Tuvan People's Republic
Tьʙа Arat Respuʙlik
Anthem: Tooruktug Dolgay Tangdym
Map of Tuvan People's Republic
|Status||Puppet state of the Soviet Union|
|Capital|| Kyzyl |
|Government||Marxist-Leninist single-party socialist republic|
|Chairman of the Presidium of the Little Khural|
• 1921 (first)
• 1940-1944 (last)
|Chairman of the Council of Ministers|
• 1921-1922 (first)
• 1941-1944 (last)
|Historical era||Interwar period, World War II|
|14 August 1921|
|11 October 1944|
|1944||170,500 km2 (65,800 sq mi)|
|Today part of|
The Tuvan People's Republic (TPR); Tuvan : Тыва Арат Республик, romanized: Tıwa Arat Respublik; Uniform Turkic Alphabet : Tьʙа Arat Respuʙlik, IPA: [tʰɯˈʋa aˈɾatʰ resˈpʰuplik] , known as the Tannu Tuva People's Republic until 1926, was a partially recognized socialist republic that existed between 1921 and 1944. The country was located in the same territory as the former Tuvan protectorate of Imperial Russia known as Uryankhay Krai.
Tuvan, also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan or Tuvin, is a Turkic language spoken in the Republic of Tuva in south-central Siberia in Russia. The language has borrowed a great number of roots from the Mongolian language, Tibetan and the Russian language. There are small diaspora groups of Tuvan people that speak distinct dialects of Tuvan in the People's Republic of China and in Mongolia.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state. In exchange for this, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. Therefore, a protectorate remains an autonomous part of a sovereign state. They are different from colonies as they have local rulers and people ruling over the territory and experience rare cases of immigration of settlers from the country it has suzerainty of. However, a state which remains under the protection of another state but still retains independence is known as a protected state and is different from protectorates.
The Soviet Union and Mongolia were the only countries to formally recognize it during its existence, in 1924 and 1926, respectively.Widely considered a puppet state of the Soviet Union, Tuva's situation was similarly assessed to that of Mongolia's, with most of the world regarding it as a Soviet occupied part of China. After a period of increased Soviet influence, the country was annexed by the Russian SFSR – the largest constituent republic of the Soviet Union – in October 1944, at the request of Tuva's parliament.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a Marxist-Leninist sovereign state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres (4,500 mi) north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.
The Mongolian People's Republic was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia. It was ruled by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party and maintained close links with the Soviet Union throughout its history. Geographically, it was bordered by China to its south and the Soviet Union to its north. Until 1944, it also bordered the Tuvan People's Republic, another Soviet satellite state recognized only by Mongolia and the Soviet Union.
A puppet state, puppet régime, or puppet government is a state that is de jure independent but de facto completely dependent upon an outside power, and does its bidding. Puppet states have nominal sovereignty, but a foreign or otherwise alien power effectively exercises control, for reasons such as financial interests, economic or military support. Puppet states are distinguished from allies in that allies choose their actions on their own, or in accordance with treaties they voluntarily entered.
Since 1759, Tuva (then called Tannu Uriankhai) had been part of Mongolia, which in turn was a part of the Chinese Qing dynasty. As the Qing dynasty fell in the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, revolutions in Mongolia were also occurring, which led to the independence of both Mongolia and the Tuvan Urjanchai Republic.After a period of political uncertainty, the new republic became a protectorate of the Russian Empire in April 1914, known as Uryankhay Krai. After the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 and establishment of the Russian Republic, both it and Uryankhay Krai reaffirmed its status as a Russian protectorate.
Tuvan Uriankhai is a historic region of the Mongol Empire and, later, the Qing dynasty. The realms of Tannu Uriankhai largely correspond to the Tuva Republic of the Russian Federation, neighboring areas in Russia, and a part of the modern state of Mongolia.
