Van Denburgh, 1895
Crotalus pricei is a venomous pit viper species found in the United States and Mexico. Currently, two subspecies are recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.
Venomous snakes are species of the suborder Serpentes that are capable of producing venom, which they use for killing prey, for defense, and to assist with digestion of their prey. The venom is typically delivered by injection using hollow or grooved fangs, although some venomous snakes lack well-developed fangs. Common venomous snakes include the families Elapidae, Viperidae, Atractaspididae, and some of the Colubridae. The toxicity of venom is mainly indicated by murine LD50, while multiple factors are considered to judge the potential danger to humans. Other important factors for risk assessment include the likelihood that a snake will bite, the quantity of venom delivered with the bite, the efficiency of the delivery mechanism, and the location of a bite on the body of the victim. Snake venom may have both neurotoxic and hemotoxic properties.
In biology, a species ( ) is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more closely they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, and in a ring species. Also, among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, and each clone is potentially a microspecies.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species' global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics. A subspecies cannot be recognized independently. A species is either recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two, including any that are extinct. The term is abbreviated subsp. in botany and bacteriology, or ssp. in zoology. The plural is the same as the singular: subspecies.
The specific name, pricei, is in honor of William Wightman "Billy" Price (1871–1922), a field biologist, who collected the first specimens which became the type series.
In zoological nomenclature, the specific name is the second part within the scientific name of a species. The first part of the name of a species is the name of the genus or the generic name. The rules and regulations governing the giving of a new species name are explained in the article species description.
A biologist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life. Biologists involved in fundamental research attempt to explore and further explain the underlying mechanisms that govern the functioning of living matter. Biologists involved in applied research attempt to develop or improve more specific processes and understanding, in fields such as medicine and industry.
Adults usually do not exceed 50–60 cm (about 20–24 in) in total length (including tail). The maximum total length recorded is 66 cm (26 in).
The color pattern consists of a gray, bluish-gray, brownish-gray, or medium- to reddish-brown ground color, usually with a fine brown speckling. This is overlaid with a series of dorsal blotches that tend to be divided down the median line to form 39-64 pairs.
Its common names are twin-spotted rattlesnake,western twin-spotted rattlesnake, Price's rattlesnake, Arizona spotted rattlesnake, spotted rattlesnake, and Arizona twin-spotted rattlesnake.
This snake is found in the United States in southeastern Arizona. In northern Mexico, it occurs in the Sierra Madre Occidental in Sonora, Chihuahua, and Durango. It has also been found in the Sierra Madre Oriental in southeastern Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas, with isolated records in San Luis Potosí and Aguascalientes. The type locality given is "Huachua Mts., Arizona" (Cochise County, Arizona, United States).
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.
The Sierra Madre Occidental is a major mountain range system of the North American Cordillera, that runs northwest–southeast through northwestern and western Mexico, and along the Gulf of California. The Sierra Madre is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges (cordillera) that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western 'backbone' of North America, Central America, South America and West Antarctica.
Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.
This species is classified as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (v3.1, 2001).Species are listed as such due to their wide distribution, presumed large population, or because they are unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. The population trend was stable when assessed in 2007.
|Subspecies||Taxon author||Common name||Geographic range|
|C. p. miquihuanus||Gloyd, 1940||Eastern twin-spotted rattlesnake||Mexico: southeastern Coahuila, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas|
|C. p. pricei||Van Denburgh, 1895||Western twin-spotted rattlesnake||United States: southeastern Arizona, Mexico: Sonora, Chihuahua and Durango|
Sistrurus is a genus of venomous pit vipers in the subfamily Crotalinae of the family Viperidae. The genus is endemic to Canada, the United States, and Mexico. The generic name is a Latinized form of the Greek word for "tail rattler" and shares its root with the ancient Egyptian musical instrument, the sistrum, a type of rattle. Three species are currently recognized.
Crotalus willardi is a venomous pit viper species found in the southwestern United States and Mexico.
Crotalus ruber is a venomous pit viper species found in southwestern California in the United States and Baja California in Mexico. Three subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.
Crotalus mitchellii is a venomous pit viper species found in the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It was named in honor of Silas Weir Mitchell (1829–1914), a medical doctor who also studied rattlesnake venoms. Five subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.
Crotalus viridis nuntius is a venomous pit viper subspecies native primarily to the desert plateau of the northeastern portion of the American state of Arizona, but also ranges into northwestern New Mexico. Named for the Native American Hopi tribe, which inhabits the region, its range overlaps that of the nominate subspecies and some interbreeding is believed to occur. The taxonomy of the C. viridis group is a matter of debate, many considering the various subspecies to be nothing more than locality variations.
Crotalus oreganus abyssus is a venomous pit viper subspecies found only in the U.S. states of Arizona and Utah.
Crotalus durissus unicolor is a venomous pitviper subspecies found only on the Caribbean island of Aruba, off the coast of Venezuela. Critically endangered, it is estimated that fewer than 230 adults survive in the wild. It is sometimes still classified as a distinct species.
Crotalus oreganus lutosus is a venomous pit viper subspecies found in the Great Basin region of the United States.
Crotalus intermedius gloydi is a subspecies of venomous pitviper in the family Viperidae. The subspecies is endemic to Mexico in the states of Oaxaca and Puebla.
The Mexican lance-headed rattlesnake or lance-headed rattlesnake is a venomous pit viper species found in central Mexico. No subspecies is currently recognized.
Crotalus pusillus is a venomous pit viper species found in west-central Mexico. No subspecies is currently recognized.
Crotalus stejnegeri is a venomous pit viper species found in western Mexico. No subspecies is currently recognized.
Crotalus transversus is a venomous pit viper species found in central Mexico, known from less than 20 specimens. No subspecies are currently recognized.
Crotalus cerastes cercobombus is a venomous pitviper subspecies found in an area that covers much of the eastern part of the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. The subspecific epithet means buzzertail.
Crotalus oreganus concolor is a venomous pit viper subspecies found in the western United States. It is a small subspecies known for its faded color pattern.
Crotalus cerberus is a venomous pit viper species found in the southwestern United States. It is known as the Arizona black rattlesnake, black rattlesnake, and several other common names.
Crotalus willardi obscurus is a venomous pitviper subspecies found in northwestern Mexico and the southwestern United States.This is the only venomous snake listed as Threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Crotalus totonacus is a venomous pit viper species found in northeastern Mexico. No subspecies are currently recognized.
Crotalus lorenzoensis is a venomous pitviper species endemic to San Lorenzo Sur Island, Mexico.
Crotalus ruber lucasensis is a venomous pitviper subspecies found in Mexico in the Cape region of lower Baja California.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crotalus pricei .|