Katanga Province

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Katanga Province

Province du Katanga
Democratic Republic of the Congo - Katanga.svg
Coordinates: 11°08′S27°06′E / 11.133°S 27.100°E / -11.133; 27.100 Coordinates: 11°08′S27°06′E / 11.133°S 27.100°E / -11.133; 27.100
CountryFlag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  DR Congo
Established1966 (1966)
Dissolved2015 (2015)
Capital Lubumbashi
Largest cityLubumbashi
Area
  Total496,871 km2 (191,843 sq mi)
Population
 (2010 est.)
  Total5,608,683
  Density11/km2 (29/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Katangese
Official language French
National languages Swahili
Malachite specimen, showing the original botryoidal form & a polished face of the opposite half of the specimen. Mines in the vicinity of Kolwezi supply much of the polishing-grade malachite in the world. Malachite Kolwezi Katanga Congo.jpg
Malachite specimen, showing the original botryoidal form & a polished face of the opposite half of the specimen. Mines in the vicinity of Kolwezi supply much of the polishing-grade malachite in the world.
Another spectacular malachite specimen from Katanga, on display at the Royal Ontario Museum. Malachite Katanga ROM.jpg
Another spectacular malachite specimen from Katanga, on display at the Royal Ontario Museum.

Katanga was one of the eleven provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1966 and 2015, when it was split into the Tanganyika, Haut-Lomami, Lualaba and Haut-Katanga provinces. Between 1971 and 1997 (during the rule of Mobutu Sese Seko when Congo was known as Zaïre), its official name was Shaba Province. [1]

Provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

There are currently twenty-five provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The capital, Kinshasa city, is administratively equivalent to a province.

Tanganyika Province Province in Democratic Republic of the Congo

Tanganyika is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Specified under Article 2 of the country's 2006 Constitution, Tanganyika was finally created in 2015 from the eponymous Tanganyika District, previously part of the pre-2015 Katanga Province. Its capital is Kalemie.

Haut-Lomami Province in Democratic Republic of the Congo

Haut-Lomami is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The capital is Kamina.

Contents

Katanga's area encompassed 497,000 square kilometres (49,700,000 ha). Farming and ranching are carried out on the Katanga Plateau. The eastern part of the province is considered to be a rich mining region, which supplies cobalt, copper, tin, radium, uranium, and diamonds. The region's former capital, Lubumbashi, is the second largest city in the Congo. [2] [3]

The Katanga, or Shaba, Plateau is a farming and ranching region in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Located in the southeastern Katanga Province, it is 1220 m above sea level and is rich in copper and uranium deposits. The altitude makes it cooler than the surrounding area, with a mean annual temperature of 19-20° C

Cobalt Chemical element with atomic number 27

Cobalt is a chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earth's crust only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal.

Copper Chemical element with atomic number 29

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement.

History

Copper mining in Katanga dates back over 1,000 years, and mines in the region were producing standard-sized ingots of copper for international transport by the end of the 10th century CE. [4]

Copper extraction Process of extracting copper from the ground

Copper extraction refers to the methods used to obtain copper from its ores. The conversion of copper consists of a series of physical and electrochemical processes. Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source, local environmental regulations, and other factors.

10th century Century

The 10th century was the period from 901 to 1000 in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the last century of the 1st millennium.

In the 1890s, the province was beleaguered from the south by Cecil Rhodes' Northern Rhodesia, and from the north by the Belgian Congo, the personal possession of King Leopold II of Belgium. Msiri, the King of Katanga, held out against both, but eventually Katanga was subsumed by the Belgian Congo. [5] [ page needed ]

Cecil Rhodes British businessman, mining magnate and politician in South Africa

Cecil John Rhodes was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896. An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia, which the company named after him in 1895. South Africa's Rhodes University is also named after him. Rhodes set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, which is funded by his estate. He also put much effort towards his vision of a Cape to Cairo Railway through British territory.

Northern Rhodesia protectorate in south central Africa in 1924–1964

Northern Rhodesia was a protectorate in south central Africa, formed in 1911 by amalgamating the two earlier protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia. It was initially administered, as were the two earlier protectorates, by the British South Africa Company (BSAC), a chartered company, on behalf of the British Government. From 1924, it was administered by the British Government as a protectorate, under similar conditions to other British-administered protectorates, and the special provisions required when it was administered by BSAC were terminated.

Belgian Congo former Belgian colony corresponding to modern Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Belgian Congo was a Belgian colony in Central Africa from 1908 until independence in 1960. The former colony adopted its present-day name, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), in 1964.