Mongolia under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty of China over the Mongolian steppe, including the Outer Mongolian 4 aimags and Inner Mongolian 6 leagues from the 17th century to the end of the dynasty. "Mongolia" here is understood in the broader historical sense. The last Mongol Khagan Ligden saw much of his power weakened in his quarrels with the Mongol tribes and was defeated by the Manchus, he died soon afterwards. His son Ejei Khan gave Hong Taiji the imperial authority, ending the rule of Northern Yuan dynasty then centered in Inner Mongolia by 1635. However, the Khalkha Mongols in Outer Mongolia continued to rule until they were overrun by the Dzungars in 1690, and they submitted to the Qing dynasty in 1691.
The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity and officially proclaimed the Later Jin in 1616. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing.
During the subsequent Russian Civil War, both Russian Whites and Reds, Mongol, as well as Chinese soldiers seeking to retake Mongolia and Tuva, were engaged in combat in the region.In the 5th Congress of the Russian population in Uryankhay Krai in the summer of 1918 it was decided that the power would be transferred to the Uryankhay Regional Council of Workers, Peasants and Soldiers' Deputies, and with backing from the Russian SFSR, the establishment of a Soviet power and recognition of the Tuvan people to create their own national state. On 26 January 1920, Ivan Smirnov – Chairman the Siberian Revolutionary Committee – sent an encrypted telegraph regarding Tuva to Moscow stating: "The Mongols have entered the province and ejected our [Russian] peasants from the villages. These peasants fought against Kolchak and were independent of him. The Sojoty [Tuvans] are a nomadic tribe oppressed by both Mongols and Russians. Do you consider it necessary to allow the Mongols possession of the Uryankhay [Tuvan] region or to take it by force of arms or to organise an Uranchaj Soviet Republic on the Bashkir pattern? Let me know."
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism, economic capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and anti-democratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and non-ideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War and the pro-German armies. The Red Army eventually defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Alexander Kolchak to the east in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923 in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians.
The White movement and its military arm the White Army, also known as the White Guard, the White Guardsmen or simply the Whites, was a loose confederation of anti-communist forces that fought the Communist Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/1923) and to a lesser extent continued operating as militarized associations insurrectionists both outside and within Russian borders in Siberia until roughly World War II (1939–1945).
The Bolsheviks, also known in English as the Bolshevists, were a faction founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov that split from the Menshevik faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898, at its Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Reds had by December 1920 taken the capital of Khem-Beldyr and had by March 1921 taken all of Tuva. On 14 August 1921, the "Tannu Tuvan People's Republic" ("Tannu" refers to the Tannu-ola Mountains) declared independence and the newly created Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party became the ruling party.In the first chapter of the first constitution of the newborn country it was written "...in international affairs, the state acts under the auspices of Soviet Russia."
Kyzyl is the capital city of the Tuva Republic, Russia. The name of the city means "red" or "crimson" in Tuvan. Population: 109,918 (2010 Census); 104,105 (2002 Census); 84,641 (1989 Census).
Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party was a political party in Tuva, founded in 1921. When the Tuvan People's Republic was founded in the same year, the party held single-party control over its government as a vanguard party.
In the beginning February 1922, the first meeting of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party (TPRP) took place, a government was created which began to work on 2 March the same year. The Soviet-Tuvan border was defined in January 1923 and Red Army divisions on Tuvan territory were withdrawn in accordance with an agreement from 1921.The First Great Khural (People's Congress) was held on 12 October 1923 and in the second one, on 28 September 1924, a new constitution proclaimed that the country would develop along non-capitalist lines with the TPRP being the only party and Tuvan section of the Communist International.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in December 1991. The former official name Red Army continued to be used as a nickname by both sides throughout the Cold War.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term de facto one-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning the elections.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international organization that advocated world communism. The Comintern resolved at its Second Congress to "struggle by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the state". The Comintern had been preceded by the 1916 dissolution of the Second International.
In the summer of 1925, the Soviet Union initiated the “Agreement between the Russian SFSR and the Tannu Tuvan People’s Republic on the Establishment of Friendly Relationships” which was signed by the two countries, strengthening their relations. The treaty stated that the Soviet government "does not consider Tannu-Tuva as its territory and has no views on it."
