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politics and government of
The Cabinet of Yemen refers to the governing body of the internationally recognized Yemen government led by President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi who replaced former President of Yemen Ali Abdullah Saleh on February 25, 2012 as the new President of Yemen. He then selected new cabinet members of the Yemeni Government.
The President of the Republic of Yemen is the head of state of Yemen. Under the Constitution of Yemen, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and head of the executive branch of the Yemeni government.
Ali Abdullah Saleh was a Yemeni politician who served as the first President of Yemen, from Yemeni unification on 22 May 1990 to his resignation on 25 February 2012, following the Yemeni Revolution. Previously, he had served as President of the Yemen Arab Republic, or North Yemen, from July 1978 to 22 May 1990, after the assassination of President Ahmad al-Ghashmi.
Yemen, officially the Republic of Yemen, is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres. The coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, and the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory encompasses more than 200 islands, including the largest island in the Middle East, Socotra. Yemen is a member of the Arab League, United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
As part of the 2015 Yemen Civil War, the cabinet authority is contested by the Houthis, who took over the capital Sanaa in an armed rebellion against the government and formed the Supreme Revolutionary Committee and Supreme Political Council in 2015. President Hadi then declared Aden as the temporary capital. The United Nation Security Council resolution 2201 deplored the unilateral action of the Houthis while resolution 2216 reaffirmed the legitimacy of Hadi as the president of Yemen.
The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions: the Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi led Yemeni government and the Houthi armed movement, along with their supporters and allies. Both claim to constitute the official government of Yemen.
The Houthi takeover in Yemen, also known as the September 21 Revolution, or 2014–15 coup d'état, was a gradual armed takeover by the Houthis and supporters of former Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh that pushed the Yemeni government from power. It had origins in Houthi-led protests that began the previous month, and escalated when the Houthis stormed the Yemeni capital Sana'a on 21 September 2014, causing the resignation of Prime Minister Mohammed Basindawa, and later the resignation of President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi and his ministers on 22 January 2015 after Houthi forces seized the presidential palace, residence, and key military installations, and the formation of a ruling council by Houthi militants on 6 February 2015.
The Supreme Revolutionary Committee, sometimes referred to as the Revolutionary Council or the Revolutionary Committee, is an interim body in Yemen formed by the Zaidiyyah Shia group Ansar Allah. In their 6 February 2015 "constitutional declaration" after seizing control of the Yemeni capital and much of former North Yemen, and the failure of Thursday talks between the Houthis and Yemen’s many political parties that were aimed at forming a government to replace Hadi and his cabinet, the group declared the committee would act as Yemen's interim authority. The committee was given the task of forming a new 551-seat parliament, which would then select a five-member presidential council to rule the country for two years.
Despite internationally being recognized as the true government of Yemen, the Hadi government is widely considered to be a puppet regime of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
A puppet state, puppet régime, or puppet government is a state that is de jure independent but de facto completely dependent upon an outside power, and does its bidding. Puppet states have nominal sovereignty, but a foreign or otherwise alien power effectively exercises control, for reasons such as financial interests, economic or military support. Puppet states are distinguished from allies in that allies choose their actions on their own, or in accordance with treaties they voluntarily entered.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a sovereign state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest sovereign state in the Middle East, the second-largest in the Arab world, the fifth-largest in Asia, and the 12th-largest in the world. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south; it is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and most of its terrain consists of arid desert, lowland and mountains. As of October 2018, the Saudi economy was the largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. Saudi Arabia also has one of the world's youngest populations; 50 percent of its 33.4 million people are under 25 years old.
The United Arab Emirates, sometimes simply called the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south and west, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain. Their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates. Each emirate is governed by a ruler; together, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates.
In 2012, after Saleh stepped down as a result of Arab Spring protests in a political transition plan backed by Gulf states, Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi became the interim president and oversaw a national dialogue to draft a more inclusive, federal constitution. In 2014 the Houthis rapidly advanced south from Saada and seize Sanaa on September 21 with help from Saleh. In 2015, Hadi tried to announce a new federal constitution. The Houthis, who opposed the constitution, arrested him and forced him to resign. He escaped to Aden and declared it as the interim capital. He also asked the international community to intervene, triggering the Saudi led Arab military coalition intervention.
