2019 Cotabato earthquakes

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2019 Cotabato earthquakes
Philippines relief location map (Mindanao).svg
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Bacolod
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Cebu City
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Davao
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Kidapawan
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General Santos
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Zamboanga
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Cagayan De Oro
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Butuan City
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Basilan
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Bislig
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Camiguin
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Tagbilaran
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Puerto Princesa
2019 Cotabato earthquakes (Mindanao)
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Bacolod
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Cebu City
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Davao
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Kidapawan
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General Santos
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Puerto Princesa
2019 Cotabato earthquakes (Philippines)
UTC  time 
 A: 2019-10-16 11:37:06
 B: 2019-10-29 01:04:44
 C: 2019-10-31 01:11:19
ISC  event 
 A: 616636559
 B: 616739626
 C: 616742152
USGS-ANSS  
 A: ComCat
 B: ComCat
 C: ComCat
Local date 
 A: October 16, 2019 (2019-10-16) [1]
 B: October 29, 2019 (2019-10-29) [2]
 C: October 31, 2019 (2019-10-31) [3]
Local time 
 A: 7:37 pm (PST) [1]
 B: 9:04 am (PST) [2]
 C: 9:11 am (PST) [3]
Magnitude 
 A: 6.3 Mwp
 B: 6.6 Mww
 C: 6.5 Mww
Depth 
 A: 14.1 km (9 mi)
 B: 15.3 km (10 mi)
 C: 10.0 km (6 mi)
Epicenter 6°45′N125°00′E / 6.75°N 125.00°E / 6.75; 125.00 Coordinates: 6°45′N125°00′E / 6.75°N 125.00°E / 6.75; 125.00
22 km southeast of Tulunan, Cotabato
Type Strike-slip
Areas affected Soccsksargen, Davao Region, Bangsamoro, Caraga
Max. intensity VIII (Severe) – MMS
VII (Destructive) – PEIS [4]
TsunamiNone
LandslidesYes [5]
Casualties
  • October 16: 7 dead, 215 injured
  • October 29 and 31: 24 dead, 3 missing, 562 injured

The 2019 Cotabato earthquakes were an earthquake swarm which struck the province of Cotabato on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines in October 2019. [6] Three of these earthquakes were above 6.0 on the magnitude scale with a Mercalli intensity of VIII. More than 30 people died and a further 700 were injured after these events.

Earthquake swarm events where a local area experiences sequences of many earthquakes striking in a relatively short period;differentiated from earthquakes succeeded by a series of aftershocks by the observation - no single earthquake in the sequence is the main shock

An earthquake swarm is a sequence of seismic events occurring in a local area within a relatively short period of time. The length of time used to define the swarm itself varies, but may be of the order of days, months, or even years. Such an energy release is different from what happens commonly when a major earthquake (mainshock) is followed by a series of aftershocks: in earthquake swarms, no single earthquake in the sequence is obviously the mainshock. In particular, a cluster of aftershocks occurring after a mainshock is not a swarm.

Cotabato Province in Soccsksargen, Philippines

Cotabato, formerly but still colloquially known as North Cotabato, is a landlocked province in the Philippines. While the province itself is politically located in the Mindanao region of Soccsksargen, some of its barangays are under the jurisdiction of the nearby Bangsamoro Autonomous Region.

Mindanao second largest island of the Philippines

Mindanao, or still commonly known as Southern Philippines, is the second-largest island in the Philippines. Mindanao and the smaller islands surrounding it make up the island group of the same name. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, as of the 2010 census, the main island was inhabited by 20,281,545 people, while the entire Mindanao island group had an estimated total of 25,537,691 (2018) residents.

Contents

Tectonic setting

Mindanao lies across the complex convergent boundary between the Sunda Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. [7] Part of the oblique convergence between these plates is taken up by subduction along the Cotabato Trench. The strike-slip component of the convergence is accommodated partly by the Philippine Fault System and partly by the Cotabato Fault System, a network of mainly NW-SE trending sinistral (left-lateral) strike-slip faults that form the boundary between the Cotabato Arc and the Central Mindanao Volcanic Belt. [8] In the area of the October 2019 earthquakes series, the individual faults include the NW-SE trending South Columbio Fault, North Columbio Fault, M'Lang Fault, Makilala–Malungon Fault and Tangbulan Fault, and the SW-NE trending Makilala Fault and Balabag Fault. [9]

Convergent boundary Region of active deformation between colliding lithospheric plates

A convergent boundary is an area on Earth where two or more lithospheric plates collide. One plate eventually slides beneath the other causing a process known as subduction. The subduction zone can be defined by a plane where many earthquakes occur, called the Benioff Zone. These collisions happen on scales of millions to tens of millions of years and can lead to volcanism, earthquakes, orogenesis, destruction of lithosphere, and deformation. Convergent boundaries occur between oceanic-oceanic lithosphere, oceanic-continental lithosphere, and continental-continental lithosphere. The geologic features related to convergent boundaries vary depending on crust types.

