Tropheus

Last updated

Tropheus
TropheusspRed200.jpg
Tropheus moorii
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cichliformes
Family: Cichlidae
Tribe: Tropheini
Genus: Tropheus
Boulenger, 1898
Type species
Tropheus moorii
Boulenger, 1898

Tropheus is a small genus of at least six species of cichlids endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. The genus is widespread across all regions of Lake Tanganyika, from Burundi in the north to Zambia in the south. Males and females are relatively similar in color, with only subtle sexual dimorphism in the form of the male's larger size. All species are maternal mouthbrooders, with the females caring for their eggs and fry in their mouths; this characteristic provides their generic name, Tropheus, which comes from the Greek trophos , which means "to nurse" or, according to Boulenger, "one who rears, brings up, educates". [1] The genus is fished lightly by the local population, but has never become a staple food fish due to its relatively small size and its habitat, which enables it to dart between rocks when threatened.

Most species occur along the coastal fringes of the lake at depths less than 3 m. These rocky shores, with numerous rocky outcroppings and boulder formations, form a habitat similar to many of the mbuna cichlids of Lake Malawi. This habitat provides shelter, and due to the shallow depth and the long hours of strong sunlight, heavy algal growth on which they feed. The only Tropheus species to dwell further out and deeper in the lake is Tropheus duboisi, which in general inhabits deeper regions of the lake down to around 15–20 m. All species are algal grazers and have underslung mouths adapted to rasping algae and microinvertebrates from submerged rocks. [2]

The genus is relatively popular with aquarium hobbyists due to the beautiful markings and interesting behavior. Tropheus moorii in particular has become something of a cult fish within the hobby, in spite of the difficulties involved in keeping species of this genus in captivity. [3] [4] [5] [6]

Species

Tropheus duboisi from Kigoma Tropheus duboisi.jpg
Tropheus duboisi from Kigoma

Six recognized species are in this genus: [7]


Related Research Articles

<i>Maylandia estherae</i> Species of fish

Maylandia estherae is a haplochromine cichlid. It is a rock dwelling fish or mbuna from Lake Malawi. This fish, like most cichlids from Lake Malawi, is a mouthbrooder - females hold their fertilized eggs then fry in their mouths until they are released after about 21 days.

<i>Neolamprologus brichardi</i> Species of fish

Neolamprologus brichardi is a species of cichlid endemic to the alkaline waters of Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. It is a popular aquarium fish kept in the fishkeeping hobby, where it is known under a variety of common names including Princess cichlid, Princess of Burundi, Lyretail cichlid, Fairy cichlid and Brichard's lamprologus. In addition, the species is also the subject of numerous studies on fish behaviour. It is closely related to N. pulcher from the southern half of Lake Tanganyika and some have recommended merging the two into a single species.

<i>Tropheus moorii</i> Species of fish

Tropheus moorii is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika in Africa. Over 40 different color morphs of this species are dispersed throughout the lake, ranging from dark green to flame red and yellow. They mostly feed on filamentous algae on the rocky shallows they inhabit. T. moorii is a maternal mouthbrooder, so eggs are fertilized and young are carried in the mouth of the female while they hatch and develop.

<i>Variabilichromis moorii</i> Species of fish

Variabilichromis moorii has no common name and is a species of freshwater cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika in eastern Africa. It is a small ovate bodied fish named for an early collector of fish from the lake, John Edmund Sharrock Moore (1870-1947) who was a cytologist, zoologist and led an expedition to Lake Tanganyika and who discovered this species. Juveniles are usually yellow, and adults are dark brown to black in color. It reaches a total length (TL) of 10.3 centimetres (4.1 in). Currently it is the only member of its genus. V. moorii feeds on algae, zooplankton, and benthic invertebrates. It is also found in the aquarium trade.

<i>Cyrtocara</i> Genus of fishes

Cyrtocara moorii, commonly known as the hump-head, is a species of haplochromine cichlid endemic to Lake Malawi in east Africa where they prefer areas with sandy substrates. It can grow to a length of 20 centimetres (7.9 in) TL. The species is popular among aquarium keepers where it is known as the hump-head cichlid, blue dolphin cichlid, Malawi dolphin or simply as moorii. It is currently the only known member of its genus. The specific name honours the English cytologist and biologist John Edmund Sharrock Moore (1870-1947).

Spotted tilapia Species of fish

The spotted tilapia, also known as the spotted mangrove cichlid or black mangrove cichlid, is a species of fish of the cichlid family. It is native to fresh and brackish water in West and Central Africa, but has been introduced to other regions where it is considered invasive.