In 1926 the government adopted their first official flag and emblem, changed the name of its capital from "Khem-Beldyr" to "Kyzyl" (meaning "Red"), and the name of the country to simply "Tuvan People's Republic". It also signed a Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Recognition with the Mongolian People's Republic, another Soviet satellite state. Much of this work was done by Prime Minister Donduk Kuular, a former Lama monk with strong ties to the countrys many lamas. Kuular sought to establish stronger ties with Mongolia and to make Buddhism the state religion while trying to limit Soviet influence and propaganda. The Soviet Union responded with alarm to Kuular's theocratic and nationalist leanings and policies, which were considered in opposition to the communist principles of state atheism and internationalism.
Kuular's theocractic, nationalist and anti-Soviet policies led to a Soviet backed coup d'état in 1929. While Kuular had implemented his policies the Soviet Union had laid foundations for a new leadership – staunchly loyal to Joseph Stalin – including the creation of the "Tuva Revolutionary Youth Union", where members received military training. Five young Tuvan graduates from the Communist University of the Toilers of the East were appointed "Extraordinary Commissioners" and overthrew the government in January 1929, during the 2nd Plenary Session of the Central Committee.
Following the coup, Kuular was removed from power and executed, and about a third to half the members of the TPRP were purged. Kuular's policies were reverted and the countries traditionally nomadic cattle-breeders were put in collectivization programs. Similarly to in Mongolia, Buddhist lamas, aristocrats, intelligentsia and other political dissidents were purged and Buddhist temples and monasteries destroyed. [ citation needed ]As part of this process, the written langange in Tuva was changed from Mongol script to the Latin alphabet in June 1930. Religious symbols, such as the Khorlo, were also removed from the flag and emblem. Evidence of the success of these actions can be seen in the decline in the numbers of lamas in the country: in 1929 there were 25 lamaseries and about 4,000 lamas and shamans; in 1931 there was just one lamasery, 15 lamas, and approximately 725 shamans. The attempts at eradicating nomadic husbandry were more difficult. A census in 1931 showed that 82.2% of Tuvans still engaged in nomadic cattle breeding.
One of the five Extraordinary Commissioners, Salchak Toka, became General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party in 1932 and would be the de facto leader of Tuva until his death in 1973.
In July 1932, with mediation from the Sovet Union, Tuva signed an agreement and received a substantial territorial gain from Mongolia as a fixed border was created between the two countries. Mongolia was forced to sign under Soviet pressure and never ratified the agreement in the Mongol Great Khural until 1944.The new territory notably included Mount Dus-Dag, the only source of salt mining for Tuva. The border between Tuva and Mongolia remained controversial during the 1930's, with Mongolia referring to Qing dynasty documents to argue their ownership of the mountain.
The debate continued to flare up in the following years and Mongolian leadership demanded the return of the mountain "arbitrarily captured by Tuvans" while criticizing the 1932 agreement as unjust due to Soviet pressure for Mongolia to sign. Soviet authorities reiterated their official position that Mongolia had no reason to revise the 1932 agreement and did not need the salt mountain, while asking Tuva not to revise the agreement. Mongolia promised to not raise the issue again, but relations between it and Tuva became very strained. The Tuvan government made concessions to avoid conflict with its neighbor and in 1940 the two governments signed a new agreement "on the border based on historical materials and documents". However, while Tuva sought to clarify the border established in 1932, Mongolia sought to revise it completely, this led to irreconcilable positions which could not be solved and the ratification of the new agreement was stopped.
Both parties turned to the Soviet Union for mediation, but with the outbreak of World War II, Soviet authorities insisted on cessation of any discussion regarding the border dispute, especially in regards to Mount Dus-Dag. In 1943 the Mongolian ambassador said "The Salt Mountain has been exploited by the Tuvans for about ten years now and is also located in disputed territory, so the demand for the Tuvan government to return it is too harsh." This practically ended the controversial issue, but some disputes continued until the annexation of Tuva into the Soviet Union in 1944 (and even then, border protection such as alarmed fences had to be introduced in 1946).