The Arab Spring was a series of anti-government protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across North Africa and the Middle East in the early 2010s. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living, starting with protests in Tunisia. In the news, social media has been heralded as the driving force behind the swift spread of revolution throughout the world, as new protests appear in response to success stories shared from those taking place in other countries. In many countries, the governments have also recognized the importance of social media for organizing and have shut down certain sites or blocked Internet service entirely, especially in the times preceding a major rally. Governments have also scrutinized or suppressed discussion in those forums through accusing content creators of unrelated crimes or shutting down communication on specific sites or groups, such as through Facebook.
|President||Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi||27 February 2012||Incumbent|
|Vice President||Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar||4 April 2016||Incumbent|
|Prime Minister||Maeen Abdulmalik Saeed||15 October 2018||Incumbent|
|Deputy Prime Minister|| Abdulmalik Al-Mekhlafi |
Mohamed Abdelaziz al-Jabari
|1 December 2015||Incumbent|
|Minister of Electricity||Abdullah Mohsen al-Akwa||11 June 2014||Incumbent|
|Deputy Prime Minister|
Minister of Interior
|Ahmed bin Ahmed Maisari||25 December 2017||Incumbent|
|Minister of Information||Muammar al-Iryani||18 September 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs||Khaled Hussein Alyemany||23 May 2018||Incumbent|
|Minister of Sana’a Secretariat||Abdelghani Jamil||18 September 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Youth and Sport||Nayef al-Bakri||15 September 2015||Incumbent|
|Minister of Civil Service and Insurance||Mohamed Abdelaziz al-Jabari||1 December 2015||Incumbent|
|Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs and the Shura Council||Mohammed Moqbel al-Himyari||25 December 2017||Incumbent|
|Minister of State for National Dialogue||Yassir al-Roaini||10 January 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Defense||Mahmoud al-Subaihi||9 November 2014||Incumbent|
|Minister of Health||Nasser Ba'aom||15 September 2015||Incumbent|
|Minister of Justice||Nahal al-Awlaqi||10 January 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research||Abdel Rahman Basalama||18 September 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Public Works and Infrastructures||Maeen Abdulmalik Saeed||27 April 2017||Incumbent|
|Minister of Social Affairs and Labour||Abtihaj Al-Kamal||27 April 2017||Incumbent|
|Minister of Tourism||Prof. Mohamed Qubaty||18 September 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Petroleum and Minerals||Aws al-Oud||25 December 2017||Incumbent|
|Minister of Religious Endowments and Guidance||Ahmed Zoubayen Attiah||18 September 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Finance||Ahmed Obeid al-Fadhli||18 September 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Agriculture and Irrigation||Osman Hussein||24 December 2017||Incumbent|
|Minister of Technical Education and Vocational||Abderrazak al-Achoual||9 November 2014||Incumbent|
|Minister of Culture||Marwan Damaj||18 September 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Transport||Saleh al-Jubwani||24 December 2017||Incumbent|
|Minister of Human Rights||Mohammad Mohsen Askar||27 April 2017||Incumbent|
|Minister of State||Abd Rabbo Saleh Aslami||18 September 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of State||Mohammed Abdallah Kouddah||27 November 2017||Incumbent|
Yemen's Defense Minister Major General Mohammed Nasser Ahmed survived an apparent assassination attempt in the capital city of Sanaa on 11 September, 2012, when a car bomb exploded near a building he was leaving.
Mohammed Nasser Ahmed is a Yemeni major general, who is the defense minister of Yemen.
Politics of Yemen is in an uncertain state due to a 2014–15 coup d'état. An armed group known as the Houthis or Ansar Allah seized control of the Northern Yemeni government and announced it would dissolve parliament, as well as install a "presidential council", "transitional national council", and "supreme revolutionary council" to govern the country for an interim period. However, the deposed president, Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, has declared he is still in office and is working to establish a rival government in Aden.
The Armed Forces of Yemen includes the Yemen Army, Navy, 1st Armored Division, and the Yemeni Air Force (2008). A major reorganization of the armed forces continues. The unified air forces and air defenses are now under one command. The navy is concentrated in Aden. The Yemen Arab Republic and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen joined to form the Republic of Yemen on May 22, 1990.
The Houthi movement, officially called Ansar Allah, is an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s. They are of the Zaidi sect, though the movement reportedly also includes Sunnis. Under the leadership of Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, the group emerged as a Zaydi opposition to former Yemeni president Ali Abdullah Saleh, whom they charged with massive financial corruption and criticized for being backed by Saudi Arabia and the United States at the expense of the Yemeni people and Yemen's sovereignty. Resisting Saleh's order for his arrest, Hussein was killed in Sa'dah in 2004 along with a number of his guards by the Yemeni army, sparking the Houthi insurgency in Yemen. Since then, except for a short intervening period, the movement has been led by his brother Abdul-Malik al-Houthi.
Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi is a Yemeni politician and former Field Marshal of the Yemeni Armed Forces. He has been the President of Yemen since 27 February 2012, and was Vice President from 1994 to 2012.
Ali Mohsen Saleh al-Ahmar, sometimes spelled "Muhsin", is the Vice President of Yemen. He is a general in the Yemeni Army and was the commander of the northwestern military district and the 1st Armoured Division. He played a leading role in the creation of the General People's Congress.
