Katanga Province

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Katanga Province
Province du Katanga
BelgianCongoProvinces-1920.svg
Congo provinces in 1914
Coordinates: 11°08′S27°06′E / 11.133°S 27.100°E / -11.133; 27.100 Coordinates: 11°08′S27°06′E / 11.133°S 27.100°E / -11.133; 27.100
Country Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  DR Congo
Established1966 (1966)
Dissolved2015 (2015)
Capital Lubumbashi
Largest cityLubumbashi
Area
  Total496,871 km2 (191,843 sq mi)
Population
 (2010 est.)
  Total5,608,683
  Density11/km2 (29/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Katangese
Official: French
National: Swahili
Other: Bemba
English
Malachite specimen, showing the original botryoidal form and a polished face of the opposite half of the specimen. Mines in the vicinity of Kolwezi supply much of the polishing-grade malachite in the world. Malachite Kolwezi Katanga Congo.jpg
Malachite specimen, showing the original botryoidal form and a polished face of the opposite half of the specimen. Mines in the vicinity of Kolwezi supply much of the polishing-grade malachite in the world.
Another malachite specimen from Katanga, on display at the Royal Ontario Museum. Malachite Katanga ROM.jpg
Another malachite specimen from Katanga, on display at the Royal Ontario Museum.

Katanga was one of the four large provinces created in the Belgian Congo in 1914. It was one of the eleven provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1966 and 2015, when it was split into the Tanganyika, Haut-Lomami, Lualaba, and Haut-Katanga provinces. Between 1971 and 1997 (during the rule of Mobutu Sese Seko when Congo was known as Zaïre), its official name was Shaba Province. [1]

Contents

Katanga's area encompassed 497,000 square kilometres (49,700,000 ha). Farming and ranching are carried out on the Katanga Plateau. The eastern part of the province is considered to be a rich mining region, which supplies cobalt, copper, tin, radium, uranium, and diamonds. The region's former capital, Lubumbashi, is the second-largest city in the Congo. [2] [3]

History

Copper mining in Katanga dates back over 1,000 years, and mines in the region were producing standard-sized ingots of copper for international transport by the end of the 10th century CE. [4]

In the 1890s, the province was beleaguered from the south by Cecil Rhodes' Northern Rhodesia, and from the north by the Belgian Congo, the personal possession of King Leopold II of Belgium. Msiri, the King of Katanga, held out against both, but eventually Katanga was subsumed by the Belgian Congo. [5] [ page needed ]

After 1900, the Societe Generale de Belgique practically controlled all of the mining in the province through Union Minière du Haut Katanga (UMHK). This included uranium, radium, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, germanium, manganese, silver, gold, and tin.

In 1915, a deposit of pitchblende and other uranium minerals of a higher grade than had ever been found before anywhere in the world and higher than any found since were discovered at Shinkolobwe. The discovery was kept secret by UMHK. After World War I ended a factory was built at Olen; the secrecy was lifted at the end of 1922 with the announcement of the production of the first gram of radium from the pitchblende. [6] By the start of World War II, the mining companies "constituted a state within the Belgian Congo". The Shinkolobwe mine near Jadotville (now Likasi) was at the centre of the Manhattan Project. [7]

Mine de Shinkolobwe. The uranium for the Manhattan Project and the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki came from Shinkolobwe mine. Shinkolobwe.jpg
Mine de Shinkolobwe. The uranium for the Manhattan Project and the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki came from Shinkolobwe mine.

In 1960, after the Democratic Republic of the Congo (then called Republic of the Congo) gained independence from Belgium, the UMHK, Moise Tshombe and Godefroid Munongo supported the secession of Katanga province from the Congo. This was supported by Belgium but opposed by the Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba. This led to the assassination of Lumumba and the Katanga Crisis (or "Congo Crisis"), which lasted from 1960 to 1965. The breakaway State of Katanga existed from 1960 to 1963. [8]

In 2005, the new constitution specified that Katanga was to be split up into separately administered provinces. [9]

Militias such as Mai Mai Kata Katanga led by Gédéon Kyungu Mutanga fought for Katanga to secede, and his group briefly took over the provincial capital Lubumbashi in 2013. [8]

In 2015, Katanga Province was split into the constitutional provinces of Tanganyika, Haut-Lomami, Lualaba, and Haut-Katanga. [10] [11]

Economy

Copper mining is an important part of the economy of Katanga province. [12] Cobalt mining by individual contractors is also prevalent. A number of reasons have been advanced for the failure of the vast mineral wealth of the province to increase the overall standard of living. The local provincial budget was US$440 million in 2011. [13] [14]

Mining

Lubumbashi, the mining capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, is a hub for many of the country's biggest mining companies. The Democratic Republic of Congo produces "more than 3 percent of the world’s copper and half its cobalt, most of which comes from Katanga". [15]

Major mining concessions include Tilwezembe and Kalukundi.

