Large denominations of United States currency

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Large denominations of United States currency greater than $100 were circulated by the United States Treasury until 1969. Since then, U.S. dollar banknotes have only been issued in seven denominations: $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100.

Contents

Overview and history

Large-denomination currency (i.e., banknotes with a face value of $500 or higher) [1] had been used in the United States since the late 18th century. [2] The first $500 note was issued by North Carolina, authorized by legislation dated May 10, 1780. [3] Virginia quickly followed suit and authorized the printing of $500 and $1,000 notes on October 16, 1780 [4] and $2,000 notes on May 7, 1781. [5] High-denomination treasury notes were issued, for example during the War of 1812 ($1,000 notes authorized by an act dated June 30, 1812). [6] During the American Civil War Confederate currency included $500 and $1,000 notes. [7] The earliest (1861) federal banknotes included high-denomination notes included three-year interest-bearing notes of $500, $1,000, and $5,000, authorized by Congress on July 17, 1861. [8] In total, 11 different types of U.S. currency were issued in high-denomination notes across nearly 20 different series dates. The obverse designs of United States banknotes generally depict either historical figures, allegorical figures symbolizing significant concepts (e.g., liberty, justice), or a combination of both. The reverse designs range from abstract scroll-work with ornate denomination identifiers to reproductions of historical art works.

Public versus institutional use

Series 1934 gold certificates ($100, $1,000, $10,000 and $100,000) were issued after the gold standard was repealed and gold was compulsorily confiscated by order of President Franklin Roosevelt on March 9, 1933 (see United States Executive Order 6102). Thus the series 1934 notes were used only for intragovernmental (i.e., Federal Reserve Bank) transactions and were not issued to the public. [9] This series was discontinued in 1940. The series 1928 gold certificate reverse was printed in black and green. See History of the United States dollar.

Passive retirement

Although they are still legal tender in the United States, high-denomination bills were last printed on December 27, 1945, and were officially discontinued on July 14, 1969, by the Federal Reserve System [10] due to 'lack of use'. [11] The $5,000 and $10,000 bills had effectively disappeared well before then. [nb 1]

The Federal Reserve began taking high-denomination currency out of circulation and destroying large bills received by banks in 1969. [11] As of January 14,2020, only 336 $10,000 bills were known to exist, along with 342 remaining $5,000 bills and 165,372 remaining $1,000 bills. [12] Due to their rarity, collectors pay considerably more than the face value of the bills to acquire them, and some are in museums in other parts of the world.

For the most part, these bills were used by banks and the federal government for large financial transactions, which was especially true for gold certificates from 1865 to 1934. However, as of 2020, the introduction of electronic money systems has made large-scale cash transactions mostly obsolete, and along with concerns about counterfeiting and the use of cash for unlawful activities (such as drug trafficking and money laundering), it is unlikely that the U.S. government will reissue any large-denomination currency in the near future.

With inflation since 1969, a $100 bill in 1969 is worth $700.84 in real terms, and has been worth more than a $500 bill since 2003.

According to the U.S. Department of Treasury website, "The present denominations of our currency in production are $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50 and $100. The purpose of the United States currency system is to serve the needs of the public and these denominations meet that goal. Neither the Department of the Treasury nor the Federal Reserve System has any plans to change the denominations in use today." [13]

High-denomination banknote issuing data

Key to high denomination banknote type abbreviations [nb 2]
AbbrTypeSize [nb 3] Series datesHigh denomination series dateComments
$500$1,000$5,000$10,000$100,000
LT Legal tender Large1862–19231862
1863
1869
1874
1875
1878
1880
1862
1863
1869
1878
1880
18781878 [nb 4]
CITN Compound interest treasury note Exception1863–18641863
1864
1864
IBN Interest bearing note Exception1861–18651861
1863
1864
1865
1861
1863
1864
1865
1861
1863
1864
1865
[nb 5]
SC Silver certificate Large1878–19231878
1880
1878
1880
1891
TN Treasury note Large1890–18911891 [nb 6] 1890
1891
NBN National bank note Large1865–18751865
1875
1865
1875
FRN Federal reserve note Large1914–19181918191819181918
NGBN National gold bank note Large1870–18831870 [nb 7] [nb 8] [nb 9]
GC Gold certificate Large [nb 10] 1865–19221865
1870
1875
1882
1922
1865
1870
1875
1882
1907
1922
1865
1870
1882
1888
1865
1870
1875
1882
1888
1900
FRNFederal reserve noteSmall1928–present1928
1934
1928
1934
1928
1934
1928
1934
GCGold certificateSmall1928–1934 [nb 11] 19281928
1934
19281928
1934
1934