Iran and Yemen have had cordial, if tepid, relations since the Iranian Revolution in 1979. Ties between the Saudi-backed Yemeni government in Aden, however, have been damaged in recent years by Iran's support for the rival Yemeni government in Sanaa linked to the Houthi movement. The United States and the Saudi-backed government in Yemen have repeatedly accused Iran of providing funding and weapons to the Zaydi Shi’ite Houthi rebels and on one occasion claimed to have discovered Iranian-made arms in rebel weapons caches. The US and Saudi Arabia have also accused Iran's allies in Lebanon and Syria of also supporting the Yemeni government in Sanna. Iran has also deployed submarines and warships off Yemen’s coast, in the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, ostensibly to conduct anti-piracy operations.
Yemeni peace process refers to the proposals and negotiations to pacify the Yemeni Crisis by arranging a power transfer scheme within the country and later cease-fire attempts within the raging civil war. While initially unsuccessful, the reconciliation efforts resulted with presidential elections, held in Yemen on February 2012. The violence in Yemen, however, continued during the elections and after, culminating in Houthi successful grip of power and the ensuing civil war.
Ahmad Awad bin Mubarak is a Yemeni politician who was designated as Prime Minister of Yemen on 7 October 2014 but declined the post.
The following lists events that happened in 2015 in Yemen.
The Yemeni Crisis began with the 2011–12 revolution against President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who had led Yemen for more than three decades. After Saleh left office in early 2012 as part of a mediated agreement between the Yemeni government and opposition groups, the government led by Saleh's former vice president, Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, struggled to unite the fractious political landscape of the country and fend off threats both from Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and Houthi militants that had been waging a protracted insurgency in the north for years. In 2014, Houthi fighters swept into the capital of Sana'a and forced Hadi to negotiate a "unity government" with other political factions. The rebels continued to apply pressure on the weakened government until, after his presidential palace and private residence came under attack from the militant group, Hadi resigned along with his ministers in January 2015. The following month, the Houthis declared themselves in control of the government, dissolving Parliament and installing an interim Revolutionary Committee led by Mohammed Ali al-Houthi, a cousin of Houthi leader Abdul-Malik al-Houthi. However, Hadi escaped to Aden, where he declared that he remains Yemen's legitimate president, proclaimed the country's temporary capital, and called on loyal government officials and members of the military to rally to him. On 27 March 2015, BBC reported that Hadi had "fled rebel forces in the city of Aden" and subsequently "arrived in Saudi Arabia's capital Riyadh" as "Saudi authorities began air strikes in Yemen". Civil War subsequently erupted between Hadi's government and the Houthis. Since 2017 the separatist Southern Transitional Council (STC) has also fought against the government.
The Battle of Sana'a in 2014 marked the advance of the Houthis into Sana'a, the capital of Yemen, and heralded the beginning of the armed takeover of the government that unfolded over the following months. Fighting began on 9 September 2014, when pro-Houthi protesters under the command of Abdul-Malik al-Houthi marched on the cabinet office and were fired upon by security forces, leaving seven dead. The clashes escalated on 18 September, when 40 were killed in an armed confrontation between the Houthis led by military commander Mohammed Ali al-Houthi and supporters of the Sunni hardliner Islah Party when the Houthis tried to seize Yemen TV, and 19 September, with more than 60 killed in clashes between Houthi fighters and the military and police in northern Sana'a. By 21 September, the Houthis captured the government headquarters, marking the fall of Sana'a.
The aftermath of the Houthi takeover in Yemen refers to developments following the Houthis' takeover of the Yemeni capital of Sana'a and dissolution of the government, which eventually led to a civil war and the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen.
Major general Mahmoud al-Subaihi is a Yemeni military officer. He serves in the cabinet of President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi as defence minister. In the Yemen Army, he holds the rank of major general. He was appointed to head the Ministry of Defence by Prime Minister Khaled Bahah in November 2014.
International reactions to the Saudi-led intervention in Yemen of 2015 were mixed. Most other Arab League nations and several Western governments backed the Saudi Arabia-led military coalition, but other governments warned against an escalation in the violent situation in Yemen.
The Supreme Political Council is an executive body formed by Houthi Ansarullah and the General People's Congress (GPC) to rule Yemen. Formed on 28 July 2016, the presidential council consists of 10 members and until his death from a drone air strike on 19 April 2018 was headed by Saleh Ali al-Sammad as president with Qassem Labozah as vice-president. SPC carries out the functions of head of state in Yemen and is to manage Yemen's state affairs in a bid to fill in political vacuum during Yemeni Civil War in 2015. The Council aims to outline a basis for running the country and managing state affairs on the basis of the existing constitution. Later, SPC was also responsible for forming a new government led by Abdel-Aziz bin Habtour known as the National Salvation Government.
The Battle of Sana'a in 2017 was fought between forces loyal to Ali Abdullah Saleh and the Houthis in the Yemeni capital of Sana'a. Both sides were allied during the 2014–15 Houthi takeover of the government but the alliance ended when Saleh decided to break ranks with the Houthis and call for dialogue with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, who are leading a military intervention in Yemen. Fighting then broke out between the Houthis and forces loyal to Saleh as the Saudi-led coalition began bombing Houthi areas, ultimately resulting in Saleh's death and a Houthi victory.