Mining companies

Geography

Hills of Katanga Katanga Hills.jpg
Hills of Katanga

The province bordered Angola and formed the entire Congolese border with Zambia. It also bordered Tanzania – although on Lake Tanganyika rather than on land. Katanga has a wet and dry season. Rainfall is about 1,200 mm (49 in). [19]

The province was divided in 2015 into five successor provinces, based on the districts of Katanga at that time:

Education and medical care

The University of Lubumbashi, located in the northern part of Lubumbashi city, is the largest university in the province and one of the largest in the country.

TESOL, the English Language School of Lubumbashi, is a secondary school that serves the expatriate community. It was founded in 1987 on the grounds of the French School, Lycée Français Blaise Pascal, which suspended operations in 1991 with a new French School starting in 2009. [20]

Katanga province has the highest rate of infant mortality in the world, with 184 of 1000 babies born expected to die before the age of five. [21]

Provincial assembly building of Katanga in Lubumbashi Katanga provincial parliament building.jpg
Provincial assembly building of Katanga in Lubumbashi

Transportation

The Congo Railway provides Katanga Province with limited railway service centered on Lubumbashi. Reliability is limited. Lubumbashi International Airport is located northeast of Lubumbashi. In April 2014, a train derailment killed 63 people. [22]

People

See also

Related Research Articles

Lubumbashi Provincial capital and city in Haut-Katanga, DR Congo

Lubumbashi is the third-largest city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, located in the country's southeasternmost part, along the border with Zambia. The capital and principal city of the Haut-Katanga Province, Lubumbashi is the center of mining in the region, acting as a hub for many of the country's largest mining companies. No definite population figures are available, but the population of the city's urban area is estimated to be around 2,584,000 in 2021.

Kolwezi Provincial capital and city in Lualaba, DR Congo

Kolwezi or Kolwesi is the capital city of Lualaba Province in the south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, west of Likasi. It is home to an airport and a railway to Lubumbashi. Just outside of Kolwezi there is the static inverter plant of the HVDC Inga-Shaba. The population is approximately 573,000.

<i>Union Minière du Haut-Katanga</i> Belgian mining company

The Union Minière du Haut-Katanga, often abbreviated to Union Minière or UMHK, was an Anglo-Belgian mining company which operated in the copperbelt in the modern-day Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1906 and 1966.

Gécamines

La Générale des Carrières et des Mines (Gécamines) is a Congolese commodity trading and mining company headquartered in Lubumbashi, in the Katanga region of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is a state-controlled corporation founded in 1966 and a successor to the Union Minière du Haut-Katanga. Gecamines is engaged in the exploration, research, exploitation and production of mineral deposits including copper and cobalt.

Haut-Katanga Province Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Haut-Katanga is one of the 21 new provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo created in the 2015 repartitioning. Haut-Katanga, Haut-Lomami, Lualaba, and Tanganyika provinces are the result of the dismemberment of the former Katanga province. Haut-Katanga was formed from the Haut-Katanga district and the independently administered cities of Likasi and Lubumbashi. Lubumbashi retained its status as a provincial capital.

The Forrest Group is a group of companies founded around the mining industry in 1922. As of 2018, the Forrest Group is active primarily in Central and East Africa. It is owned by George Arthur Forrest, a Belgian entrepreneur of New Zealand descent.

Index of Democratic Republic of the Congo–related articles Wikipedia index

Articles related to the Democratic Republic of the Congo include:

This is a history of Katanga Province and the former independent State of Katanga, as well as the history of the region prior to colonization.

Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Zaïrois

The Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Zaïrois (SNCZ) was the state railway company in Zaire formed in 1974 by combining several privately owned railways. It suffered from lack of maintenance of the tracks and rolling stock, weak management, and external factors such as the Angolan Civil War and the collapse of the economy of Zaire under President Mobutu Sese Seko. Despite two projects funded by the World Bank, it had virtually ceased to function by the 1990s. It was replaced in 1995 by the short-lived private company SIZARAIL, which in turn was replaced by the present Société nationale des chemins de fer du Congo.

Katanga Mining Ltd is a mining company operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo with its headquarters in Canada. Katanga Mining operates a major mine complex in the Congo's Katanga Province, producing refined copper and cobalt. It claims to have the "potential of becoming Africa's largest copper producer and the world's largest cobalt producer." Katanga paid US$452 million in cash to Nikanor shareholders. In January 2008 Nikanor was merged into Katanga Mining. Katanga Mining Ltd is 86% owned by Swiss commodity trader Glencore. Canada required a $20 million fine from the company in 2019 due to unclear relationship with the Congolese authorities.