Table of banknotes

The National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian Institution contains (among other things) the Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) certified proofs and the Treasury Department collection of United States currency. Using a combination of proofs and issued notes, a nearly complete type set of high-denomination currency was compiled. Notably missing are several types of Compound and Interest Bearing Notes. Printed during the early to mid-1860s on very thin paper, these high-denomination notes are virtually non-existent. Their issuance (1861–65) predates the BEP's responsibility for U.S. currency (1870s), so it is fortunate that any proofs exist in the current archives.

High denomination United States banknotes [nb 12]
ValueTypeSeriesFriedberg numberImagePortrait/engraving [nb 13] Comments [nb 14]
$500LT1862–63Fr.183c US-$500-LT-1863-Fr-183c.jpg Albert Gallatin 4 known (variety)
7 known (type) [20]
$500LT1869Fr.184 US-$500-LT-1869-Fr-184.jpg John Quincy Adams
(Charles Burt) [21]
Justice
(Stephen A. Schoff) [22]
4 known (only one privately) [23]
$500LT1874–78Fr.185b US-$500-LT-1875-Fr-185b.jpg Joseph Mansfield
(Charles Burt) [21]
Victory
(Charles Burt) [24]
$500LT1880Fr.185l US-$500-LT-1880-Fr-185l.jpg Joseph Mansfield
(Charles Burt) [21]
Victory
(Charles Burt) [24]
5 known (variety) [nb 15]
$500CITN1864Fr.194a
Proof
US-$500-CITN-1864-Fr-194a (Proof).jpg Standard Bearer (left)
(George D. Baldwin) [26]
New Ironsides (right)
(James Smillie) [27]
Unknown [28]
$500SC1878Fr.345a US-$500-SC-1878-Fr-345a.jpg Charles Sumner
(Charles Burt) [21]
Unique (variety and type) [29]
$500SC1880Fr.345c US-$500-SC-1880-Fr-345c.jpg Charles Sumner
(Charles Burt) [21]
5 known (variety)
7 known (type) [29]
$500TN1891Fr.379
Proof
US-$500-TN-1891-PROOF.jpg William Tecumseh Sherman None issued [30]
$500NBN1865–75Fr.464 US-NBN-MA-Lowell-986-Orig-500-206-A.jpg Civilization (left)
(James D. Smillie) [31]
Sirius arriving in New York (right)
Surrender of General Burgoyne (rev)
(Frederick Girsch) [32]
2 known (variety)
3 known (type) [33]
$500FRN1918Fr.1132d US-$500-FRN-1918-Fr-1132d.jpg John Marshall
(Charles Schlecht) [34]
de Soto discovering the Mississippi (rev)
(Frederick Girsch) [32]
$500GC1863Fr.1166d
Proof
US-$500-GC-1863-Fr-1166d (PROOF).jpg Eagle with shield or E Pluribus Unum
(Charles Skinner) [35]
Unknown [36]
$500GC1870–75Fr.1166i US-$500-GC-1870-Fr-1166i.jpg Abraham Lincoln
(Charles Burt) [21]
Unique [36]
$500GC1882–1922Fr.1216a US-$500-GC-1882-Fr-1216a.jpg Abraham Lincoln
(Charles Burt) [21]
$500FRN1928–34Fr.2200g US-$500-FRN-1928-Fr-2200g.jpg William McKinley
(John Eissler) [37]
$500GC1928Fr.2407 US-$500-GC-1928-Fr-2407.jpg William McKinley
(John Eissler) [37]
$1,000LT1862–63Fr.186e US-$1000-LT-1863-Fr-186e.jpg Robert Morris
(Charles Schlecht) [34]
Unique (variety)
5 known (type) [38]
$1,000LT1869Fr.186f
Proof
DeWitt Clinton 2 known [39]
$1,000LT1878Fr.187a US-$1000-LT-1878-Fr-187a.jpg DeWitt Clinton
Columbus in his study
(Henry Gugler) [40]
$1,000LT1880Fr.187k US-$1000-LT-1880-Fr-187k.jpg DeWitt Clinton
Columbus in his study
(Henry Gugler) [40]
4 known (variety)
~20–25 known (type) [nb 16]
$1,000IBN1863Fr.201
Proof
US-$1000-IBN-1863-Fr-201 (Proof).jpg Justice (left); Liberty (right)Unknown [41]
$1,000IBN1863Fr.206
Proof
US-$1000-IBN-1863-Fr-206 (Proof).jpg Guerriere and the Constitution (left) and Discovery of the Mississippi by De Soto (right)Unknown [42]
$1,000SC1878Fr.346a
Proof
US-$1000-SC-1878-FR-346a-PROOF.jpg William Marcy
(Charles Schlecht) [34]
Unknown [43]
$1,000SC1880Fr.346d US-$1000-SC-1880-Fr-346d.jpg William Marcy
(Charles Schlecht) [34]
5 known (variety)
5 known (type) [43]
