The Manila Mint (Spanish : Real Casa de la Moneda y Timbre de Manila) was a coinage mint that briefly served as a branch of the United States Mint, located in Manila, now the capital city of the Philippines.
Originally constructed from 1857 through 1861 under the auspices of the Spanish government, the "Casa de Moneda" (as it was called then) began issuing gold coinage in the denominations of one, two, and four Pesos in 1861. On March 5, 1862, permission was also granted to coin silver coinage, which began in 1864 for the ten and twenty Centavo denominations, and 1865 for fifty Centavos. The coins all bore the image of the then-reigning Spanish Monarch, Queen Isabel II. In 1868, Isabel was deposed, but the mint continued to issue coinage in all six denominations until 1873, all dated 1868 and indistinguishable from those minted in 1868. In 1880 under the auspices of then-current Spanish King Alphonse XII, coinage production resumed, this time with the King's image, and a slightly lower silver content for the ten, twenty, and fifty Centavo denominations. Only a very small number of gold coins were issued, all being of the four Pesos denomination. In 1885 Alphonse XII died, with control of Spain to go to his (as yet unborn) son, Alphonse XIII. Once again, the Casa de Moneda continued to issue coins until 1898, all dated 1885 and indistinguishable from those minted in 1885.
Shortly after the Spanish–American War and a brief insurgency by the Filipinos, the country became a United States possession. Unlike all other territories taken by the United States, the United States soon began to produce a special coinage for the Philippines. To encourage circulation, the denominations were modeled on those produced by the Spanish, namely a silver Peso similar to that minted in Madrid in 1897, denominations of fifty, twenty (instead of twenty-five), and ten Centavos, and a one Centavo similar in size to some pattern cents minted by the Spanish. Also, noted Philippine sculptor Melecio Figueroa was enlisted to provide the designs for the coinage, creating a seated man design for the base metal denominations and a standing woman design for the silver denominations, which latter is thought to have been modeled on his daughter Bianca. In 1903 the San Francisco Mint began producing silver coins for the Philippines, and the Philadelphia Mint producing proofs and base metal coins, along with providing some additional silver issues for circulation. Coins minted in San Francisco had a small "S" mintmark placed to the left of the date; Philadelphia coins were without a mintmark. In 1904 all Spanish and other foreign coinage was demonetized.
The territorial coinage minted for the Philippines was locked in an exchange rate of two Pesos to one Dollar, and issued in denominations of Half, One, Five, Ten, Twenty, and Fifty Centavos, and One Peso. The Half Centavo proved useless in commerce and was withdrawn from circulation in 1904, and owing to a rise in silver prices the silver denominations (Ten centavos on up) were all reduced in size and alloy in 1907. In 1908, the San Francisco mint was finally authorized to coin base metal cents, and was thus positioned to take over all coinage production for the Philippines after that. After 1912 the Peso ceased to be minted. Such was the state of the coinage for the Philippines when the United States decided to establish a branch mint in the Philippines to take over the role then occupied by the San Francisco mint.
In 1920, the Manila Mint was reopened under United States auspices, and was the first (and to date only) U.S. branch mint located outside the Continental United States. It produced coins until 1922 and then again from 1925 to 1941, when the Japanese Empire invaded the Philippines during World War II. The mint was operated under Japanese auspices during the occupation. No U.S. coins were produced at Manila after 1941 due to the occupation and to Philippine independence in 1946, although Philippine coinage did take place at the other U.S. mints in 1944 through 1946 (all dated 1944 and 1945 only). The mint also produced a special coinage for the inmates at the Culion Leper Colony. The building housing the mint was destroyed during the retaking of the city in 1945.
In the beginning, the Manila mint produced its coins without a mintmark, but in 1925 it began using the "M" mintmark on all of its coins until its closure at the end of 1941 with the Japanese invasion. In 1936, to commemorate the Philippines becoming a Commonwealth and no longer a mere territory, Ambrosia Morales was commissioned to generate new coin designs for the commemorative Fifty Centavos and One Peso. The coins he designed featured Manuel L. Quezon as the Philippines' first Commonwealth President and General Murphy and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. A new design for the reverse based on the seal of the Commonwealth he designed was also introduced on those commemoratives, and featured on all Philippine coins minted from 1937 until 1946. When Philippine coinage production resumed in 1944, the One, Five, and Fifty Centavo pieces were again struck in San Francisco (complete with "S" mintmark), Five Centavo pieces were also struck in Philadelphia (no mintmark), and the Ten and Twenty Centavo pieces were struck in Denver, introducing the "D" mintmark to Philippine coinage. All of these coins featured the new Commonwealth reverse design. On July 4, 1946, the era of the Commonwealth ended as independence was granted to the Philippines as a sovereign nation.
