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The Ministry of "All the Talents" was a national unity government formed by Lord Grenville on his appointment as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on 11 February 1806, following the death of William Pitt the Younger.
A national unity government, government of national unity, or national union government is a broad coalition government consisting of all parties in the legislature, usually formed during a time of war or other national emergency.
William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville, was a British Pittite Tory and politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1806 to 1807, though he was a supporter of the British Whig Party for the duration of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister directs both the executive and the legislature, and together with their Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party and ultimately to the electorate. The office of Prime Minister is one of the Great Offices of State. The current holder of the office, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016.
With the country remaining at war, Grenville aimed to form the strongest possible government and so included most leading politicians from almost all groupings, although some followers of the younger Pitt, led by George Canning, refused to join.
The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806. During the war, France and its client states under Napoleon I defeated an alliance, the Third Coalition, made up of the Holy Roman Empire, Russia, Britain and others.
George Canning was a British Tory statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from April to August 1827. He occupied various senior cabinet positions under numerous prime ministers, before eventually serving himself as Prime Minister for the final four months of his life.
The inclusion of Charles James Fox raised eyebrows as King George III had previously been very hostile to Fox, but the King's willingness to put aside past enmities for the sake of national unity encouraged many others to join or support the government as well. The ministry boasted a fairly progressive agenda, much of it inherited from Pitt.
Charles James Fox, styled The Honourable from 1762, was a prominent British Whig statesman whose parliamentary career spanned 38 years of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and who was the arch-rival of William Pitt the Younger. His father Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, a leading Whig of his day, had similarly been the great rival of Pitt's famous father William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. He rose to prominence in the House of Commons as a forceful and eloquent speaker with a notorious and colourful private life, though his opinions were rather conservative and conventional. However, with the coming of the American War of Independence and the influence of the Whig Edmund Burke, Fox's opinions evolved into some of the most radical ever to be aired in the Parliament of his era.
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover.
The Ministry of All the Talents had comparatively little success, failing to bring the sought-after peace with France. In fact, the war continued for nearly another decade. It did, however, abolish the slave trade in Britain in 1807 before breaking up over the question of Catholic emancipation.
The Slave Trade Act 1807, officially An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom prohibiting the slave trade in the British Empire. Although it did not abolish the practice of slavery, it did encourage British action to press other nation states to abolish their own slave trades.
Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, and later the combined United Kingdom in the late 18th century and early 19th century, that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws. Requirements to abjure (renounce) the temporal and spiritual authority of the pope and transubstantiation placed major burdens on Roman Catholics.
It was succeeded by the Second Portland ministry, headed by William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland.
This is a list of members of the Tory government of the United Kingdom in office under the leadership of the Duke of Portland from 1807 to 1809.
William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, was a British Whig and Tory politician during the late Georgian era. He served as Chancellor of the University of Oxford (1792–1809) and twice as British prime minister, of Great Britain (1783) and then of the United Kingdom (1807–09). The twenty-four years between his two terms as Prime Minister is the longest gap between terms of office of any British prime minister.
The term has since been used in politics to describe an administration with members from more than one party or even a non-coalition government that enjoys cross-party support due to gifted and/or non-partisan members. Examples include the coalition government which led Great Britain through the Second World War and the Canadian government that won the 1896 election.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
Members of the Cabinet are in bold face.