After 1900, the Societe Generale de Belgique practically controlled all of the mining in the province through Union Minière du Haut Katanga (UMHK). This included uranium, radium, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, germanium, manganese, silver, gold, and tin.

<i>Union Minière du Haut Katanga</i> company

The Union Minière du Haut-Katanga, often abbreviated to Union Minière or UMHK, was an Anglo-Belgian mining company which operated in the copperbelt in the modern-day Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1906 and 1966.

In 1915 a deposit of pitchblende and other uranium minerals of a higher grade than had ever been found before anywhere in the world and higher than any found since were discovered at Shinkolobwe. The discovery was kept secret by UMHK. After WWI ended a factory was built at Olen and the secrecy was lifted at the end of 1922 with the announcement of the production of the first gram of radium the pitchblende. [6] By the start of WWII, the mining companies "constituted a state within the Belgian Congo". The Shinkolobwe mine by Jadotville (now Likasi) was at the centre of the Manhattan Project. [7]

Olen, Belgium Municipality in Flemish Community, Belgium

Olen is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Antwerp. The municipality comprises three towns, situated on a south-north axis:

Radium Chemical element with atomic number 88

Radium is a chemical element with the symbol Ra and atomic number 88. It is the sixth element in group 2 of the periodic table, also known as the alkaline earth metals. Pure radium is silvery-white, but it readily reacts with nitrogen (rather than oxygen) on exposure to air, forming a black surface layer of radium nitride (Ra3N2). All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226, which has a half-life of 1600 years and decays into radon gas (specifically the isotope radon-222). When radium decays, ionizing radiation is a product, which can excite fluorescent chemicals and cause radioluminescence.

Likasi Place in Haut-Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Likasi is a city in Haut-Katanga Province, in the south-east of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Mine de Shinkolobwe. The uranium for the Manhattan Project and the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki came from Shinkolobwe mine. Shinkolobwe.jpg
Mine de Shinkolobwe. The uranium for the Manhattan Project and the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki came from Shinkolobwe mine.
Shinkolobwe 1940. Shinkolobwe mine.jpg
Shinkolobwe 1940.

In 1960, after the Democratic Republic of the Congo (then called Republic of the Congo) gained independence from Belgium, the UMHK, Moise Tshombe and Godefroid Munongo supported the secession of the province of Katanga from the Congo. This was supported by Belgium but opposed by the Congolese Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba. This led to the murder of Lumumba and the Katanga Crisis (or "Congo Crisis"), which lasted from 1960 to 1965. The breakaway State of Katanga existed from 1960 to 1963. [8]

In 2005, the new constitution specified that Katanga was to be split up into separately administered provinces. [9]

Militias such as Mai Mai Kata Katanga led by Gédéon Kyungu Mutanga fought for Katanga to secede, and his group briefly took over the provincial capital Lubumbashi in 2013. [8]

In 2015, Katanga Province was split into the constitutional provinces of Tanganyika, Haut-Lomami, Lualaba, and Haut-Katanga. [10] [11]

Economy

Copper mining is an important part of the economy of Katanga province. [12] Cobalt mining by individual contractors is also prevalent. A number of reasons have been advanced for the failure of the vast mineral wealth of the province to increase the overall standard of living. The local provincial budget was US$440 million in 2011. [13] [14]

Mining

Lubumbashi, the mining capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, is a hub for many of the country's biggest mining companies. The Democratic Republic of Congo produces "more than 3 percent of the world’s copper and half its cobalt, most of which comes from Katanga". [15]

Major mining concessions include Tilwezembe and Kalukundi.

Mining companies

Geography

Hills of Katanga Katanga Hills.jpg
Hills of Katanga

The province formed the Congolese border with Angola and Zambia. The province also bordered Tanzania – although Katanga province and Tanzania did not share a land border – but the border was within Lake Tanganyika. Katanga has a wet and dry season. Rainfall is about 1,200 mm (49 in). [19]

Education and medical care

The University of Lubumbashi, located in the northern part of Lubumbashi city, is the largest university in the province and one of the largest in the country. A number of other university-level institutions exist in Lubumbashi, some public, some private: Institut Supérieur de Statistique, Institut Supérieur Pédagogique, Institut Supérieur des Études Sociales, Institut Supérieur de Commerce, Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales (all state-run), Université Protestante de Lubumbashi (Korean Presbyterian), Institut Supérieur Maria Malkia (Catholic), Institut Supérieur de Développement Mgr Mulolwa (Catholique), Theologicum St François de Sales (Salesian seminary), Institut Supérieur de Théologie Évangélique de Lubumbashi (Pentecostal/Anglican/Brethren), etc. Université Méthodiste au Katanga, the oldest private university-level institution in the province, is located at Mulungwishi (between Likasi and Kolwezi) but organizes its Masters in Leadership courses in Lubumbashi. The University of Kamina, the University of Kolwezi and the University of Likasi are former branches of the University of Lubumbashi, which continues to have branches in some locations such as Kalemie.[ citation needed ]