Sunda Plate A minor tectonic plate including most of Southeast Asia

The Sunda Plate is a minor tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere on which the majority of Southeast Asia is located.

Philippine Sea Plate oceanic tectonic plate to the east of the Philippines

The Philippine Sea Plate or the Philippine Plate is a tectonic plate comprising oceanic lithosphere that lies beneath the Philippine Sea, to the east of the Philippines. Most segments of the Philippines, including northern Luzon, are part of the Philippine Mobile Belt, which is geologically and tectonically separate from the Philippine Sea Plate.

Earthquakes M≥5.0

Events at or above Mw 5.0 associated with the 2019 Cotabato earthquakes
DateTime (UTC)Magnitude Mw Intensity DepthLocationRef.
October 1611:37:056.412.8 km (8.0 mi)7 km (4.3 mi) ENE of Columbio [10]
October 1612:09:315.39.9 km (6.2 mi)10 km (6.2 mi) ENE of Columbio [11]
October 1822:52:185.028.1 km (17.5 mi)7 km (4.3 mi) W of Magsaysay [12]
October 1911:44:285.210.0 km (6.2 mi)4 km (2.5 mi) S of Magsaysay [13]
October 2008:55:325.210.0 km (6.2 mi)7 km (4.3 mi) N of Lambayong [14]
October 2011:50:355.010.0 km (6.2 mi)8 km (5.0 mi) WNW of Kiblawan [15]
October 2111:59:435.110.0 km (6.2 mi)6 km (3.7 mi) NW of Kiblawan [16]
October 2901:04:446.615.3 km (9.5 mi)14 km (8.7 mi) E of Bual [17]
October 2902:22:355.010.0 km (6.2 mi)1 km (0.62 mi) SE of Saguing [18]
October 2902:42:395.810.0 km (6.2 mi)10 km (6.2 mi) E of Bagontapay [19]
October 2908:33:125.310.0 km (6.2 mi)11 km (6.8 mi) E of Bagontapay [20]
October 2908:46:035.210.0 km (6.2 mi)2 km (1.2 mi) SW of Dolo [21]
October 2921:22:075.012.9 km (8.0 mi)7 km (4.3 mi) W of Magsaysay [22]
October 3101:11:196.510.0 km (6.2 mi)0 km (0 mi) NW of Bulatukan [23]

Major earthquakes

Map of the M>=5 earthquakes from the October 2019 sequence, highlighting the three largest. The location of the main active faults are also shown 2019 Cotabato EQs+faults.png
Map of the M≥5 earthquakes from the October 2019 sequence, highlighting the three largest. The location of the main active faults are also shown

October 16

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) reported that an earthquake of 6.3 magnitude was recorded at 19:37 PST (UTC+8) with a depth of 14.1 kilometers. The epicenter was in 22 kilometers southeast of Tulunan, Cotabato where earthquake was felt at Intensity VII. [1] VII was also reached at M'lang and Kidapawan. Intensity VI was reached at Tacurong, Santo Niño in South Cotabato, and Digos in Davao del Sur. The earthquake was a result of sinistral movement on a NW-SE trending strike-slip fault. [24]

Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology government agency in the Philippines

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology is a Philippine national institution dedicated to provide information on the activities of volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunamis, as well as other specialized information and services primarily for the protection of life and property and in support of economic, productivity, and sustainable development. It is one of the service agencies of the Department of Science and Technology.

Philippine Standard Time time zone

Philippine Standard Time, also known as Philippine Time (PHT), is the official name for the time in the Philippines. The country only uses one time zone (UTC+08:00), and for a short period, it also used daylight saving time.

UTC+08:00 identifier for a time offset from UTC of +8

UTC+08:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +08:00. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2019-02-07T23:28:34+08:00.

Three malls in Davao City reported damage following the earthquake. [25] In General Santos, the Gaisano Mall was mostly gutted following a fire triggered by the earthquake. [26] 143 buildings were damaged and one was destroyed. The damaged buildings included 40 houses, 70 schools, 7 health facilities, 10 commercial buildings, and 2 places of worship. [27]

Davao City Highly-Urbanized City in Davao Region, Philippines

Davao City, officially the City of Davao, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the island of Mindanao, Philippines. The city has a total land area of 2,443.61 km2 (943.48 sq mi), making it the largest city in the Philippines in terms of land area. It is the third-most populous city in the Philippines after Quezon City and Manila, the most populous city in the country outside Metro Manila, and the most populous in Mindanao. As of the 2015 census, the city had a population of 1,632,991.

General Santos Highly Urbanized City in Soccsksargen, Philippines

General Santos, officially the City of General Santos, referred to as General Santos City and abbreviated as GenSan, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in Soccsksargen, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 594,446 people.

Gaisano Mall and GMall are shopping malls owned by DSG Sons Group, Inc. based in Davao, Mindanao, Philippines.

