This is a timeline of deportations of French Jews to Nazi extermination camps in German-occupied Europe during World War II. The overall total of Jews deported from France is a minimum of 75,721.
|Date of |
|Convoy #||Place of |
|Destination||Number of |
|Number gassed |
|Selected to work |
|March 27, 1942||1||Drancy/Compiègne||Auschwitz||1,112||1,112||0||22||0|
|June 5, 1942||2||Compiègne||Auschwitz||1,000||1,000||0||41||0|
|June 22, 1942||3||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||933||66||29||5|
|June 25, 1942||4||Pithiviers||Auschwitz||999||1,000||0||59||0|
|June 28, 1942||5||Beaune-la-Rolande||Auschwitz||1,038||1,004||34||55|
|July 17, 1942||6||Pithiviers||Auschwitz||928||809||119||45|
|July 19, 1942||7||Drancy||Auschwitz||999||375||504||121||17|
|July 20, 1942||8||Angers||Auschwitz||827||23||411||390||19|
|July 22, 1942||9||Drancy||Auschwitz||996||615||385||7|
|July 24, 1942||10||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||370||630||5|
|July 27, 1942||11||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||248||742||12||1|
|July 29, 1942||12||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,001||216||270||514||5|
|July 31, 1942||13||Pithiviers||Auschwitz||1,049||693||359||15||1|
|August 3, 1942||14||Pithiviers||Auschwitz||1,034||482||22||542||3||3|
|August 5, 1942||15||Beaune-la-Rolande||Auschwitz||1,014||704||214||96||5||1|
|August 7, 1942||16||Pithiviers||Auschwitz||1,069||794||63||211||5||2|
|August 10, 1942||17||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,006||766||140||100||1|
|August 12, 1942||18||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,007||705||233||62||11|
|August 14, 1942||19||Drancy||Auschwitz||991||875||115||1|
|August 17, 1942||20||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||878||65||34||3|
|August 19, 1942||21||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||817||138||45||5|
|August 21, 1942||22||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||892||90||18||7|
|August 24, 1942||23||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||908||92||3|
|August 26, 1942||24||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,002||937 [a]||27||36||24|
|August 28, 1942||25||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||929 [a]||71||8|
|August 31, 1942||26||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||961 [a]||12||27||16||1|
|September 2, 1942||27||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||877 [a]||10||113||30|
|September 4, 1942||28||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,013||959 [a]||16||38||25||2|
|September 7, 1942||29||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||889 [a]||59||52||34|
|September 9, 1942||30||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||909 [a]||23||68||43|
|September 11, 1942||31||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||920 [a]||2||78||13|
|September 14, 1942||32||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||893 [a]||58||49||45|
|September 16, 1942||33||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,003||856 [a]||147||37||1|
|September 18, 1942||34||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||859 [a]||31||110||22|
|September 21, 1942||35||Pithiviers||Auschwitz||1,000||791 [a]||65||144||29|
|September 23, 1942||36||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||475||399||126||22||4|
|September 25, 1942||37||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,004||873 [a]||40||91||15|
|September 28, 1942||38||Drancy||Auschwitz||904||733 [a]||123||48||20|
|September 30, 1942||39||Drancy||Auschwitz||210||154||34||22||0|
|November 4, 1942||40 (41)||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||639||269||92||4|
|November 6, 1942||42||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||773||145||82||4|
|November 9, 1942||44||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||900 [a]||100||16|
|November 11, 1942||(43) 45||Drancy||Auschwitz||745||599||112||34||2|
|February 9, 1943||46||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||816||77||92||15||7|
|February 11, 1943||47||Drancy||Auschwitz||998||802||143||53||13||1|
|February 13, 1943||48||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||689||144||165||16||1|
|March 2, 1943||49||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||881||100||19||4||2|
|March 4, 1943||50||Drancy||Majdanek/Sobibor||1,003||950 min.||?||?||3|
|March 6, 1943||51||Drancy||Majdanek/Sobibor||998||950 min.||?||?||5|
|March 23, 1943||52||Drancy||Sobibor||994||950 min.||?||?||0|
|March 25, 1943||53||Drancy||Sobibor||1,008||970||15||5|
|June 23, 1943||55||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,018||518||383||217||42||44|
|July 18, 1943||57||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||440||369||191||30||22|
|July 31, 1943||58||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||727||218||55||16||28|
|September 2, 1943||59||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||662||232||106||17||4|
|October 7, 1943||60||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||491||340||169||35||4|
|October 28, 1943||61||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||613||284||103||39||3|
|November 20, 1943||62||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,200||914||241||45||27||2|
