005 retained this genus as valid with a description of new materials in her PhD thesis. Montefeltro et al., 2010 and Langer et al., 2010 accepted Isalorhynchus as valid genus.

Tikisuchus is an extinct genus of rauisuchid archosauromorph. It is known from the Late Triassic Tiki Formation in the Shahdol District of central India and was the first rauisuchid to have been found in Asia. The horizon from which remains have been found is Carnian in age. The type species is T. romeri, named in honor of American paleontologist Alfred Romer. Romer was present at the Tiki locality during the excavation of the fossil, but died before the description of the genus in 1987. Tikisuchus is known only from one specimen, called ISI R 305, which consists of the skull and some postcranial elements of a young individual.

<i>Stenaulorhynchus</i> Extinct genus of reptiles

Stenaulorhynchus is an extinct genus of hyperodapedontid rhynchosaur known from the Middle Triassic deposits of Tanganyika Territory, Tanzania. It was found in the Lifua Member of the Manda Formation in the Karoo Supergroup. It was named and first described by Sidney Henry Haughton in 1932. The type species is Stenaulorhynchus stockleyi, a beaked herbivore measuring 1–6 meters in length.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hyperodapedontinae</span> Extinct subfamily of reptiles

Hyperodapedontinae is a subfamily of rhynchosaurs within the family Rhynchosauridae. Fossils have been found from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, India, Madagascar, Scotland, Tanzania, United States and Zimbabwe.

Ruberodon is an extinct genus of traversodontid cynodonts known from the type and only species Ruberodon roychowdhurii from the Late Triassic of India. Ruberodon was named in 2015 on the basis of several isolated lower jaws found in the Tiki Formation. The lower jaw of Ruberodon has three pairs of incisors, one pair of canines, and 9 pairs of postcanine teeth. The first pair of incisors is enlarged and protrudes forward from the tip of the jaw and there is a gap called a diastema between the canines and postcanines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that among traversodontids, R. roychowdhurii is most closely related to Exaeretodon statisticae, which is also from India.

Tikitherium is an extinct genus of mammaliaforms from India, known from a single upper tooth. Originally argued to be a primitive mammaliaform from the Late Triassic, a 2024 study argued that it actually represented the remains of a shrew from the Neogene. Tikitherium refers to Tiki, the village located near the Tiki Formation where the specimen was originally thought to have come from, and therium is Greek for “Beast”. The species was named copei in honor of Edward Drinker Cope for his pioneering discoveries towards understanding mammalian molars.

Oryctorhynchus is an extinct genus of rhynchosaur from the Late Triassic (Carnian-Norian)-aged Wolfville Formation of Nova Scotia, Canada that may have been the same animal as Beesiiwo. The type species, O. bairdi, was named and described in 2020. It was originally seen as a species of Hyperodapedon until 2020.

Tikiodon is an extinct genus of mammaliamorphs that lived in what is now India during the Late Triassic. Its type and only species is Tikiodon cromptoni, which is known from a single lower postcanine tooth discovered at the Tiki Formation of Madhya Pradesh.

The Panchet Formation is an Early Triassic geological formation from the Damodar Valley of India.


  1. 1 2 3 Tiki Formation at Fossilworks.org
  2. Weishampel et al., 2004, "Dinosaur distribution", pp. 517-607
  3. 1 2 Chatterjee, 1978
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  5. Datta & Das, 1996
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Kumar & Sharma, 2019
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  8. Datta, P. M. (2005). "Earliest mammal with transversely expanded upper molar from the Late Triassic (Carnian) Tiki Formation, South Rewa Gondwana Basin, India". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology . 25 (1): 200–207. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0200:EMWTEU]2.0.CO;2.
  9. Lydekker, 1885
  10. Mukherjee & Ray, 2015
  11. 1 2 3 4 Chatterjee & Majumdar, 1987
  12. 1 2 3 Datta et al., 2005
  13. Mukherjee & Ray, 2012
  14. Huene, 1940
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Pal, 1984