$1,000SC1891Fr.346e US-$1000-SC-1891-Fr-346e.jpg William Marcy
(Charles Schlecht) [34]
Liberty
(Charles Burt) [44]
2 known [43]
$1,000TN1890Fr.379a US-$1000-TN-1890-Fr-379a.jpg George Meade
(Charles Burt) [21]
5 known (variety)
7 known (type) [45]
$1,000TN1891Fr.379c US-$1000-TN-1891-Fr-379c.jpg George Meade
(Charles Burt) [21]
2 known (variety)
3 known (type) [45]
$1,000NBN1865–75Fr.465
Proof
US-$1000-NBN-1875-Fr-465 (Proof).jpg Scott entering City of Mexico (left)
(Alfred Jones) [46]
United States Capitol (right)
(James Smillie) [27]
Washington resigning his commission (rev)
(Frederick Girsch) [32]
Unknown [47]
$1,000FRN1918Fr.1133d US-$1000-FRN-1918-Fr-1133d.jpg Alexander Hamilton
(G.F.C. Smillie) [48]
Eagle (rev)
(Marcus W. Baldwin) [49]
$1,000GC1863Fr.1166e
Proof
US-$1000-GC-1863-Fr-1166e (PROOF).jpg Eagle with shield or E Pluribus Unum
(Charles Skinner) [35]
Justice with scales
Unique [36]
$1,000GC1870–75Fr.1166o
Proof
US-$1000-GC-1875-Fr-1166o PROOF.jpg Alexander Hamilton
(Charles Burt) [50]
Unique [36]
$1,000GC1882Fr.1218g US-$1000-GC-1882-Fr.1218g.jpg Alexander Hamilton
(G.F.C. Smillie) [48]
$1,000GC1907–22Fr.1219 US-$1000-GC-1907-Fr-1219.jpg Alexander Hamilton
$1,000FRN1928–34Fr.2210g US-$1000-FRN-1928-Fr-2210g.jpg Grover Cleveland
(John Eissler) [37]
$1,000GC1928Fr.2408 US-$1000-GC-1928-Fr-2408.jpg Grover Cleveland
(John Eissler) [37]
$1,000GC1934Fr.2409 US-$1000-GC-1934-Fr-2409.jpg Grover Cleveland
(John Eissler) [37]
$5,000LT1878Fr.188
Proof
US-$5000-LT-1878-Fr.188-PROOF.jpg James Madison
(Alfred Sealey) [51]
Eagle
(William Chorlton) [52]
All notes have been redeemed, none outstanding [16]
$5,000IBN1863Fr.202
Proof
US-$5000-IBN-1863-Fr-202 (Proof).jpg The Altar of Liberty
(Louis Delnoce) [53]
Unknown [41]
$5,000IBN1865Fr.212h
Proof
US-$5000-IBN-1865-Fr-212h (Proof).jpg Justice (left)
New Ironsides (center)
(James Smillie) [27]
$5,000FRN1918Fr.1134d US-$5000-FRN-1918-Fr-1134d.jpg James Madison
(Alfred Sealey) [54]
Washington resigning his commission (rev)
(Louis Delnoce) [53]
Unique (variety)
5 known (type) [nb 17]
$5,000GC1863Fr.1166f
Proof
US-$5000-GC-1863-Fr-1166f (PROOF).jpg Eagle with shield or E Pluribus Unum
(Charles Skinner) [35]
Female
Unique [36]
$5,000GC1870–75Fr.1166k
Proof
US-$5000-GC-1870-Fr-1166k PROOF.jpg James Madison
(Alfred Sealey) [50]
Unknown [36]
$5,000GC1882Fr.1221a
Proof
US-$5000-GC-1882-Fr-1221a.jpg James Madison
(Alfred Sealey) [56]
Two known [36]
$5,000FRN1928–34Fr.2220g US-$5000-FRN-1928-Fr-2220g.jpg James Madison
(Alfred Sealey) [56]
$5,000GC1928Fr.2410 US-$5000-GC-1928-Fr-2410.jpg James Madison
$10,000LT1878Fr.189
Proof
US-$10000-LT-1878-Fr.189-PROOF.jpg Andrew Jackson
(Alfred Sealey) [57]
All notes have been redeemed, none outstanding [16]
$10,000FRN1918Fr.1135d US-$10000-FRN-1918-Fr-1135d.jpg Salmon Chase; Embarkation of the Pilgrims (rev)Unique (variety)
5 known (type) [nb 18]
$10,000GC1863Fr.1166g
Proof
US-$10000-GC-1863-Fr-1166g (PROOF).jpg Eagle with shield or E Pluribus Unum
(Charles Skinner) [35]
Unknown [36]
$10,000GC1870–75Fr.1166l
Proof
US-$10000-GC-1875-Fr-1166q PROOF.jpg Andrew Jackson Unique [36]
$10,000GC1882Fr.1223a
Proof
US-$10000-GC-1882-Fr-1223a.jpg Andrew Jackson
(Alfred Sealey) [56]
Two known [36]
$10,000GC1900Fr.1225 US-$10000-GC-1900-Fr.1225.jpg Andrew Jackson
(Alfred Sealey) [56]
$10,000FRN1928–34Fr.2230b US-$10000-FRN-1928-Fr-2230b.jpg Salmon P. Chase
$10,000GC1928Fr.2411 US-$10000-GC-1928-Fr-2411.jpg Salmon P. Chase
$10,000GC1934Fr.2412 US-$10000-GC-1934-Fr.2412.jpg Salmon P. Chase
$100,000GC1934Fr.2413 US-$100000-GC-1934-Fr-2413.jpg Woodrow Wilson
(G.F.C. Smillie) [48]
Reverse
(Frederick Pauling) [58]
Was never in circulation, therefore cannot legally be held