In the 1930's, the Empire of Japan undertook several aggressive actions against China. This included the invasion of Manchuria and creation of the puppet state Manchukuo, and culminating in full-scale war against China in 1937. The Tuvan government undertook measures to strengthen their army and the 11th Congress of the TPRP, held in November 1939, instructed the Central Committee to fully equip the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Army in the next 2-3 years and to further raise combat readiness. The Ministry of Military Affairs was created in late February 1940 and immediately started equipping the army with new weapons and equipment, as well as improving training of officers and army units.The Soviet Union assisted Tuva's with significant assistance in materiel and technical development. The middle and high command of the Tuvan Army were trained in Soviet military academies, including the M.V. Frunze Military Academy and the General Staff Academy.
As Germany and other Axis powers launched their invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, the 10th Great Khural of Tuva declared that "The Tuvan people, led by the entire revolutionary party and government, not sparing their lives, are ready by any means to participate in the struggle of the Soviet Union against the fascist aggressor until their final victory over it"It is sometimes written that Tuva declared war on Germany on 25 June 1941, but the sources are dubious.
Nevertheless, helped the Soviet Union in substantial ways, transferring its entire gold reserve of ~20,000,000 rubles to the Soviet Union, with additional extracted Tuvan gold worth around 10,000,000 rubles annually.Between June 1941 and October 1944 Tuva supplied the Soviet Red Army with 700,000 livestock, of which almost 650,000 were donated. In addition, 50,000 war horses, 52,000 pairs of skis, 10,000 winter coats, 19,000 pairs of gloves, 16,000 boots and 67,000 tons of sheep wool as well as several hundreds tons of meats, grain, carts, sledges, horse tacks and other goods totaling 66,500,000 rubles. Up to 90% was donated.
In March 1943, 10 Yakovlev Yak-7 fighters were built with funds raised by Tuvans and placed at the disposal of the Soviet Air Forces.Also during 1943, Tuva mustered 11 volunteer tankers and 208 volunteer cavalrymen. The tankers and 177 of the cavalrymen were assigned to the Red Army and served on the Eastern Front from early 1944, especially around Ukraine.
Tuvan orientation towards Moscow intensified during the war, in September 1943 the written language was again changed, this time from the Latin alphabet to the Cyrillic, the standard alphabet in the Soviet Union. Already in 1941 had the national symbols, such as the flag and emblem, been changed to the same style as various Soviet regions.Tuvan underwent intense Russification of social and economic practices, and virtually all opposition to Stalinist policy was eradicated. The Soviets desired the mineral resources of the republic and a permanent end to Mongolian-Chinese geopolitical intrigues over the region. This process culminated in the annexation of Tuva in 1944, under the rule of General Secretary of the Central Committee of the TPRP Salchak Toka and his wife: Chairwoman of the Presidium of the Little Khural Khertek Anchimaa-Toka.
On 7 August 1944, the Central Committee of the TPRP decided to join Tuva into the Soviet Union. This was supported on 15 August by the 9th Plenary Session. On 17 August, the 7th Extraordinary Session of the Little Khural created a "Declaration of the Accession of the Tuvan People's Republic to the Soviet Union". Finally, on 11 October 1944, at a meeting of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, Khertek Anchimaa-Toka read out the declaration detailing the desire for Tuva to join the USSR, which was accepted. The decision went into effect on 1 November 1944 and the Tuvan People's Republic thus became the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast, a part of the Russian SFSR, the largest constituent republic of the Soviet Union.
Salchak Toka's position changed from "General secretary of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party" to the "First Secretary of the Oblast Committee of the CPSU of the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast" (later "Republican Committee of the CPSU") and continued his rule of the region until his death in 1973.
On 10 October 1961, the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast became the Tuvan ASSR, still within the Russian SFSR, and remained so until 1992. The area that was the Tuvan People's Republic is now known as the Tuva Republic within the Russian Federation.
|Russians and other||12,000||17,300||14,300a||73,900|
a. Russian population declined due to the Red Army conscription during World War II.
