|Other names||Joint disease|
|Bone erosions from rheumatoid arthritis.|
An arthropathy is a disease of a joint.
Joint pain is a common but non-specific sign of joint disease. Signs will depend on the specific disease, and may even then vary. Common signs may include:
Diagnosis may be a combination of medical history, physical examination, blood tests and medical imaging (generally X-ray initially).
Arthritis is a form of arthropathy that involves inflammation of one or more joints,while the term arthropathy may be used regardless of whether there is inflammation or not.
Joint diseases can be classified as follows:
Spondylarthropathy is any form of arthropathy of the vertebral column.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints. Symptoms generally include joint pain and stiffness. Other symptoms may include redness, warmth, swelling, and decreased range of motion of the affected joints. In some types of arthritis, other organs are also affected. Onset can be gradual or sudden.
Rheumatology is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases. Physicians who have undergone formal training in rheumatology are called rheumatologists. Rheumatologists deal mainly with immune-mediated disorders of the musculoskeletal system, soft tissues, autoimmune diseases, vasculitides, and heritable connective tissue disorders.
A joint or articulation is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole. They are constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement. Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements. Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement in order to protect the brain and the sense organs. The connection between a tooth and the jawbone is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a gomphosis. Joints are classified both structurally and functionally.
Spondyloarthropathy or spondyloarthrosis refers to any joint disease of the vertebral column. As such, it is a class or category of diseases rather than a single, specific entity. It differs from spondylopathy, which is a disease of the vertebra itself. However, many conditions involve both spondylopathy and spondyloarthropathy.
Septic arthritis, also known as joint infection or infectious arthritis, is the invasion of a joint by an infectious agent resulting in joint inflammation. Symptoms typically include redness, heat and pain in a single joint associated with a decreased ability to move the joint. Onset is usually rapid. Other symptoms may include fever, weakness and headache. Occasionally, more than one joint may be involved.
Synovial fluid, also called synovia,[help 1] is a viscous, non-Newtonian fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints. With its egg white–like consistency, the principal role of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between the articular cartilage of synovial joints during movement. Synovial fluid is a small component of the transcellular fluid component of extracellular fluid.
Monoarthritis is inflammation (arthritis) of one joint at a time. It is usually caused by trauma, infection, or crystalline arthritis.
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease, also known as pseudogout and pyrophosphate arthropathy, is a rheumatologic disease which is thought to be secondary to abnormal accumulation of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals within joint soft tissues. The knee joint is most commonly affected.
Synovitis is the medical term for inflammation of the synovial membrane. This membrane lines joints that possess cavities, known as synovial joints. The condition is usually painful, particularly when the joint is moved. The joint usually swells due to synovial fluid collection.
Reactive arthritis, formerly known as Reiter's syndrome, is a form of inflammatory arthritis that develops in response to an infection in another part of the body (cross-reactivity). Coming into contact with bacteria and developing an infection can trigger the disease. By the time the patient presents with symptoms, often the "trigger" infection has been cured or is in remission in chronic cases, thus making determination of the initial cause difficult.
Sacroiliitis is inflammation within the sacroiliac joint. It is a feature of spondyloarthropathies, such as axial spondyloarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis or arthritis related to inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. It is also the most common presentation of arthritis from brucellosis.
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
Felty's syndrome, also called Felty syndrome, (FS) is rare autoimmune disease characterized by the triad of rheumatoid arthritis, enlargement of the spleen and too few neutrophils in the blood. The condition is more common in those aged 50–70 years, specifically more prevalent in females than males, and more so in Caucasians than those of African descent. It is a deforming disease that causes many complications for the individual.
Knee effusion occurs when excess synovial fluid accumulates in or around the knee joint. It has many common causes, including arthritis, injury to the ligaments or meniscus, or fluid collecting in the bursa, a condition known as prepatellar bursitis.
Crystal arthropathy is a class of joint disorder that is characterized by accumulation of tiny crystals in one or more joints. Polarizing microscopy and application of other crystallographic techniques have improved identification of different microcrystals including monosodium urate, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate, calcium hydroxyapatite, and calcium oxalate.
A joint effusion is the presence of increased intra-articular fluid. It may affect any joint. Commonly it involves the knee.
Milwaukee shoulder syndrome is a rheumatological condition similar to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD). It is associated with periarticular or intra-articular deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals. Crystal deposition in the joint causes the release of collagenases, serine proteases, elastases, and interleukin-1. This precipitates acute and rapid decline in joint function and degradation of joint anatomy. Subsequently disruption of the rotator cuff ensues. Along with symptomatology, the disease typically presents with positive radiologic findings, often showing marked erosion of the humeral head, cartilage, capsule, and bursae. Though rare, it is most often seen in females beginning in their 50s or 60s. Diagnosis is made with arthrocentesis and Alizarin Red staining along with clinical symptoms.
Jaccoud arthropathy (JA), is a chronic non-erosive reversible joint disorder that may occur after repeated bouts of arthritis. It is caused by inflammation of the joint capsule and subsequent fibrotic retraction, causing ulnar deviation of the fingers, through metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) subluxation, primarily of the ring and little-finger. Joints in the feet, knees and shoulders may also get affected. It is commonly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and occurs in roughly 5% of all cases.
Chondrocalcinosis or cartilage calcification is calcification in hyaline and/or fibrocartilage. It can be seen on radiography.