First Russell ministry

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Russell (1853) John Russell, 1st Earl Russell by Sir Francis Grant.jpg
Russell (1853)

Whig Lord John Russell led the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1846 to 1852.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Historical sovereign state from 1801 to 1927

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

Contents

History

Following the split in the Tory Party over the Corn Laws in 1846 and the consequent end of Sir Robert Peel's second government, the Whigs came to power under Lord John Russell. Sir Charles Wood became Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir George Grey Home Secretary and Lord Palmerston Foreign Secretary for the third time.

Conservative Party (UK) Political party in the United Kingdom

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 314 Members of Parliament, and also has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 9,008 local councillors.

The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain ("corn") enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846. The word "corn" in the English spoken in Nineteenth Century Britain denotes all cereal grains, such as wheat and barley. They were designed to keep grain prices high to favour domestic producers, and represented British mercantilism. The Corn Laws imposed steep import duties, making it too expensive to import grain from abroad, even when food supplies were short.

Robert Peel British Conservative statesman

Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, was a British statesman and Conservative Party politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and twice as Home Secretary. He is regarded as the father of modern British policing, owing to his founding of the Metropolitian Police Service. Peel was one of the founders of the modern Conservative Party.

One of the major problems facing the government was the Great Irish Famine (1845–1849), which Russell failed to deal with effectively. Another problem was the maverick Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston, who was eventually forced to resign in December 1851 after recognising the coup d'état of Louis Napoleon without first seeking royal approval. He was succeeded by Lord Granville, the first of his three tenures as Foreign Secretary. Palmerston thereafter successfully devoted his energies to bringing down Russell's government, leading to the formation of a minority Conservative government under Lord Derby in February 1852.

Coup détat Sudden deposition of a government; illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus

A coup d'état, also known as a putsch, a golpe, or simply as a coup, means the overthrow of an existing government; typically, this refers to an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a dictator, the military, or a political faction.

Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville British Liberal statesman

Granville George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville,, styled Lord Leveson until 1846, was a British Liberal statesman from the Leveson-Gower family.

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby British Prime Minister

Edward George Geoffrey Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, was a British statesman, three-time Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and, to date, the longest-serving leader of the Conservative Party. He was known before 1834 as Edward Stanley, and from 1834 to 1851 as Lord Stanley. He is one of only four British prime ministers to have three or more separate periods in office. However, his ministries each lasted less than two years and totalled three years and 280 days.

Cabinet

July 1846 – February 1852

OfficeNameTerm
First Lord of the Treasury
Leader of the House of Commons
Lord John Russell July 1846 – February 1852
Lord Chancellor The Lord Cottenham July 1846 – July 1850
  The Lord Truro July 1850 – February 1852
Lord President of the Council
Leader of the House of Lords
The Marquess of Lansdowne July 1846 – February 1852
Lord Privy Seal The Earl of Minto July 1846 – February 1852
Home Secretary Sir George Grey, Bt July 1846 – February 1852
Foreign Secretary The Viscount Palmerston July 1846 – December 1851
  The Earl Granville December 1851 – February 1852
Secretary of State for War and the Colonies The Earl Grey July 1846 – February 1852
Chancellor of the Exchequer Sir Charles Wood July 1846 – February 1852
First Lord of the Admiralty The Earl of Auckland July 1846 – January 1849
  Sir Francis Baring January 1849 – February 1852
President of the Board of Control Sir John Cam Hobhouse, Bt July 1846 – February 1852
  Fox Maule February 1852
President of the Board of Trade The Earl of Clarendon July 1846 – July 1847
  Henry Labouchere July 1847 – February 1852
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster The Lord Campbell July 1846 – March 1850
  The Earl of Carlisle March 1850 – February 1852
First Commissioner of Woods and Forests Lord Morpeth July 1846 – July 1850
  Lord Seymour July 1850 – February 1852
Chief Secretary for Ireland Henry Labouchere July 1846 – July 1847
 successor not in cabinet
Postmaster General The Marquess of Clanricarde July 1846 – February 1852
Paymaster-General Thomas Babington Macaulay July 1846 – July 1847
 successor not in cabinet
  The Earl Granville 1851‡–December 1851
 successor not in cabinet
Secretary at War Fox Maule 1851‡–February 1852
 successor not in cabinet

† became the Earl of Carlisle in 1848 ‡ denotes becoming a member of the cabinet, not gaining the office

Notes

  • Lord Carlisle served as both Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and First Commissioner of Woods and Forests between March and July 1850.