The Tuvans or Tuvinians are a Turkic ethnic group native to Tuva. They speak Tuvan, a Siberian Turkic language. They are also regarded in Mongolia as one of the Uriankhai peoples.
The Communist University of the Toilers of the East (KUTV) was a revolutionary training school for important Communist political leaders. The school operated under the umbrella of the Communist International and was in existence from 1921 until the late 1930s.
The Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, or the Tuvan ASSR, was an autonomous republic of the Russian SFSR. It was created on 10 October 1961 from the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast. On 31 March 1992, its successor, the Tuva Republic, became a constituent member of the Russian Federation.
Khertek Amyrbitovna Anchimaa-Toka was a Tuvan/Soviet politician who in 1940–44 was the Chairwoman of Little Khural of the Tuvan People's Republic, and the first non-hereditary female head of state or government.
Donduk Kuular (1888–1932) was a Tuvan monk, politician, and prime minister of the Tuvan People's Republic.
Salchak Kalbakkhorekovich Toka was a Tuvan politician. He was General Secretary of the Tuvinian department of the CPSU from 1944 to 1973; previously, he was the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party and was the supreme ruler of the Tuvan People's Republic from 1932 until its annexation by the Soviet Union in 1944.
Tuva may refer to:
The Tuvan People's Republic issued postage stamps between 1926 and 1936. They were popular with stamp collectors in the Western world in the mid-twentieth century because of the obscurity and exoticism of Tannu Tuva and the stamps' quirky, colorful designs. The validity of many stamps purportedly issued by Tannu Tuva has been questioned by philatelists.
The Tuvan People's Republic in its short life span went through a number of flags. Many typical communist icons were used such as the Hammer and Sickle and the color red.
Ulug-Khemsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic and borders Krasnoyarsk Krai in the north, Kyzylsky and Chedi-Kholsky Districts in the east, Ovyursky and Tes-Khemsky Districts in the south, and Chaa-Kholsky District in the west. The area of the district is 5,335.40 square kilometers (2,060.01 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Shagonar. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 19,266, with the population of Shagonar accounting for 56.9% of that number.
The territory currently known as Tuva has been occupied by various groups throughout its history. Sources are rare and unclear for most of Tuva's early history. Archeological evidence indicates a Scythian presence possibly as early as the 9th century BC. Tuva was conquered relatively easily by the succession of empires which swept across the region. It was most likely held by various Turkic khanates until 1207. It was then ruled by Mongols until the 18th century, when it submitted to Manchu rule under the Qing dynasty. Slow Russian colonization during the 19th century led to progressive annexation of the region to Russia in the 20th century. The region was then controlled by the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union before finally joining the Russian Federation in 1992. Throughout this whole time, the borders of Tuva have seen very little modification.
The Mongolia–Russia border is the international border between the Russian Federation and Mongolia. It is virtually all land. The total length of the border is 3485 km. The boundary is the third longest border between Russia and another country, behind the Kazakhstan-Russia border and the China-Russia border.
The 1929 Tuvan coup d'état took place in the Tuvan People's Republic. It occurred in January after the Tuvan government under Prime Minister Donduk Kuular attempted to implement nationalist, religious and anti-Soviet policies, including making Tibetan Buddhism the official religion. With support from the Soviet Union, five Tuvan youths successfully overthrew the government, and one of them, Salchak Toka, became supreme ruler as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party. They quickly reversed Donduk's policies and brought the republic closer to the Soviet Union. The Tuvan People's Republic later joined the Soviet Union in 1944.
Uryankhay Krai was the name of what is today Tuva and was a short-lived protectorate of the Russian Empire that was proclaimed on 17 April 1914, created from the Urjanchai Republic which had recently proclaimed its independence in the Mongolian Revolution of 1911. After the February Revolution and abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, Uryankhay Krai recognizes the new Russian Republic and reaffirmed its status as a Russian protectorate in 1917.
The Tuvan People’s Republic entered World War II on the side of the Allied Powers, shortly after the invasion of the Soviet Union.
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