<i>Copadichromis borleyi</i> Species of fish

Copadichromis borleyi is a species of haplochromine cichlid fish endemic to Lake Malawi in East Africa. The species is popular in the fishkeeping hobby where it is frequently kept in aquariums. The species has numerous common names, including redfin hap and goldfin hap.

<i>Reganochromis calliurus</i> Species of fish

Reganochromis calliurus is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. It lives over a sandy substrate in deeper coastal waters, to depths of at least 60 m (200 ft). Its preferred diet consists mostly of shrimp. It can reach a total length of 15 cm (5.9 in). This fish can also be found in the aquarium trade. It is currently the only known member of its genus.

Aristochromis christyi is a species of fish in the family Cichlidae, which is endemic to Lake Malawi in Africa. It is the only known member of its genus.

Aulonocara gertrudae is a species of haplochromine cichlid which is endemic to Lake Malawi, being found in Malawi, Mozambique, and Tanzania. The habitat varies between populations, those south of the Ruhuhu River are sand dwellers which exploit the sandy muddy substrates found near river mouths, while those to the north of the Ruhuhu will occupy rocky habitats too. This is thought to be cause there are fewer rock inhabiting congeners north of the Ruhuhu. The territorial males of this species excavate a burrow in the sand or they may use a cavity formed in a rocky area, especially in the northern populations. The females are found in small foraging groups in the vicinity of the males. The specific name honours Konings' wife, Gertrude Dubin.

Giant cichlid Species of fish

The giant cichlid, also known as the emperor cichlid, is a species of fish in the family Cichlidae, endemic to Lake Tanganyika in Africa. It is the only member of its genus Boulengerochromis and tribe Boulengerochromini.

<i>Ctenochromis horei</i> Species of fish

Ctenochromis horei is a species of haplochromine cichlid which is found in East Africa.

<i>Cunningtonia</i> Genus of fishes

Cunningtonia longiventralis is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa where it is found near rocky shores. It eats floating plankton. This species reaches a length of 14 centimetres (5.5 in) TL. It can also be found in the aquarium trade. As of 2011 it is the only known member of its genus. The generic name honours the British zoologist and anthropologist William Alfred Cunnington (1877-1958), the leader of the expedition to Lake Tanganyika during which type was collected.

<i>Gnathochromis pfefferi</i> Species of fish

Gnathochromis pfefferi is an African species of fish in the family Cichlidae. It is endemic to Lake Tanganyika and its slow-flowing tributaries in the countries of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania and Zambia. It is common and widespread. This cichlid is found in relatively shallow waters, typically over soft bottoms in places with aquatic grasses.

Convict julie Species of fish

The convict julie is a cichlid species in the subfamily Pseudocrenilabrinae family endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Hence it is found in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, and Zambia. The fish is named after Charles Tate Regan.

<i>Limnotilapia dardennii</i> Species of fish

Limnotilapia dardennii, the latticed cichlid, is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika, where it prefers rocky areas near the coast. It may also be found in the aquarium trade. This species is currently the only known member of its genus.

Redbreast tilapia Species of fish

The redbreast tilapia is a species of fish in the family Cichlidae. It is found widely in the southern half of Africa. Its natural habitats are freshwater lakes and freshwater marshes. It is known as the redbreast kurper in South Africa.

Tropheus brichardi is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika where it is found in areas with substrates of solid rock in the central portion of the lake. This species can reach a length of 10 cm (3.9 in). It can be found in the aquarium trade. The specific name honours Pierre Brichard (1921-1990) the aquarium fish exporter who provided the authors with the type.

<i>Tropheus duboisi</i> Species of fish

Tropheus duboisi, the white spotted cichlid, is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika. It can reach a length of 12 cm (4.7 in).

<i>Xenotilapia papilio</i> Species of fish

Xenotilapia papilio is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. It is found on the western shore of the lake, between Tembwe (Deux) and Kanoni in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It prefers deeper, rocky habitats, especially where the rocks are covered with sand, at depths from 3–40 m (9.8–131.2 ft).

References

  1. Christopher Scharpf & Kenneth J. Lazara (25 September 2018). "Order CICHLIFORMES: Family CICHLIDAE: Subfamily PSEUDOCRENILABRINAE (p-y)". The ETYFish Project Fish Name Etymology Database. Christopher Scharpf and Kenneth J. Lazara. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  2. Ad Konings (13 June 2016). "Tropheus - Home is where the rocks are". Practical Fishkeeping. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  3. "Tropheus - home is where the rocks are". 13 June 2016.
  4. "Half a Century with Tropheus Cichlids | TFH Magazine".
  5. "Peaceful herbivores? - far from it! Tropheus sp. "Kasanga"". 13 May 2015.
  6. "Care and Maintenance of Tropheus".
  7. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). Species of Tropheus in FishBase . April 2013 version.