See also

Related Research Articles

Federal Reserve Note Current paper currency of the United States

Federal Reserve Notes, also United States banknotes, are the banknotes currently used in the United States of America. Denominated in United States dollars, Federal Reserve Notes are printed by the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing on paper made by Crane & Co. of Dalton, Massachusetts. Federal Reserve Notes are the only type of U.S. banknote currently produced. Federal Reserve Notes are authorized by Section 16 of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and are issued to the Federal Reserve Banks at the discretion of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The notes are then put into circulation by the Federal Reserve Banks, at which point they become liabilities of the Federal Reserve Banks and obligations of the United States.

United States Note

A United States Note, also known as a Legal Tender Note, is a type of paper money that was issued from 1862 to 1971 in the U.S. Having been current for 109 years, they were issued for longer than any other form of U.S. paper money. They were known popularly as "greenbacks", a name inherited from the earlier greenbacks, the Demand Notes, that they replaced in 1862. Often termed Legal Tender Notes, they were named United States Notes by the First Legal Tender Act, which authorized them as a form of fiat currency. During the 1860s the so-called second obligation on the reverse of the notes stated:

This Note is a Legal Tender for All Debts Public and Private Except Duties On Imports And Interest On The Public Debt; And Is Redeemable In Payment Of All Loans Made To The United States.

United States one-hundred-dollar bill Current denomination of United States currency

The United States one-hundred-dollar bill ($100) is a denomination of United States currency. The first United States Note with this value was issued in 1862 and the Federal Reserve Note version was launched in 1914, alongside other denominations. Statesman, inventor, diplomat, and American founding father Benjamin Franklin has been featured on the obverse of the bill since 1914. On the reverse of the banknote is an image of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, which has been used since 1928. The $100 bill is the largest denomination that has been printed and circulated since July 13, 1969, when the denominations of $500, $1,000, $5,000, and $10,000 were retired. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing says the average life of a $100 bill in circulation is 90 months before it is replaced due to wear and tear.

