|A: 2019-10-16 11:37:06|
|B: 2019-10-29 01:04:44|
|C: 2019-10-31 01:11:19|
|A: October 16, 2019|
|B: October 29, 2019|
|C: October 31, 2019|
|A: 7:37 pm (PST)|
|B: 9:04 am (PST)|
|C: 9:11 am (PST)|
|A: 6.3 Mwp|
|B: 6.6 Mww|
|C: 6.5 Mww|
|A: 14.1 km (9 mi)|
|B: 15.3 km (10 mi)|
|C: 10.0 km (6 mi)|
|Epicenter|| Coordinates: |
22 km southeast of Tulunan, Cotabato
|Areas affected||Soccsksargen, Davao Region, Bangsamoro, Caraga|
|Max. intensity|| VIII (Severe) – MMS |
VII (Destructive) – PEIS
The 2019 Cotabato earthquakes were an earthquake swarm which struck the province of Cotabato on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines in October 2019.Three of these earthquakes were above 6.0 on the magnitude scale with a Mercalli intensity of VIII. More than 30 people died and a further 700 were injured after these events.
An earthquake swarm is a sequence of seismic events occurring in a local area within a relatively short period of time. The length of time used to define the swarm itself varies, but may be of the order of days, months, or even years. Such an energy release is different from what happens commonly when a major earthquake (mainshock) is followed by a series of aftershocks: in earthquake swarms, no single earthquake in the sequence is obviously the mainshock. In particular, a cluster of aftershocks occurring after a mainshock is not a swarm.
Cotabato, formerly but still colloquially known as North Cotabato, is a landlocked province in the Philippines. While the province itself is politically located in the Mindanao region of Soccsksargen, some of its barangays are under the jurisdiction of the nearby Bangsamoro Autonomous Region.
Mindanao, or still commonly known as Southern Philippines, is the second-largest island in the Philippines. Mindanao and the smaller islands surrounding it make up the island group of the same name. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, as of the 2010 census, the main island was inhabited by 20,281,545 people, while the entire Mindanao island group had an estimated total of 25,537,691 (2018) residents.
Mindanao lies across the complex convergent boundary between the Sunda Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate.Part of the oblique convergence between these plates is taken up by subduction along the Cotabato Trench. The strike-slip component of the convergence is accommodated partly by the Philippine Fault System and partly by the Cotabato Fault System, a network of mainly NW-SE trending sinistral (left-lateral) strike-slip faults that form the boundary between the Cotabato Arc and the Central Mindanao Volcanic Belt. In the area of the October 2019 earthquakes series, the individual faults include the NW-SE trending South Columbio Fault, North Columbio Fault, M'Lang Fault, Makilala–Malungon Fault and Tangbulan Fault, and the SW-NE trending Makilala Fault and Balabag Fault.
A convergent boundary is an area on Earth where two or more lithospheric plates collide. One plate eventually slides beneath the other causing a process known as subduction. The subduction zone can be defined by a plane where many earthquakes occur, called the Benioff Zone. These collisions happen on scales of millions to tens of millions of years and can lead to volcanism, earthquakes, orogenesis, destruction of lithosphere, and deformation. Convergent boundaries occur between oceanic-oceanic lithosphere, oceanic-continental lithosphere, and continental-continental lithosphere. The geologic features related to convergent boundaries vary depending on crust types.
The Sunda Plate is a minor tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere on which the majority of Southeast Asia is located.
The Philippine Sea Plate or the Philippine Plate is a tectonic plate comprising oceanic lithosphere that lies beneath the Philippine Sea, to the east of the Philippines. Most segments of the Philippines, including northern Luzon, are part of the Philippine Mobile Belt, which is geologically and tectonically separate from the Philippine Sea Plate.
The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) reported that an earthquake of 6.3 magnitude was recorded at 19:37 PST (UTC+8) with a depth of 14.1 kilometers. The epicenter was in 22 kilometers southeast of Tulunan, Cotabato where earthquake was felt at Intensity VII.VII was also reached at M'lang and Kidapawan. Intensity VI was reached at Tacurong, Santo Niño in South Cotabato, and Digos in Davao del Sur. The earthquake was a result of sinistral movement on a NW-SE trending strike-slip fault.
The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology is a Philippine national institution dedicated to provide information on the activities of volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunamis, as well as other specialized information and services primarily for the protection of life and property and in support of economic, productivity, and sustainable development. It is one of the service agencies of the Department of Science and Technology.
Philippine Standard Time, also known as Philippine Time (PHT), is the official name for the time in the Philippines. The country only uses one time zone (UTC+08:00), and for a short period, it also used daylight saving time.
UTC+08:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +08:00. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2019-02-07T23:28:34+08:00.