Changes

  • July 1847: Henry Labouchere succeeds Lord Clarendon as President of the Board of Trade. Labouchere's successor as Chief Secretary for Ireland is not in the cabinet. Thomas Babington Macaulay leaves the cabinet. His successor as Paymaster-General is not in the Cabinet.
  • January 1849: Sir Francis Baring succeeds Lord Auckland as First Lord of the Admiralty
  • March 1850: Lord Carlisle succeeds Lord Campbell as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. He remains First Commissioner of Woods and Forests
  • July 1850: Lord Truro succeeds Lord Cottenham as Lord Chancellor. Lord Seymour succeeds Lord Carlisle as First Commissioner of Woods and Forests. Lord Carlisle remains Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.
  • 1851: Fox Maule, the Secretary at War, and Lord Granville, the Paymaster-General, enter the Cabinet
  • December 1851: Lord Granville succeeds Lord Palmerston as Foreign Secretary. Granville's successor as Paymaster-General is not in the Cabinet
  • February 1852: Fox Maule succeeds Sir John Cam Hobhouse as President of the Board of Control. Maule's successor as Secretary at War is not in the Cabinet.

List of Ministers

Cabinet members are listed in bold face.

OfficeNameDateNotes
Prime Minister,
First Lord of the Treasury
and Leader of the House of Commons
Lord John Russell 30 June 1846 – 21 February 1852The Government resigned 22 February 1851 and resumed 3 March 1851
Chancellor of the Exchequer Sir Charles Wood, Bt 6 July 1846 
Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury Henry Tufnell 7 July 1846 
William Goodenough Hayter July 1850 
Financial Secretary to the Treasury John Parker 7 July 1846 
William Goodenough Hayter 22 May 1849
George Cornewall Lewis 9 July 1850
Junior Lords of the Treasury Viscount Ebrington 6 July 1846 – 22 December 1847the number of Junior Lordships was reduced from four to three in 1848
Denis O'Conor 6 July 1846 – 2 August 1847
William Gibson-Craig 6 July 1846 – 21 February 1852
Henry Rich 6 July 1846 – 21 February 1852
Richard Bellew 2 August 1847 – 21 February 1852
Earl of Shelburne 22 December 1847 – August 1848
Lord Chancellor The Lord Cottenham 6 July 1846 
in commission19 June 1850
The Lord Truro 15 July 1850
Lord President of the Council
and Leader of the House of Lords
The Marquess of Lansdowne 6 July 1846 
Lord Privy Seal The Earl of Minto 6 July 1846 
Secretary of State for the Home Department Sir George Grey, Bt 6 July 1846 
Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department Sir William Somerville, Bt 5 July 1846 
Sir Denis Le Marchant, Bt 22 July 1847
George Cornewall Lewis 15 May 1848
Edward Pleydell-Bouverie 9 July 1850
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs The Viscount Palmerston 6 July 1846 
The Earl Granville 26 December 1851
Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Edward Stanley 6 July 1846 
Austen Henry Layard 12 February 1852
Secretary of State for War and the Colonies The Earl Grey 6 July 1846 
Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies Benjamin Hawes 6 July 1846 
Frederick Peel 1 November 1851
President of the Board of Control Sir John Hobhouse, Bt 8 July 1846 
Fox Maule 5 February 1852
Joint Secretaries to the Board of Control George Byng 6 July 1846 – 30 November 1847 
Thomas Wyse 6 July 1846 – 26 January 1849
George Cornewall Lewis 30 November 1847 – 16 May 1848
James Wilson 16 May 1848 – 21 February 1852
John Elliot 26 January 1849 – 21 February 1852
First Lord of the Admiralty The Earl of Auckland 7 July 1846 
Sir Francis Baring, Bt 15 January 1849
First Secretary of the Admiralty Henry George Ward 13 July 1846 
John Parker 21 May 1849
Civil Lord of the Admiralty William Cowper 7 July 1846 
Chief Secretary for Ireland Henry Labouchere 6 July 1846 
Sir William Somerville, Bt 22 July 1847
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland The Earl of Bessborough 8 July 1846 