Silver certificate (United States) Type of United States paper currency used between 1878 and 1964

Silver certificates are a type of representative money issued between 1878 and 1964 in the United States as part of its circulation of paper currency. They were produced in response to silver agitation by citizens who were angered by the Fourth Coinage Act, which had effectively placed the United States on a gold standard. The certificates were initially redeemable for their face value of silver dollar coins and later in raw silver bullion. Since 1968 they have been redeemable only in Federal Reserve Notes and are thus obsolete, but still valid legal tender at their face value and thus are still an accepted form of currency.

Gold certificate

A gold certificate in general is a certificate of ownership that gold owners hold instead of storing the actual gold. It has both a historic meaning as a U.S. paper currency (1863–1933) and a current meaning as a way to invest in gold.

National Bank Note

National Bank Notes were United States currency banknotes issued by National banks chartered by the United States Government. The notes were usually backed by United States bonds the bank deposited with the United States Treasury. In addition, banks were required to maintain a redemption fund amounting to five percent of any outstanding note balance, in gold or "lawful money".

Federal Reserve Bank Notes are banknotes that are legal tender in the United States issued between 1915 and 1934, together with United States Notes, Silver Certificates, Gold Certificates, National Bank Notes and Federal Reserve Notes. They were specified in the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and had the same value as other kinds of notes of similar value. Federal Reserve Bank Notes are different from Federal Reserve Notes in that they are backed by one of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks, rather than by all collectively. Federal Reserve Bank Notes were envisioned as a replacement for National Bank Notes, but that did not prove to be the case. They were backed in a similar way to National Bank Notes, using U.S. bonds, but issued by Federal Reserve banks instead of by chartered National banks. Federal Reserve Bank Notes are no longer issued; the only U.S. banknotes still in production since 1971 are the Federal Reserve Notes.

National Gold Bank Note

National Gold Bank Notes were National Bank Notes issued by nine national gold banks in California in the 1870s and 1880s and redeemable in gold. Printed on a yellow-tinted paper, six denominations circulated: $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, and $500. A $1,000 note was designed and printed but never issued. During the issuing period of national gold banks (1871–83), the U.S. Treasury issued 200,558 notes totaling $3,465,240. Today, National Gold Bank Notes are rare in the higher denominations with condition generally falling in the good-to-fine range. Approximately 630 National Gold Bank Notes are known to exist, and roughly 20 grade above "very fine".

Confederate States dollar

The Confederate States dollar was first issued just before the outbreak of the American Civil War by the newly formed Confederacy. It was not backed by hard assets, but simply by a promise to pay the bearer after the war, on the prospect of Southern victory and independence. As the Civil War progressed and victory of the South seemed less and less likely, its value declined. After the Confederacy's defeat, its money had no value, and both individuals and banks lost large sums.

Fractional currency Series of United States dollar banknotes

Fractional currency, also referred to as shinplasters, was introduced by the United States federal government following the outbreak of the Civil War. These low-denomination banknotes of the United States dollar were in use between 21 August 1862 and 15 February 1876, and issued in 3, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 50 cent denominations across five issuing periods. The complete type set below is part of the National Numismatic Collection, housed at the National Museum of American History, part of the Smithsonian Institution.

Greenback (1860s money)

Greenbacks were paper currency issued by the United States during the American Civil War. They were in two forms: Demand Notes, issued in 1861–1862, and United States Notes issued in 1862–1865. They were legal tender by law, but were not backed by gold or silver, only the credibility of the U.S. government.

Bills of credit

Bills of credit are documents similar to banknotes issued by a government that represent a government's indebtedness to the holder. They are typically designed to circulate as currency or currency substitutes. Bills of credit are mentioned in Article One, Section 10, Clause One of the United States Constitution, where their issuance by state governments is prohibited.

Interest bearing note Grouping of Civil War era paper money-related emissions of the US Treasury

Interest bearing notes refers to a grouping of Civil War era paper money-related emissions of the US Treasury. The grouping includes the one- and two-year notes authorized by the Act of March 3, 1863, which bore interest at five percent per annum, were a legal tender at face value, and were issued in denominations of $10, $20, $50, $100, $500 and $1000. The grouping also frequently includes the early civil war treasury notes which matured in either sixty days or two years and bore interest at six percent and the seven-thirties which matured in three years and bore interest at 7.3 percent—though both of these latter issues lacked legal tender status. Reference texts used by currency collectors will also sometimes include compound interest treasury notes and Refunding Certificates in this grouping as well.