Three malls in Davao City reported damage following the earthquake.In General Santos, the Gaisano Mall was mostly gutted following a fire triggered by the earthquake. 143 buildings were damaged and one was destroyed. The damaged buildings included 40 houses, 70 schools, 7 health facilities, 10 commercial buildings, and 2 places of worship.
Davao City, officially the City of Davao, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the island of Mindanao, Philippines. The city has a total land area of 2,443.61 km2 (943.48 sq mi), making it the largest city in the Philippines in terms of land area. It is the third-most populous city in the Philippines after Quezon City and Manila, the most populous city in the country outside Metro Manila, and the most populous in Mindanao. As of the 2015 census, the city had a population of 1,632,991.
General Santos, officially the City of General Santos, referred to as General Santos City and abbreviated as GenSan, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in Soccsksargen, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 594,446 people.
Gaisano Mall and GMall are shopping malls owned by DSG Sons Group, Inc. based in Davao, Mindanao, Philippines.
On October 29, 2019, a 6.6-magnitude earthquake struck the island of Mindanao in the Philippines at a depth of 14.1 km, according to the USGS, and 7 km according to PHIVOLCS. The maximum perceived shaking was VII on both the PEIS and MMS scales. This intensity was reached in Tulunan, Makilala, Kidapawan City, Digos City, and Malungon. This earthquake was caused by movement on a different, but related, strike-slip fault to the October 16 event.
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.
A major fire broke out in General Santos City. There were power outages in many parts of Cotabato and locally in South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and Sarangani.At least ten deaths were reported, with a minimum of another four hundred injured. The fatalities were reported in Arakan, Carmen, Tulanan, Makilala, Digos City, and Magsaysay. School classes were suspended in parts of North Cotabato, South Cotabato, and Sultan Kudarat.
Sultan Kudarat is a province in the Philippines located in the Soccsksargen region in Mindanao. Its capital is Isulan and the commercial center is Tacurong City.
Sarangani is a province in the Philippines located in the Soccsksargen region. Its capital is Alabel. With a 230-kilometre (140 mi) coastline along the Sarangani Bay and Celebes Sea, the province is at the southernmost tip of Mindanao island, and borders South Cotabato and Davao del Sur to the north, Davao Occidental to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the south.
On October 31, 2019, a 6.5 magnitude earthquake struck the island of Mindanao in the Philippines at a depth of 10 km according to the USGS, with the epicenter located 1 km south of Kisante. A maximum perceived shaking of VII (PEIS) was reported from Tulunan, Makilala, Kidapawan City, Santa Cruz, Matanao, Magsaysay, Bansalan and Digos City. Some buildings in Davao and Soccksargen were seriously damaged and some collapsed. The death toll of these two quakes (October 29 and 31) was raised to 24, with more than 500 people injured, and 3 still missing.More than 300 aftershocks were recorded after the earthquake.
A hotel in Kidapawan City collapsed following the earthquake; fortunately, according National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), no one was inside in the building when the earthquake struck.The Davao City government suspended the classes on all levels. Affected residents in Makilala, Cotabato have begged on the highway for basic needs such as rice and tents. According to the NDRRMC, about 30,000 families or 150,000 individuals affected by the earthquake.
The earthquake sequence triggered a large number of landslides and rockslides. Municipalities affected by landslides include Kidapawan City, Antipas, Arakan, Makilala, M'Lang and Tulunan in Cotabato province; Magsaysay, Bansalan, Malalag, Matanao and Kiblawan in Davao Del Sur.Three fatalities were caused by landslides triggered by the October 29 shock with a further two people reported missing. Two fatalities were caused by landslides triggered by the October 31 shock, with one person reported missing.
|Province||Houses||Schools||Health facilities||Other public structures||Places of worship||Commercial buildings||Roads & Bridges|
|Davao del Sur||2,185||7,505||1||261||12||131||3||2||0||0||1||12||0||9|
|Davao del Norte||0||0||0||114||0||3||0||15||0||1||0||1||0||1|
The US Ambassador to the Philippines, Sung Kim, and the EU delegation to the Philippines both offered their condolences to the Filipino people. Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi also sent his message of sympathy to Philippine Foreign Secretary Teodoro Locsin Jr.. The Chinese government has donated ¥3 million yuan (roughly equivalent to ₱22 million pesos) to support the disaster relief efforts in Mindanao.Meanwhile, the Spanish Consulate in the Philippines pledged to donate up to 35,000 euros to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and 70,000 euros to assist people in water, hygiene and sanitation.
