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|Initial release||0.1 25 July 1992|
|Platform||Same as Tcl/Tk|
|Type||Web browser and HTML editor|
tkWWW is an early, now discontinued web browser and WYSIWYG HTML editorwritten by Joseph Wang at MIT as part of Project Athena and the Globewide Network Academy project. The browser was based on the Tcl language and the Tk (toolkit) extension but did not achieve broad user-acceptance or market share, although it was included in many Linux distributions by default. Joseph Wang wanted tkWWW to become a replacement for r r n and to become a "swiss army knife" of networked computing.
Joseph Wang announced in July 1992 that he was developing a web browser based on Tk, and made the alpha version 0.1 publicly available.
Version 0.4 integrated a much easier installation procedure, a better default color scheme, keyboard traversals and a history mechanism.Version 0.5, released 8 February 1993, introduced support for multiple fonts.
Version 0.6 made personal annotations compatible with xmosaic and improved the GUI.
With the release of version 0.7 on 1 May 1993, tkWWW became the first WYSIWYG HTML editor for X11which was originally written by Nathan Torkington. Another improvement was the ability to start in iconic mode.
Version 0.8 improved the graphical user interface (GUI) and added a "reload" option.
In version 0.9, the browser achieved beta status and added support for character-styling tags and for version 7.0 of Tcl, as well as partial support for image tags.
Version 0.11 worked successfully with RCS [ dubious ]. Based on the newly released Tk 4.0, tkWWW 0.13 was an alpha release, in order to allow for wider testing. It also added full support for inline images.
Support for HTML+, a proposed successor to HTML 2, was implemented while the specification was being developed.
tkWWW was extended by the GNU Guile project, to support Scheme extensions.
The short-term agenda for tkWWW included an SGML parserand the separation of the browser from the editor, in order to simplify user experience. The long-term plan included new functions like word processing, directory navigation, file transfer, and news and email reading.
tkWWW was developed before the advent of Safe-Tcl, to allow untrusted applications to run from non-privileged accounts. Without such a safeguard, the potential for automatically executing remote scripts was a security issue.
tkWWW was criticized for not supporting the mailto URI scheme, rlogin, WAIS, and HTML forms. A stop-button to interrupt the transfer of web pages was also not integrated.
Because tkWWW was based on the Tk framework, it was very easy to expand its functions and to extend its capabilities. Indeed, there were several extensions and applications based on tkWWW.
Phoenix was a well-known web browser and editor, created at the University of Chicago in the Biological Sciences Division, that was built on tkWWW version 0.9. Development began in the summer of 1993, when there weren't any easy-to-use web-page editors available. Development ceased in May 1995, there being a variety of similar tools available. The main new features were: improved HTML+ support, deeper integration of features such as copy and paste and native look-and-feel, and support for the Kerberos protocol by modified servers. The browser was supported on MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, and on Linux and other Unix systems. Further development would have added support for BSD platforms.
The short-term plan for tkWWW was to separate the editing and browsing functions, as had already been accomplished for Phoenix.Inline-image support for GIFs and ISMAPs were also already integrated in the first version of Phoenix.
The ability to access Multi-user Object-Oriented (MOO) or Multi-User Dungeon (MUD) servers was requested as a new package for tkWWW, and this was delivered by the Phoenix team.
Scott Spetka presented a paper at the Mosaic and the Web Conference in Chicago entitled "The TkWWW Robot" in October 1994. TkWWW robot's major advantage was its flexibility in adapting to virtually any criteria to guide its search path and to control its selection of data for retrieval.TkWWW robot was one of the first web crawlers and internet bots based on tkWWW. It was developed over the summer at the Air Force Rome Laboratory, with funding from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, to build HTML indexes, compile WWW statistics, collect image portfolios, etc.
The search algorithm worked by identifying "web neighborhoods" — finding logically related homepages. The bot returned a list of links in the form of bookmarks. It was limited, however, in that it could include only two links from the original homepages.
tkWWW was originally developed for Unix but would run on any modern operating system where Tcl/Tk is properly installed.To display images, tkWWW requires the xli package.
tkWWW has two strictly separated processes: one for the GUI, and another for network interaction and for parsing HTML. The latter is compiled C code based on the CERN libwww library. The front-end GUI is written in Tcl/Tk, which is interpreted at run time.
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an XML-based vector image format for defining two-dimensional graphics, having support for interactivity and animation. The SVG specification is an open standard developed by the World Wide Web Consortium since 1999.