| First Lord of the Treasury |
Leader of the House of Lords
|The Lord Grenville||11 February 1806 –|
31 March 1807
|Chancellor of the Exchequer||Lord Henry Petty||11 February 1806|
|Joint Secretaries to the Treasury||Nicholas Vansittart||February 1806 –|
|John King||February –|
|William Henry Fremantle||July 1806 –|
|Junior Lords of the Treasury||Viscount Althorp||11 February 1806|
|William Wickham||11 February 1806|
|John Courtenay||11 February 1806|
|Lord Chancellor||The Lord Erskine||February 1806|
|Lord President of the Council||The Earl Fitzwilliam||19 February 1806|
|The Viscount Sidmouth||8 October 1806|
|Lord Privy Seal||The Viscount Sidmouth||February 1806|
|The Lord Holland||8 October 1806|
|Secretary of State for the Home Department||The Earl Spencer||5 February 1806|
|Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department||Charles Williams-Wynn||February 1806|
| Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs |
Leader of the House of Commons
|Charles James Fox||7 February 1806 –|
13 September 1806
|Viscount Howick||24 September 1806|
|Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs||George Walpole||February 1806 –|
|Sir Francis Vincent||February 1806 –|
|Secretary of State for War and the Colonies||William Windham||February 1806|
|Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies||Sir George Shee||February 1806 –|
|Sir James Cockburn||February 1806 –|
|First Lord of the Admiralty||Charles Grey||10 February 1806|
|Thomas Grenville||29 September 1806|
|First Secretary to the Admiralty||William Marsden||Continued in office|
|Civil Lords of the Admiralty||Sir Philip Stephens||10 February –|
23 October 1806
|Lord William Russell||10 February 1806 –|
31 March 1807
|The Lord Kensington||10 February 1806 –|
31 March 1807
|William Frankland||23 October 1806 –|
31 March 1807
|President of the Board of Trade||The Lord Auckland||5 February 1806|
|Vice-President of the Board of Trade||Earl Temple||5 February 1806|
|President of the Board of Control||The Lord Minto||12 February 1806|
|Thomas Grenville||16 July 1806|
|George Tierney||1 October 1806|
|Secretary to the Board of Control||Thomas Creevey||14 February 1806|
|Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster||The Earl of Derby||12 February 1806|
|Master-General of the Ordnance||The Earl of Moira||February 1806|
|Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance||Sir Thomas Trigge||Continued in office|
|Treasurer of the Ordnance||Alexander Davison||20 February 1806|
|Surveyor-General of the Ordnance||James Murray Hadden||Continued in office|
|Clerk of the Ordnance||John Calcraft||22 February 1806|
|Clerk of the Deliveries of the Ordnance||James Lloyd||12 March 1806|
|Storekeeper of the Ordnance||John McMahon||22 February 1806|
|Treasurer of the Navy||Richard Brinsley Sheridan||February 1806|
|Secretary at War||Richard FitzPatrick||February 1806|
|Master of the Mint||Lord Charles Spencer||February 1806|
|Charles Bathurst||October 1806|
|Paymaster of the Forces||Earl Temple||February 1806 –|
|Lord John Townshend||February 1806 –|
|Postmaster General||The Earl of Carysfort||February 1806 –|
|The Earl of Buckinghamshire||February 1806 –|
|Minister without Portfolio||The Earl Fitzwilliam||October 1806 –|
|Lord Lieutenant of Ireland||The Duke of Bedford||12 March 1806|
|The Duke of Richmond||11 April 1807|
|Chief Secretary for Ireland||William Elliot||February 1806|
|Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench||The Lord Ellenborough||Continued in office|
|Attorney General||Sir Arthur Piggott||12 February 1806|
|Solicitor General||Sir Samuel Romilly||12 February 1806|
|Judge Advocate General||Nathaniel Bond||8 March 1806|
|Lord Advocate||Henry Erskine||February 1806|
|Solicitor General for Scotland||John Clerk||February 1806|
|Attorney General for Ireland||William Plunket||Continued in office|
|Solicitor General for Ireland||Charles Kendal Bushe||Continued in office|
|Lord Steward of the Household||The Earl of Aylesford||Continued in office|
|Treasurer of the Household||Lord Ossulston||12 February 1806|
|Comptroller of the Household||Lord George Thynne||Continued in office|
|Lord Chamberlain of the Household||The Earl of Dartmouth||Continued in office|
|Vice-Chamberlain of the Household||Lord John Thynne||Continued in office|
|Master of the Horse||The Earl of Carnarvon||8 February 1806|
|Master of the Buckhounds||The Earl of Albemarle||12 February 1806|
|Captain of the Gentlemen Pensioners||The Lord St John of Bletso||12 February 1806|
|Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard||The Earl of Macclesfield||Continued in office|
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with their rivals, the Tories. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute monarchy. The Whigs played a central role in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and were the standing enemies of the Stuart kings and pretenders, who were Roman Catholic. The Whigs took full control of the government in 1715 and remained totally dominant until King George III, coming to the throne in 1760, allowed Tories back in. The Whig Supremacy (1715–1760) was enabled by the Hanoverian succession of George I in 1714 and the failed Jacobite rising of 1715 by Tory rebels. The Whigs thoroughly purged the Tories from all major positions in government, the army, the Church of England, the legal profession and local offices. The Party's hold on power was so strong and durable, historians call the period from roughly 1714 to 1783 the age of the Whig Oligarchy. The first great leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government through the period 1721–1742 and whose protégé Henry Pelham led from 1743 to 1754.