October 29

On October 29, 2019, a 6.6-magnitude earthquake struck the island of Mindanao in the Philippines at a depth of 14.1 km, according to the USGS, and 7 km according to PHIVOLCS. The maximum perceived shaking was VII on both the PEIS and MMS scales. This intensity was reached in Tulunan, Makilala, Kidapawan City, Digos City, and Malungon. This earthquake was caused by movement on a different, but related, strike-slip fault to the October 16 event. [28] [29]

Philippines Republic in Southeast Asia

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.

A major fire broke out in General Santos City. There were power outages in many parts of Cotabato and locally in South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and Sarangani. [30] At least ten deaths were reported, with a minimum of another four hundred injured. [31] The fatalities were reported in Arakan, Carmen, Tulanan, Makilala, Digos City, and Magsaysay. School classes were suspended in parts of North Cotabato, South Cotabato, and Sultan Kudarat. [32]

Sultan Kudarat Province in Soccsksargen, Philippines

Sultan Kudarat is a province in the Philippines located in the Soccsksargen region in Mindanao. Its capital is Isulan and the commercial center is Tacurong City.

Sarangani Province in Soccsksargen, Philippines

Sarangani is a province in the Philippines located in the Soccsksargen region. Its capital is Alabel. With a 230-kilometre (140 mi) coastline along the Sarangani Bay and Celebes Sea, the province is at the southernmost tip of Mindanao island, and borders South Cotabato and Davao del Sur to the north, Davao Occidental to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the south.

October 31

On October 31, 2019, a 6.5 magnitude earthquake struck the island of Mindanao in the Philippines at a depth of 10 km according to the USGS, with the epicenter located 1 km south of Kisante. A maximum perceived shaking of VII (PEIS) was reported from Tulunan, Makilala, Kidapawan City, Santa Cruz, Matanao, Magsaysay, Bansalan and Digos City. Some buildings in Davao and Soccksargen were seriously damaged and some collapsed. The death toll of these two quakes (October 29 and 31) was raised to 24, with more than 500 people injured, and 3 still missing. [33] More than 300 aftershocks were recorded after the earthquake.

A hotel in Kidapawan City collapsed following the earthquake; fortunately, according National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), no one was inside in the building when the earthquake struck. [34] The Davao City government suspended the classes on all levels. [35] Affected residents in Makilala, Cotabato have begged on the highway for basic needs such as rice and tents. [36] [37] According to the NDRRMC, about 30,000 families or 150,000 individuals affected by the earthquake. [36]

Landslides

The earthquake sequence triggered a large number of landslides and rockslides. Municipalities affected by landslides include Kidapawan City, Antipas, Arakan, Makilala, M'Lang and Tulunan in Cotabato province; Magsaysay, Bansalan, Malalag, Matanao and Kiblawan in Davao Del Sur. [9] Three fatalities were caused by landslides triggered by the October 29 shock with a further two people reported missing. Two fatalities were caused by landslides triggered by the October 31 shock, with one person reported missing. [33]

Effects on infrastructure

Damage to infrastructure in the eight most badly effected areas from the earthquakes on October 29 and October 31 [38]
ProvinceHousesSchoolsHealth facilitiesOther public structuresPlaces of worshipCommercial buildingsRoads & Bridges
DestroyedDamagedDestroyedDamagedDestroyedDamagedDestroyedDamagedDestroyedDamagedDestroyedDamagedDestroyedDamaged
North Cotabato21,1107,8521140221622541514924015
Davao del Sur2,1857,505126112131320011209
Sultan Kudarat142401320102000000
Davao Occidental120130404000400
Maguindanao0200290002040000
South Cotabato11702230303000502
Davao del Norte00011403015010101
Sarangani0013980001000100

Reactions

International

The US Ambassador to the Philippines, Sung Kim, and the EU delegation to the Philippines both offered their condolences to the Filipino people. Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi also sent his message of sympathy to Philippine Foreign Secretary Teodoro Locsin Jr.. The Chinese government has donated ¥3 million yuan (roughly equivalent to ₱22 million pesos) to support the disaster relief efforts in Mindanao. [39] Meanwhile, the Spanish Consulate in the Philippines pledged to donate up to 35,000 euros to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and 70,000 euros to assist people in water, hygiene and sanitation. [40]

Domestic

The Provincial Government of South Cotabato, Sarangani and the City of General Santos was one of the first to initiate to help the citizens with blankets, trapal, food and water near the epicenter of the earthquake swarm, most especially in the Municipalities of Makilala, Tulunan, M'lang and City of Kidapawan. [41] Local citizens in Soccsksargen acted in both giving donations in the government processes and privately giving donations across the highway in Makilala, Tulunan and Kidapawan. The Davao City Government also helped the affected areas headed by Mayor Sara Duterte. The Island Garden City of Samal Government also went to Cotabato Province to give relief goods and drinking water. The Bangsamoro Government also went to the affected areas to give relief goods. The municipality of Datu Saudi Ampatuan Government also went to the area to share donations to help the affected people. Among other institutions that immediately helped where banks, malls, universities and schools in Soccsksargen and Davao Region to assist there fellow mindanaoans in crisis. [41]

See also

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