TESOL, the English Language School of Lubumbashi, is a secondary school that serves the expatriate community. It was founded in 1987 on the grounds of the French School, Lycée Français Blaise Pascal, which suspended operations in 1991 with a new French School starting in 2009. [20]

In Lubumbashi, French, Belgian, and Greek schools are sponsored by the respective embassies.[ citation needed ]

The Jason Sendwe Hospital is the largest hospital in the province, located in Lubumbashi. The Afia (Don Bosco) and Vie & Santé hospitals are among the best-equipped and staffed. The University of Lubumbashi maintains a small teaching hospital in the center of Lubumbashi.[ citation needed ]

Katanga province has the highest rate of infant mortality in the world, with 184 of 1000 babies born expected to die before the age of five. [21]

Provincial assembly building of Katanga in Lubumbashi Katanga provincial parliament building.jpg
Provincial assembly building of Katanga in Lubumbashi

Transportation

The Congo Railway provides Katanga Province with limited railway service centered on Lubumbashi. Reliability is limited. Lubumbashi International Airport is located northeast of Lubumbashi. In April 2014, a train derailment killed 63 people. [22]

Media

Katanga province is served by television broadcasts. Radio-Télévision nationale Congolaise (RTNC) has a transmitter in Lubumbashi that re-transmits the signal from Kinshasa. In 2005, new television broadcasts by Radio Mwangaza began in Lubumbashi.[ citation needed ]

Notable Katangese

See also

Related Research Articles

Lubumbashi Place in Haut-Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Lubumbashi is a city in the southeastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and is the second-largest in the country, the largest being the capital, Kinshasa. Lubumbashi is the mining capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, acting as a hub for many of the country's biggest mining companies. The copper-mining city serves as the capital of the relatively prosperous Haut-Katanga Province and is near the border with Zambia. Population estimates vary widely but average around 1.5 million.

Kolwezi Place in Lualaba Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Kolwezi or Kolwesi is the capital city of Lualaba Province in the south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, west of Likasi. It is home to an airport and a railway to Lubumbashi. The population is approximately 453,000.

Copperbelt mining region

The Copperbelt is a natural region in Central Africa which sits on the border region between northern Zambia and the southern Democratic Republic of Congo. It is known for copper mining.

Gécamines company

La Générale des Carrières et des Mines (Gécamines) is a Congolese commodity trading and mining company headquartered in Lubumbashi, in the Katanga region of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is a state-controlled corporation founded in 1966 and a successor to the Union Minière du Haut Katanga. Gecamines is engaged in the exploration, research, exploitation and production of mineral deposits including copper and cobalt.

Haut-Katanga Province Province in Democratic Republic of the Congo

Haut-Katanga is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Specified under Article 2 of the country's 2006 Constitution, the new province was finally created in 2015 from Haut-Katanga District and the independently administered cities of Lubumbashi and Likasi, all previously part of the pre-2015 Katanga Province. The capital of the new province is Lubumbashi.

The Forrest Group is a group of companies founded around the mining industry in 1922, currently active mostly in Central and East Africa. It is owned by George Arthur Forrest, a Belgian entrepreneur of New Zealand descent.

Index of Democratic Republic of the Congo-related articles Wikimedia list article

Articles related to the Democratic Republic of the Congo include:

This is a history of Katanga Province and the former independent State of Katanga, as well as the history of the region prior to colonization.

Biraco is the acronym of Bismuth, Radium, and Cobalt. It was the name of a now-defunct subsidiary company of Union Minière du Haut Katanga (UMHK) and Société Générale de Belgique created to refine these elements from the copper and uranium ores coming from the Katanga province in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Katanga Mining Ltd (TSX:KAT) is a mining company operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo with its headquarters in Canada. Katanga Mining operates a major mine complex in the Congo's Katanga Province, producing refined copper and cobalt. It claims to have the "potential of becoming Africa's largest copper producer and the world's largest cobalt producer." Katanga paid US$452 million in cash to Nikanor shareholders. In January 2008 Nikanor was merged into Katanga Mining. Katanga Mining Ltd is 86% owned by Swiss commodity trader Glencore.