The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as theWeb, is an information system enabling documents and other web resources to be accessed over the Internet.
NCSA Mosaic is a discontinued web browser, and one of the first to be widely available. It was instrumental in popularizing the World Wide Web and the general Internet by integrating multimedia such as text and graphics. It was named for its support of multiple Internet protocols, such as Hypertext Transfer Protocol, File Transfer Protocol, Network News Transfer Protocol, and Gopher. Its intuitive interface, reliability, personal computer support, and simple installation all contributed to its popularity within the web. Mosaic is the first browser to display images inline with text instead of in a separate window. It is often described as the first graphical web browser, though it was preceded by WorldWideWeb, the lesser-known Erwise, and ViolaWWW.
Cello is an early, discontinued graphical web browser for Windows 3.1; it was developed by Thomas R. Bruce of the Legal Information Institute at Cornell Law School. It was released as shareware in 1993. While other browsers ran on various Unix machines, Cello was the first web browser for Microsoft Windows, using the winsock system to access the Internet. In addition to the basic Windows, Cello worked on Windows NT 3.5 and with small modifications on OS/2.
WorldWideWeb is the first web browser and web page editor. It was discontinued in 1994. It was the first WYSIWYG HTML editor.
X3D is a royalty-free ISO/IEC standard for declaratively representing 3D computer graphics. File format support includes XML, ClassicVRML, Compressed Binary Encoding (CBE) and a draft JSON encoding. X3D became the successor to the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) in 2001. X3D features extensions to VRML, the ability to encode the scene using an XML syntax as well as the Open Inventor-like syntax of VRML97, or binary formatting, and enhanced application programming interfaces (APIs).
ViolaWWW is a discontinued browser, the first to support scripting and stylesheets for the World Wide Web (WWW). It was first released in 1991/1992 for Unix and acted as the recommended browser at CERN, where the WWW was invented, but eventually lost its position as most frequently used browser to Mosaic.
Amaya is a discontinued free and open source WYSIWYG web authoring tool with browsing abilities.
The Line Mode Browser is the second web browser ever created. The browser was the first demonstrated to be portable to several different operating systems. Operated from a simple command-line interface, it could be widely used on many computers and computer terminals throughout the Internet. The browser was developed starting in 1990, and then supported by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) as an example and test application for the libwww library.
AOLpress is a discontinued HTML editor that was available from America Online (AOL). It was originally developed as NaviPress by the company NaviSoft before being bought by AOL. It was discontinued in 2000. However, the last version (2.0) may still be found on some Web sites for downloading.
Libwww is an early World Wide Web software library providing core functions for web browsers, implementing HTML, HTTP, and other technologies. Tim Berners-Lee, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), released libwww in late 1992, comprising reusable code from the first browsers.
Tkhtml is a discontinued open-source browser engine written in C using the Tk widget toolkit. It was used primarily by the Html Viewer 3 (Hv3) minimalist web browser.
Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML markup languages. It mirrors or extends versions of the widely used HyperText Markup Language (HTML), the language in which Web pages are formulated.
The Arena browser was one of the first web browsers for Unix. Originally begun by Dave Raggett in 1993, development continued at CERN and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and subsequently by Yggdrasil Computing. Arena was used in testing the implementations for HTML version 3.0, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), Portable Network Graphics (PNG), and libwww. Arena was widely used and popular at the beginning of the World Wide Web.
The First International Conference on the World-Wide Web was the first-ever conference about the World Wide Web, and the first meeting of what became the International World Wide Web Conference. It was held on May 25 to 27, 1994 in Geneva, Switzerland. The conference had 380 participants, who were accepted out of 800 applicants. It has been referred to as the "Woodstock of the Web".
Dave Raggett is an English computer specialist who has played a major role in implementing the World Wide Web since 1992. He has been a W3C Fellow at the World Wide Web Consortium since 1995 and worked on many of the key web protocols, including HTTP, HTML, XHTML, MathML, XForms, and VoiceXML. Raggett also wrote HTML Tidy and is currently pioneering W3C's work on the Web of Things. He lives in the west of England.
Agora was a World Wide Web email browser and was a proof of concept to help people to use the full internet. Agora was an email-based web browser designed for non-graphic terminals and to help people without full access to the internet such as in developing countries or without a permanent internet connection. Similar to W3Gate, Agora was a server application designed to fetch HTML documents through e-mail rather than http.