Treasury Note (19th century)

A Treasury Note is a type of short term debt instrument issued by the United States prior to the creation of the Federal Reserve System in 1913. Without the alternatives offered by a federal paper money or a central bank, the U.S. government relied on these instruments for funding during periods of financial stress such as the War of 1812, the Panic of 1837, and the American Civil War. While the Treasury Notes, as issued, were neither legal tender nor representative money, some issues were used as money in lieu of an official federal paper money. However the motivation behind their issuance was always funding federal expenditures rather than the provision of a circulating medium. These notes typically were hand-signed, of large denomination, of large dimension, bore interest, were payable to the order of the owner, and matured in no more than three years – though some issues lacked one or more of these properties. Often they were receivable at face value by the government in payment of taxes and for purchases of publicly owned land, and thus "might to some extent be regarded as paper money." On many issues the interest rate was chosen to make interest calculations particularly easy, paying either 1, 1​12, or 2 cents per day on a $100 note.

Treasury Note (1890–91)

The Treasury Note was a type of representative money issued by the United States government from 1890 until 1893 under authority of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in denominations of $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, $100 and $1000. It was issued in two series: an 1890 series with $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $100 and $1000 denominations, and an 1891 series that added the $50 denomination. A $500 note was designed but never issued. A distinguishing feature of the Series 1890 notes is the extremely ornate designs on the reverse side of the notes. The intent of this was to make counterfeiting much more difficult, but opponents of the design argued that the extensive detail would make it more difficult to distinguish between genuine and counterfeit notes. Consequently, the reverse designs were simplified on the Series 1891 Treasury Notes issued the following year.

Multiple types of banknotes of the United States dollar have been issued, including Federal Reserve Notes, Silver Certificates, Gold certificates and United States Notes.

In early 18th century Colonial America, engravers began experimenting with copper plates as an alternative medium to wood. Applied to the production of paper currency, copper-plate engraving allowed for greater detail and production during printing. It was the transition to steel engraving that enabled banknote design and printing to rapidly advance in the United States during the 19th century.

Silver certificate (Cuba) Cuban banknote

Cuban silver certificates were banknotes issued by the Cuban government between 1934 and 1949. Prior and subsequent issues of Cuban banknotes were engraved and printed by nongovernmental private bank note companies in the United States, but the series from 1934 to 1949 were designed, engraved, and printed by the US government at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP).

A silver certificate is a certificate of ownership that silver owners hold instead of storing the actual silver. Several countries have issued silver certificates, including Cuba, the Netherlands, and the United States. Silver certificates have also been privately issued by various mints and bullion companies. One example was the Liberty Dollar issued by NORFED from 1998 to 2009.

United States two-dollar bill Current denomination of United States currency

The United States two-dollar bill ($2) is a current denomination of United States currency. A portrait of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States (1801–09), is featured on the obverse of the note. The reverse features an engraving of the painting Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull.

References

Explanatory footnotes

  1. One hundred $10,000 bills were on display for many years by Benny Binion at Binion's Horseshoe casino in Las Vegas, Nevada, where they were encased in acrylic. The display has since been dismantled and the bills sold to private collectors.
  2. The following types of United States banknotes were not issued in high denominations and are not included in the list below: Demand notes, Federal Reserve bank notes (large or small size), legal tender (small size), silver certificates (small size), National Bank Notes (small size) [14] The table sections are sorted by their appearance in the Friedberg reference book.
  3. Large size notes represent the earlier types or series of U.S. banknotes. Their "average" dimension is 7 38 × 3 18 inches (187 × 79 mm). Small size notes (described as such due to their size relative to the earlier large size notes) are an "average" 6 18 × 2 58 (156 × 67 mm), the size of modern U.S. currency. "Each measurement is ± 0.08 inches (2 mm) to account for margins and cutting". [15] Exceptions to the large versus small categories are the CITN, IBN, and RC, all slightly larger than the large size note dimensions.
  4. All Series 1878 $5,000 and $10,000 notes have been redeemed. [16]
  5. Issued HD IBNs are virtually unknown. There may be one $500 and 2–3 $1,000 known from all issue dates. [17]
  6. A $500 Series 1891 Treasury Note was authorized and a certified proof was prepared, but the note was never issued. [18]
  7. Three banks issued $500 NBGN. None are reported, only four notes have not been redeemed.
  8. The Kidder National Gold Bank of Boston received two-note $500–$1,000 sheets from the Treasury. The bank returned the shipment intact.
  9. No issued notes or proofs exist of either $500 or $1,000 NGBN
  10. Despite the authorizing act date of 3 March 1863, Gold certificates were not issued until 1865. [19]
  11. Series 1934 Gold certificates were never intended for public circulation.
  12. The table is sorted by denomination and then by Friedberg number.
  13. When the information is available, the engraver's name has been added in parentheses. Column sorting is based on the individual depicted in the portrait.
  14. Variety is the Friedberg number, or specific combination of signatures and seal type; type represents all the varieties that exist for a given denomination and design, it is the total number of note known for the entire design type.
  15. Of the 5 known notes, 4 are in institutional collections. [25]
  16. Of the 4 known notes, 2 are in institutional collections. [25]
  17. None exist outside of institutional collections. [55]
  18. None exist outside of institutional collections. [55]