The Manila Mint struck coins in the following denominations:
Base Metal Denominations (identical to alloys used for United States One Cent and Five Cents)
Silver Denominations (seventy-five percent silver for Ten through Fifty Centavos and eighty percent for the One Peso)
Leper Colony Coinage (struck in aluminum 1920 and brass all later years)
In addition, a medal (commonly called the 'Wilson Dollar,' owing to having a design featuring then-current U.S. President Woodrow Wilson and being similar in size to a silver dollar) was issued in gold, silver, and copper in 1920 to commemorate the opening of the Manila Mint.
Coins of the United States dollar were first minted in 1792. New coins have been produced annually and they make up a valuable aspect of the United States currency system. Today, circulating coins exist in denominations of 1¢, 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, 50¢, and $1.00. Also minted are bullion and commemorative coins. All of these are produced by the United States Mint. The coins are then sold to Federal Reserve Banks which in turn are responsible for putting coins into circulation and withdrawing them as demanded by the country's economy.
The Mexican peso is the currency of Mexico. Modern peso and dollar currencies have a common origin in the 16th–19th century Spanish dollar, most continuing to use its sign, "$".
The Philippine peso, also referred to by its Filipino name piso, is the official currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 sentimo, also called centavos.
The Spanish dollar, also known as the piece of eight, is a silver coin of approximately 38 mm (1.5 in) diameter worth eight Spanish reales. It was minted in the Spanish Empire following a monetary reform in 1497 with content 25.563 g = 0.822 oz t fine silver. It was widely used as the first international currency because of its uniformity in standard and milling characteristics. Some countries countermarked the Spanish dollar so it could be used as their local currency.
The United States Mint is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury responsible for producing coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion. It does not produce paper money; that responsibility belongs to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The first United States Mint was created in Philadelphia in 1792, and soon joined by other centers, whose coins were identified by their own mint marks. There are currently four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco, and West Point.
The Colombian peso is the currency of Colombia. Its ISO 4217 code is COP. The official peso symbol is $, with Col$. also being used to distinguish it from other peso- and dollar-denominated currencies.
The Cuban peso also known as moneda nacional, is the official currency of Cuba.
Philippine peso coins are issued by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas for circulation in the Philippines and are currently available in seven denominations. The Philippine peso has been in use since Spanish rule.
Peso dominicano has been the name of the currency of the Dominican Republic since 2011. Its symbol is "$", with "RD$" used when distinction from other pesos is required; its ISO 4217 code is "DOP". Each peso is divided into 100 centavos ("cents"), for which the ¢ symbol is used. With exception of the United States dollar, it is the only currency that is legal tender in the Dominican Republic for all monetary transactions, whether public or private.
The venezolano was the currency of Venezuela between 1872 and 1879. It was divided into 100 centavos, although the names céntimo and centésimo were also used. Venezolano was also the name of two currencies planned in 1854 and 1865.
This article provides an outline of the currency of Spanish America from Spanish colonization in the 15th century until Spanish American independencies in the 19th. This great realm was divided into the Viceroyalty of New Spain, which came to include all Spanish territory north of Panama, the West Indies, Venezuela, and the Philippines, and the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included Panama and all Spanish territory in South America except Venezuela. The monetary system of Spanish America, originally identical to that of Spain, soon diverged and took on a distinctive character of its own, which it passed on to the independent nations that followed after.
The Philippine one-centavo coin (1¢) is the smallest-denomination coin of the Philippine peso. It has been issued since 1903 during American rule. It became the smallest unit of currency following the removal of the half-centavo in 1908.
The Philippine five-centavo coin (5¢) coin is the second-lowest denomination coin of the Philippine peso after the one centavo.
The Philippine ten-centavo coin (10¢) coin is a denomination of the Philippine peso. It was the oldest denomination under 1 peso in the country's circulation, having been introduced in 1880 during the Spanish rule of the islands until it was stopped being minted in 2017. The denomination is still legal tender until the demonetization of the BSP Coin Series.
The Philippine twenty-five-centavo coin (25¢) coin is the third-lowest denomination coin of the Philippine peso.
The history of Philippine money covers currency in use before the Hispanic era with gold Piloncitos and other commodities in circulation, as well as the adoption of the peso during the Hispanic era and afterwards.
The Philippine fifty-centavo coin (50¢) was a denomination of Philippine currency. It was minted for the Philippines from 1864 to 1994 and was demonetized in 1998.
The Philippine twenty-centavo (20¢) coin was a denomination of the Philippine peso. The one-fifth (1/5) peso was introduced by both the Spaniards and the Americans during the colonial era of the Philippines. It was replaced by a banknote of the same denomination introduced alongside the establishment of the Central Bank of the Philippines in 1949 and it was replaced by the twenty-five centavo coin.
The Philippine half-centavo coin (½¢), a denomination of Philippine currency, was issued when the Philippines was under US administration. It bears the names of both countries: Filipinas and the United States of America.
The Flora and Fauna Series was a series of Philippine peso coins minted from 1983 to 1994, in denominations from 1 sentimo to ₱2. The series used the Optima typeface. The sizes of the coins were reduced, and ₱5 coins were reintroduced, in 1991. Production of 50-sentimo and ₱2 coins ceased in 1995.