William Pitt the Younger was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. He became the youngest UK Prime Minister in 1783 at the age of 24. He left office in 1801, but served as Prime Minister again from 1804 until his death in 1806. He was Chancellor of the Exchequer for most of his time as Prime Minister. He is known as "the Younger" to distinguish him from his father, William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, called William Pitt the Elder or simply "Chatham", who had previously served as Prime Minister.
George Grenville was a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. Grenville was born into an influential political family and first entered Parliament in 1741 as an MP for Buckingham. He emerged as one of Cobham's Cubs, a group of young members of Parliament associated with Lord Cobham.
The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France and Europe. It is generally classified as including the fourth and final stage of the French Revolution, the first being the National Assembly, the second being the Legislative Assembly, and the third being the Directory. The Napoleonic era begins roughly with Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état, overthrowing the Directory, establishing the French Consulate, and ends during the Hundred Days and his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. The Congress of Vienna soon set out to restore Europe to pre-French Revolution days. Napoleon brought political stability to a land torn by revolution and war. He made peace with the Roman Catholic Church and reversed the most radical religious policies of the Convention. In 1804 Napoleon promulgated the Civil Code, a revised body of civil law, which also helped stabilize French society. The Civil Code affirmed the political and legal equality of all adult men and established a merit-based society in which individuals advanced in education and employment because of talent rather than birth or social standing. The Civil Code confirmed many of the moderate revolutionary policies of the National Assembly but retracted measures passed by the more radical Convention. The code restored patriarchal authority in the family, for example, by making women and children subservient to male heads of households.
Edward Thurlow, 1st Baron Thurlow, PC, KC was a British lawyer and Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1765 to 1778 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Thurlow. He served as Lord Chancellor of Great Britain for fourteen years and under four Prime Ministers.
William Brabazon Ponsonby, 1st Baron Ponsonby , PC (Ire) was a leading Irish Whig politician, being a member of the Irish House of Commons, and, after 1800, of the United Kingdom parliament. Ponsonby was the son of the Hon. John Ponsonby, the Speaker of the Irish House of Commons and Lady Elizabeth Cavendish, daughter of the 3rd Duke of Devonshire. He was invested as a Privy Counsellor of Ireland in 1784. He served as Joint Postmaster-General of Ireland (1784–1789).
William Pitt the Younger led the government of the Kingdom of Great Britain from 1783 to 1801. In 1800 the Acts of Union between Great Britain and Ireland were accepted by their respective parliaments, creating the new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which would be governed by the former Parliament of Great Britain. Pitt governed this new state for the first month of its existence, until differences with King George III over Catholic emancipation caused him to resign.
The Fox–North coalition was a government in Great Britain that held office during 1783. As the name suggests, the ministry was a coalition of the groups supporting Charles James Fox and Lord North. The official head was William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, who took office on 2 April 1783.
The 1806 United Kingdom general election was the election of members to the 3rd Parliament of the United Kingdom. This was the second general election to be held after the Union of Great Britain and Ireland.
The 1807 United Kingdom general election was the third general election to be held after the Union of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Bedford Whigs were an 18th-century British political faction, led by John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford. Other than Bedford himself, notable members included John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich; Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Gower; Richard Rigby, who served as principal Commons manager for the group; Thomas Thynne, 3rd Viscount Weymouth; Edward Thurlow; and George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough
The Grenville Whigs were a name given to several British political factions of the 18th and early-19th centuries, all associated with the important Grenville family of Buckinghamshire.
Buckinghamshire is a former United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency. It was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885.
Events from the year 1806 in the United Kingdom.
Foxite was a late 18th-century British political label for Whig followers of Charles James Fox.
The Cobhamite faction were an 18th-century British political faction built around Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham and his supporters. Among its members, the group included the future Prime Ministers William Pitt and George Grenville. They had a general Whig philosophy and were at first supporters of Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole but later became opponents of his administration.
Second Pitt ministry
| Government of the United Kingdom |
Second Portland ministry