|December 7, 1943||64 [b]||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||661||267||72||48||2|
|December 17, 1943||63 [b]||Drancy||Auschwitz||850||505||233||112||25||6|
|January 20, 1944||66||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,155||864||236||55||42||30|
|February 3, 1944||67||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,214||985||166||49||20||23|
|February 10, 1944||68||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,500||1,229||210||61||27||32|
|March 7, 1944||69||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,501||1,311||110||80||20||14|
|March 27, 1944||70||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||480||380||100||79||73|
|April 13, 1944||71||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,500||1,265 max.||165 min.||91||39||91|
|April 29, 1944||72||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,004||904||48||52||12||38|
|May 15, 1944||73||Drancy||Kaunas/Reval||878||17|
|May 20, 1944||74||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,200||904 max.||188 min.||117||49||117|
|May 30, 1944||75||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,000||627||239||134||35||64|
|June 30, 1944||76||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,100||479||398||223||67||115|
|July 31, 1944||77||Drancy||Auschwitz||1,300||726||291||283||68||146|
|August 11, 1944||Lyon||Auschwitz||430||128 min.||117||63||17||19|
|August 17, 1944||Drancy||Buchenwald||51||31||4|
The overall total of Jews deported from France is a minimum of 75,721.
The ghetto uprisings during World War II were a series of armed revolts against the regime of Nazi Germany between 1941 and 1943 in the newly established Jewish ghettos across Nazi-occupied Europe. Following the German and Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, Polish Jews were targeted from the outset. Within months inside occupied Poland, the Germans created hundreds of ghettos in which they forced the Jews to live. The new ghettos were part of the German official policy of removing Jews from public life with the aim of economic exploitation. The combination of excess numbers of inmates, unsanitary conditions and lack of food resulted in a high death rate among them. In most cities the Jewish underground resistance movements developed almost instantly, although ghettoization had severely limited their access to resources.
Drancy internment camp was an assembly and detention camp for confining Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps during the German occupation of France during World War II. Originally conceived and built as a modernist urban community under the name La Cité de la Muette, it was located in Drancy, a northeastern suburb of Paris, France.
The Łódź Ghetto or Litzmannstadt Ghetto was a Nazi ghetto established by the German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma following the Invasion of Poland. It was the second-largest ghetto in all of German-occupied Europe after the Warsaw Ghetto. Situated in the city of Łódź, and originally intended as a preliminary step upon a more extensive plan of creating the Judenfrei province of Warthegau, the ghetto was transformed into a major industrial centre, manufacturing war supplies for Nazi Germany and especially for the Wehrmacht. The number of people incarcerated in it was increased further by the Jews deported from Nazi-controlled territories.
On 19 April 1943, members of the Belgian Resistance stopped a Holocaust train and freed a number of Jews who were being transported to Auschwitz concentration camp from Mechelen transit camp in Belgium, on the twentieth convoy from the camp. In the aftermath of the attack, a number of others were able to jump from the train too. In all, 233 people managed to escape, of whom 118 ultimately survived. The remainder were either killed during the escape or were recaptured soon afterwards. The attack was unusual as an attempt by the resistance to free Jewish deportees and marks the only mass breakout by deportees on a Holocaust train.
Jewish resistance under Nazi rule took various forms of organized underground activities conducted against German occupation regimes in Europe by Jews during World War II. According to historian Yehuda Bauer, Jewish resistance was defined as actions that were taken against all laws and actions acted by Germans. The term is particularly connected with the Holocaust and includes a multitude of different social responses by those oppressed, as well as both passive and armed resistance conducted by Jews themselves.
Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the Deutsche Reichsbahn national railway system under the control of Nazi Germany and its allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.
The Mechelen transit camp, officially SS-Sammellager Mecheln in German, also known as the Dossin barracks, was a detention and deportation camp established in a former army barracks at Mechelen in German-occupied Belgium. It served as a point to gather Belgian Jews and Romani ahead of their deportation to concentration and extermination camps in Eastern Europe during the Holocaust.
Rose Warfman was a French survivor of Auschwitz and member of the French Resistance.