Copper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo mainly takes place in the Copper Belt of the southern Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Kambove mines

The Kambove mines are a group of active or abandoned copper mines near Kambove in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. They were originally established by the Union Minière du Haut-Katanga under Belgian rule.

Ruashi Mine

The Ruashi Mine is an open-pit copper and cobalt mine operated by Metorex that is located about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Lubumbashi in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The project includes a plant to concentrate the ore from the Ruashi and Etoile mines, and a modern solvent extraction electrowinning (SX-EW) processing plant. As of 2008, annual capacity was estimated to be 10,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of Cobalt.

Etoile Mine

The Etoile Mine is an open-pit copper mine on the outskirts of Lubumbashi in Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Chemaf owns the license. Chemaf is 95% owned by Shalina Resources and 5% by the DRC government.

Haut-Katanga District

Haut-Katanga District is a former district located in the former Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The copper mining centers of Lubumbashi and Likasi were surrounded by the district but were administratively separate.

<i>Katanga Business</i> 2009 Belgian film

Katanga Business is a 2009 film by Belgian director Thierry Michel that explores the mining industry in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Tanganika District District in Katanga, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Tanganika District was a district of the pre-2015 Katanga Province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The district dates back to the days of the Belgian Congo. At its greatest extent it roughly corresponded to the present Tanganyika Province, with a small portion in the southwest now in Haut-Lomami Province.

Luapula-Moero District District in Katanga, Belgian Congo

Luapula-Moero District was a district of the pre-2015 Katanga Province in the Belgian Congo and Democratic Republic of the Congo. It roughly corresponded in area to the present Haut-Katanga Province.

Tanganyika Concessions Limited

Tanganyika Concessions Limited was a British mining and railway company founded by the Scottish engineer and entrepreneur Robert Williams in 1899. The purpose was to exploit minerals in Northern Rhodesia and in the Congo Free State. Partly-owned subsidiaries included the Union Minière du Haut-Katanga (UMHK), which undertook mining in the Katanga portion of the copperbelt, and the Benguela railway, which provided a rail link across Angola to the Atlantic Ocean. Belgian banks eventually took over control of the company. The Angolan railway concession was returned to the state of Angola in 2001.

Kamatanda

Kamatanda is a region just north of Likasi in the Haut-Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It gives its name to an open-pit copper mine, a railway junction, an abandoned airport and a residential area of Likasi.

References

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  2. George, Mr Francis Stevens (6 February 2014). China and Africa Love Affair. Francis Stevens George. ISBN   9781494998516.
  3. "Biggest Cities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  4. Amy McKenna, ed. (2011). The History of Central and Eastern Africa. Britannica Guide to Africa. Rosen Education Service. p.  9. ISBN   978-1615303229.
  5. Daniel Crawford (1912). Thinking Black: 22 Years Without a Break in the Long Grass of Central Africa. New York: George H. Doran.
  6. Uranium's scientific history - Part 2
  7. Susan Williams (2016). Spies in the Congo. New York: Public Affairs. pp. 76–77, 289. ISBN   9781610396547.
  8. 1 2 Maud Jullien (12 August 2013). "Fighting for DR Congo's cash cow to secede". BBC Africa. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  9. "Constitution de la République démocratique du Congo: Article 2". Wikisource.
  10. The National Assembly adopts the laws regarding the limits of the provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 10 January 2015. (in French)
  11. Election of governors: definite results expected on 18 April, Radio Okapi, 27 March 2016. (in French)
  12. "COPPER". congo-pages.org. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
  13. "Katanga: le budget 2011 s'élève à 396 milliards de Francs congolais". Radio Okapi. 21 September 2010. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012.
  14. The State vs. the People: Governance, mining and the transitional regime in the Democratic Republic of Congo (PDF) (Report). Amsterdam: Netherlands Institute for Southern Africa. 2006. ISBN   90-78028-04-1.
  15. Michael J. Kavanagh (23 March 2013). "Congolese Militia Seizes UN Compound in Katanga's Lubumbashi" . Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  16. "History: dead link". Katanga Mining. Archived from the original on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  17. Katanga Mining (Report). Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  18. "An Independent Technical Report on the Material Assets of Katanga Mining Limited..." (PDF). SRK Consulting. 17 March 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 May 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  19. Katanga, or Shaba (province, Democratic Republic of the Congo) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  20. English-speaking School of Lubumbashi (TESOL), page from 2007, Internet Archive, Accessed 3 March 2013.
  21. "DR Congo eyes a greater share of its mineral riches". BBC News Online . 22 April 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  22. "Scores killed in DR Congo train crash". Al Jazeera. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.

Bibliography