Citations

  1. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, pp. 232–35.
  2. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 22.
  3. Newman, 2008, p. 326.
  4. Newman, 2008, p. 454.
  5. Newman, 2008, p. 455.
  6. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 32.
  7. Fricke, 2014, p. 122 & 124.
  8. United States Congress. Act of July, 17 1861 Chapter V. Washington D.C.: 1861
  9. "CHAPTER 3000: CUSTODY OF GOLD CERTIFICATES, SERIES OF 1934". US Treasury. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  10. "Large denominations". Bureau of Engraving and Printing/Treasury Website. Archived from the original on June 25, 2014. Retrieved June 20, 2014.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. 1 2 Joanne C. Dauer; Edward A. Dauer (2002). American History as Seen Through Currency: A Pictorial History of United States Currency as Seen Throughout Important Historical Events. Heritage Capital Corporation. p. 51. ISBN   9780972846608.
  12. Palmer, Brian (July 24, 2009). "Somebody Call Officer Crumb!: How much cash can a corrupt politician cram into a cereal box?". Slate . Retrieved July 24, 2012. As to "cereal boxes" as a repository for ill-gotten bribes compare "Little Tin Box" in the musical Fiorello! .
  13. our Treasury – FAQs: Denominations of Currency.
  14. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, generally.
  15. Friedberg, p. 7.
  16. 1 2 Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 58.
  17. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 72.
  18. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 91.
  19. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 164.
  20. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 54.
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hessler, 1993, pp. 71–73.
  22. Hessler, 2004, p. 36.
  23. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 55.
  24. 1 2 Hessler, 2004, p. 38.
  25. "Heritage Auctions (#3521) 2013 January 9–14 FUN Signature Auction". HA.com. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
  26. Hessler, 1993, p. 38.
  27. 1 2 3 Hessler, 1993, p. 286.
  28. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 61.
  29. 1 2 Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 89.
  30. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 97.
  31. Hessler, 1993, p. 290.
  32. 1 2 3 Hessler, 1993, p. 137.
  33. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 109.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 Hessler, 1993, p. 265.
  35. 1 2 3 4 Hessler, 2004, p. 216.
  36. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 165.
  37. 1 2 3 4 5 Hessler, 1993, p. 114.
  38. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 56.
  39. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 57.
  40. 1 2 Hessler, 1993, p. 145.
  41. 1 2 Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 64.
  42. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 66.
  43. 1 2 3 Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, pp. 89–90.
  44. Hessler, 2004, p. 95.
  45. 1 2 Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 98.
  46. Hessler, 1993, p. 180.
  47. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 110.
  48. 1 2 3 Hessler, 1993, p. 280.
  49. Hessler, 1993, p. 40.
  50. 1 2 Hessler, 2004, p. 219.
  51. Hessler, 2004, p. 39
  52. Hessler, 1993, p. 83.
  53. 1 2 Hessler, 1993, p. 99.
  54. Hessler, 2004, p. 200.
  55. Friedberg & Friedberg, 2013, p. 159.
  56. 1 2 3 4 Hessler, 2004, p. 223.
  57. Hessler, 2004, p. 39.
  58. Hessler, 1993, p. 237.

General bibliography