Copper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo mainly takes place in the Copper Belt of the southern Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Musonoi Mine Mine near Kolwezi, DRC

The Musonoi mine is a set of open-cut pits near Kolwezi from which copper and other metals have been extracted since the 1940s. The mining complex is located in the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kolwezi is about 320 kilometres (200 mi) northwest from Lubumbashi, the provincial capital.

Ruashi Mine

The Ruashi Mine is an open-pit copper and cobalt mine operated by Metorex that is located about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Lubumbashi in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The project includes a plant to concentrate the ore from the Ruashi and Etoile mines, and a modern solvent extraction electrowinning (SX-EW) processing plant. As of 2008, annual capacity was estimated to be 10,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of Cobalt.

Etoile Mine

The Etoile Mine is an open-pit copper mine on the outskirts of Lubumbashi in Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Chemaf owns the license. Chemaf is 95% owned by Shalina Resources and 5% by the DRC government.

Luishia Mine

Luishia mine was an open pit copper and cobalt mine in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. A concession to the south of the mine has recently been opened to exploitation.

Nikanor plc was a publicly quoted holding company for Global Enterprises Corporate (GEC) with assets in the rich Copperbelt region in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

Haut-Katanga District

Haut-Katanga District is a district located in the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The copper mining centers of Lubumbashi and Likasi are surrounded by the district but are administratively separate.

Odilon Kafitwe wa Pa Bowa was a politician in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Kafitwe held various positions as Director at Gecamines, member of the board of directors at SNCC, CEO of Gecamine Development, Co founder of UFERI one of the biggest political party in the early 90's and Minister of Justice. He initiated the renovation and put in place an Artisan Development Academy in some of the prisons around the country. When he was head of CEPSE Kafitwe made a record that was never reached in the productions of Maize for the Katanga province and initiated a food security program for the Province with the boosting and Development of farms in Katanga. He is one of the rare leader in the DRC who had a chance to be honored by being buried on top of a mountain in a town call Likasi "Montagne du Mangeur de Cuivre" because of advocating to the world to recognize the Copper-eaters. The first African people who worked the red metal well before the arrival of the Belgians in the DRC les " Mangeurs de Cuivre".

References

  1. "Katanga | province, Democratic Republic of the Congo". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  2. George, Mr Francis Stevens (6 February 2014). China and Africa Love Affair. Francis Stevens George. ISBN   9781494998516.
  3. "Biggest Cities In The Democratic Republic Of The Congo". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  4. Amy McKenna, ed. (2011). The History of Central and Eastern Africa. Britannica Guide to Africa. Rosen Education Service. p. 9. ISBN   978-1615303229.
  5. Daniel Crawford (1912). Thinking Black: 22 Years Without a Break in the Long Grass of Central Africa. New York: George H. Doran.
  6. Uranium's scientific history - Part 2
  7. Susan Williams (2016). Spies in the Congo. New York: Public Affairs. pp. 76–77, 289. ISBN   9781610396547.
  8. 1 2 Maud Jullien (12 August 2013). "Fighting for DR Congo's cash cow to secede". BBC Africa. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  9. "Constitution de la République démocratique du Congo: Article 2". Wikisource.
  10. The National Assembly adopts the laws regarding the limits of the provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, National Assembly of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 10 January 2015. ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  11. Election of governors: definite results expected on 18 April, Radio Okapi, 27 March 2016. ‹See Tfd› (in French)
  12. "COPPER". congo-pages.org. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
  13. "Katanga: le budget 2011 s'élève à 396 milliards de Francs congolais". Radio Okapi. 21 September 2010. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012.
  14. The State vs. the People: Governance, mining and the transitional regime in the Democratic Republic of Congo (PDF) (Report). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Netherlands Institute for Southern Africa. 2006. ISBN   90-78028-04-1.
  15. Michael J. Kavanagh (23 March 2013). "Congolese Militia Seizes UN Compound in Katanga's Lubumbashi" . Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  16. "History: dead link". Katanga Mining. Archived from the original on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  17. Katanga Mining (Report).
  18. "An Independent Technical Report on the Material Assets of Katanga Mining Limited..." (PDF). SRK Consulting. 17 March 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 May 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  19. Katanga, or Shaba (province, Democratic Republic of the Congo) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  20. English-speaking School of Lubumbashi (TESOL), page from 2007, Internet Archive, Accessed 3 March 2013.
  21. "DR Congo eyes a greater share of its mineral riches". BBC News Online . 22 April 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  22. "Scores killed in DR Congo train crash". Al-Jazeera. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.

Bibliography