The Kazerne Dossin Holocaust memorial is the only part of the Kazerne Dossin: Memorial, Museum and Documentation Centre on Holocaust and Human Rights established within the former Mechelen transit camp of World War II, from which, in German-occupied Belgium, arrested Jews and Romani were sent to concentration camps. The aforementioned museum and documentation centre are housed in a new purpose-built complex across the public square.
During the Holocaust, death marches were massive forced transfers of prisoners from one Nazi camp to other locations, which involved walking long distances resulting in numerous deaths of weakened people. Most death marches took place toward the end of World War II, mostly after the summer/autumn of 1944. Hundreds of thousands of prisoners, mostly Jews, from Nazi camps near the Eastern Front were moved to camps inside Germany away from the Allied forces. Their purpose was to continue the use of prisoners' slave labour, to remove evidence of crimes against humanity, and to keep the prisoners from bargaining with the Allies.
The Holocaust in France was the persecution, deportation, and annihilation of Jews and Roma between 1940 and 1944 in occupied France, metropolitan Vichy France, and in Vichy-controlled French North Africa, during World War II. The persecution began in 1940, and culminated in deportations of Jews from France to Nazi concentration camps in Nazi Germany and Nazi-occupied Poland. The deportation started in 1942 and lasted until July 1944. Of the 340,000 Jews living in metropolitan/continental France in 1940, more than 75,000 were deported to death camps, where about 72,500 were murdered.
Pithiviers internment camp during the Holocaust was a transit camp for Jewish deportees in Pithiviers in Occupied France during the Second World War. Children were separated there from their parents; the adults were processed and deported to concentration camps farther away, usually Auschwitz. This was the fate for example of the novelist Irène Némirovsky.
The Holocaust in Belgium was the systematic dispossession, deportation, and murder of Jews and Roma in German-occupied Belgium during World War II. Out of about 66,000 Jews in the country in May 1940, around 28,000 were murdered during the Holocaust.
André Rogerie was a member of the French Resistance in World War II and survivor of seven Nazi concentration camps who testified after the war about what he had seen in the camps.
The Holocaust in the Netherlands was organized by Nazi Germany in occupied Netherlands as part of the Holocaust across Europe during the Second World War. In 1939, there were some 140,000 Jews living in the Netherlands, among them some 24,000 to 25,000 German-Jewish refugees who had fled from Germany in the 1930s. Some 75% of the Dutch-Jewish population was murdered in the Holocaust. The 1947 census reported 14,346 Jews, or 10% of the pre-war population. This further decrease is attributed to massive emigration of Jews to the then British Mandate of Palestine.
Paul Sobol was a Belgian survivor of the Holocaust who was active in Holocaust education in Belgium. He was widely known as one of the country's foremost "passeurs de mémoire" who spoke widely at schools. Born into a family of Polish-Jewish origin, Sobol spent several years in hiding with his family during the German occupation in Belgium before being denounced and deported to Auschwitz concentration camp on 31 July 1944 in the final convoy to leave the country. He was subsequently involved in the death marches to Gross-Rosen concentration camp and escaped on 25 April 1945 during a transfer to another camp. His parents and younger brother were killed during the same period.
Max Windmüller was a German member of the Dutch resistance. He was forced to flee from the National Socialists to the Netherlands with his parents because of their Jewish faith. He joined the Westerweel Group there and saved the lives of many Jewish children and young people. The members of the Westerweel group organized identification papers, hiding places and escape opportunities, especially for German-Jewish children and young people who had fled from Germany. In this group, Jews and members of other faiths worked together to save the Jews from persecution. Such cooperation was not a matter of course in the Netherlands. Windmüller personally saved around 100 young Jews, and the entire Westerweel group saved 393 Jews. In July 1944, the Gestapo stormed a secret meeting of the Resistance group in Paris in which Windmüller and other members of the Jewish resistance were arrested. They were then taken to Gestapo headquarters where they were interrogated and tortured. When the liberation of the camp by Allied troops was imminent, Windmüller was deported from occupied France with the last transport. On 21 April 1945, he was shot by a Schutzstaffel member.
Henri Kichka was a Belgian writer and Holocaust survivor who was one of the leading figures in Holocaust education in Belgium. Kichka was the only member of his family to have survived the deportation of Belgian Jews to camps in Central and Eastern Europe. He began speaking on the importance of the memory of those who perished at the hands of the Nazis in the 1980s and spoke widely on his experiences to school audience. In 2005, published his autobiography, Une adolescence perdue dans la nuit des camps with a preface by the French historian Serge Klarsfeld. He is the father of cartoonist Michel Kichka.