The Provincial Government of South Cotabato, Sarangani and the City of General Santos was one of the first to initiate to help the citizens with blankets, trapal, food and water near the epicenter of the earthquake swarm, most especially in the Municipalities of Makilala, Tulunan, M'lang and City of Kidapawan.Local citizens in Soccsksargen acted in both giving donations in the government processes and privately giving donations across the highway in Makilala, Tulunan and Kidapawan. The Davao City Government also helped the affected areas headed by Mayor Sara Duterte. The Island Garden City of Samal Government also went to Cotabato Province to give relief goods and drinking water. The Bangsamoro Government also went to the affected areas to give relief goods. The municipality of Datu Saudi Ampatuan Government also went to the area to share donations to help the affected people. Among other institutions that immediately helped where banks, malls, universities and schools in Soccsksargen and Davao Region to assist there fellow mindanaoans in crisis.
Mount Apo is a large solfataric, potentially active stratovolcano on the island of Mindanao, Philippines. With an elevation of 2,954 meters (9,692 ft) above sea level, it is the highest mountain in the Philippine Archipelago and is located between Davao City and Davao del Sur province in Region XI and Cotabato in Region XII. The peak overlooks Davao City 45 kilometers (28 mi) to the northeast, Digos 25 kilometers (16 mi) to the southeast, and Kidapawan 20 kilometers (12 mi) to the west.
Kidapawan, officially the City of Kidapawan or referred to as Kidapawan City, is a 3rd class city and capital of the province of Cotabato, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 140,195 people.
Makilala, officially the Municipality of Makilala, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Cotabato, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 83,851 people.
The 1976 Moro Gulf earthquake and tsunami took place on August 17 at 00:11 local time near the islands of Mindanao and Sulu, in the Philippines. Its magnitude was calculated as being as high as 8.0 on the moment magnitude scale.
Balut Island, also known as Malulong, is a volcanic island south of the tip of Davao Occidental province in the Mindanao region, Southern Philippines. Located in the center of the island is the Balut Volcano, a fumarolic volcano with no historical eruptions.
The 2002 Mindanao earthquake struck the Philippines at 05:16 Philippine Standard Time on March 6. The world's sixth most powerful earthquake of the year, it registered a magnitude of 7.5 and was a megathrust earthquake. It originated near the Cotabato Trench, a zone of deformation situated between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Sunda Plate, and occurred very near to the Philippines' strongest earthquake for the 20th century, the 1918 Celebes Sea earthquake.
The 2010 Mindanao earthquakes occurred in the southern Philippines in the Moro Gulf. This was a complex sequence of events including three man events of Mw magnitude 7.3 or greater on the 23rd of July, and two significant aftershocks of magnitude 6.6 on the 24th and 29th. All of these were deep focus earthquakes, at depths from 565 km (351 mi) to 634 km (394 mi). This results in minimal shaking at the surface; consequently there were no reports of casualties or damage.
The 2012 Visayas earthquake occurred on February 6 at 11:49 PST with a body wave magnitude of 6.7 and a maximum intensity of VII (Destructive) off the coast of Negros Oriental, Philippines. The epicenter of the submarine blind thrust earthquake was approximately 72 kilometres (45 mi) north of the provincial capital of Dumaguete City.
An earthquake off the coast of Samar occurred on August 31, 2012, at 20:47 local time in the Philippines. The populated islands of Visayas were struck by an earthquake of magnitude Mw 7.6. The earthquake has a depth of 45 km. A tsunami warning was announced within the Pacific area and was later lifted after two hours. The Philippine archipelago is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, where earthquakes and volcanic activity are common.
The 2013 Bohol earthquake occurred on October 15 at 8:12:31 PST in Bohol, an island province located in Central Visayas, Philippines. The magnitude of the earthquake was recorded at Mw 7.2, with epicenter 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) S 24° W of Sagbayan, and its depth of focus was 12 kilometres (7.5 mi). It affected the whole Central Visayas region, particularly Bohol and Cebu. The quake was felt in the whole Visayas area and as far as Masbate island in the north and Cotabato provinces in southern Mindanao.
The 2017 Surigao earthquake occurred on February 10, 2017 at 10:03 PM (PST), with a surface wave magnitude of 6.7 off the coast of Surigao del Norte in the Philippines. According to the PHIVOLCS Earthquake Intensity Scale the earthquake was an Intensity VII (Destructive) earthquake at maximum. In the past Surigao province has been hit by a magnitude 7.2 tremor in both 1879 and 1893.
On July 6, 2017, a 6.5 magnitude earthquake hit Leyte, causing at least 4 deaths and 100 injuries. The quake also caused power interruptions in the whole of Eastern Visayas and nearby Bohol.
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The 2019 Batanes earthquake was a magnitude 5.9 magnitude earthquake which struck Batanes, Philippines on July 27, 2019. It was preceded by a 5.4 magnitude foreshock. Nine people were killed by the combined effects of the earthquakes.