The Earl of Clarendon 22 May 1847
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster The Lord Campbell 6 July 1846 
The Earl of Carlisle 6 March 1850
Paymaster-General Thomas Babington Macaulay 7 July 1846 
The Earl Granville 8 May 1848entered the Cabinet October 1851
The Lord Stanley of Alderley 12 February 1852 
Postmaster-General The Marquess of Clanricarde 7 July 1846 
President of the Board of Trade The Earl of Clarendon 6 July 1846 
Henry Labouchere 22 July 1847
Vice-President of the Board of Trade Thomas Milner Gibson 8 July 1846 
The Earl Granville 8 May 1848
The Lord Stanley of Alderley 11 February 1852
First Commissioner of Woods and Forests Viscount Morpeth 7 July 1846succeeded as 7th Earl of Carlisle 7 October 1848
Lord Seymour 17 April 1849office abolished 1 August 1851
First Commissioner of Works Lord Seymour 1 August 1851entered the Cabinet October 1851
Master-General of the Ordnance The Marquess of Anglesey 8 July 1846 
Surveyor-General of the Ordnance Charles Richard Fox 8 July 1846 
Clerk of the Ordnance George Anson 8 July 1846 
Storekeeper of the Ordnance Sir Thomas Hastings 25 July 1845continued in office
President of the Poor Law Board Charles Buller 23 July 1847 
Matthew Talbot Baines 1 January 1849
Parliamentary Secretary to the Poor Law Board Viscount Ebrington 23 July 1847 
Ralph William Grey 28 January 1851
Secretary at War Fox Maule 6 July 1846 
Robert Vernon Smith 6 February 1852
Attorney General Sir Thomas Wilde 7 July 1846 
Sir John Jervis 17 July 1846
Sir John Romilly 11 July 1850
Sir Alexander Cockburn, Bt 28 March 1851
Solicitor General John Jervis 7 July 1846 
Sir David Dundas 18 July 1846
Sir John Romilly 4 April 1848
Sir Alexander Cockburn, Bt 11 July 1850
Sir William Page Wood 28 March 1851
Judge Advocate General Charles Buller 8 July 1846 
William Goodenough Hayter 22 December 1847
Sir David Dundas 26 May 1849
Lord Advocate Andrew Rutherfurd 6 July 1846 
James Moncreiff 7 April 1851
Solicitor General for Scotland Thomas Maitland 6 July 1846 
James Moncreiff 7 February 1850
John Cowan 18 April 1851
George Deas 28 June 1851
Attorney General for Ireland Richard Moore 16 July 1846 
James Henry Monahan 21 December 1847
John Hatchell 23 September 1850
Solicitor General for Ireland James Henry Monahan 16 July 1846 
John Hatchell 24 December 1847
Henry George Hughes 26 September 1850
Lord Steward of the Household The Earl Fortescue 8 July 1846 
The Marquess of Westminster 22 March 1850
Lord Chamberlain of the Household The Earl Spencer 8 July 1846 
The Marquess of Breadalbane 5 September 1848
Vice-Chamberlain of the Household Lord Edward Howard 8 July 1846 
Master of the Horse The Duke of Norfolk 11 July 1846 
Treasurer of the Household Lord Robert Grosvenor 3 August 1846 
Lord Marcus Hill 23 July 1847
Comptroller of the Household Lord Marcus Hill 6 July 1846 
William Lascelles 23 July 1847
Earl of Mulgrave 23 July 1851
Captain of the Gentlemen-at-Arms The Lord Foley 24 July 1846 
Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard The Viscount Falkland 24 July 1846 
The Marquess of Donegal 11 February 1848
Master of the Buckhounds The Earl Granville 9 July 1846 
The Earl of Bessborough 16 May 1848
Chief Equerry and Clerk Marshal Lord Alfred Paget 7 July 1846 
Mistress of the Robes The Duchess of Sutherland 4 July 1846 
Lords in Waiting The Earl of Morley 24 July 1846 – 21 February 1852 
The Earl of Ducie 24 July 1846 – 1 December 1847
The Lord Waterpark 24 July 1846 – 21 February 1852
The Lord Camoys 4 August 1846 – 21 February 1852
The Earl of Morton 10 September 1841 – 26 June 1849
The Marquess of Ormonde 10 September 1841 – 21 February 1852
The Lord Elphinstone 1 December 1847 – 21 February 1852
Lord Dufferin and Clandeboye 26 June 1849 – 21 February 1852

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References

Preceded by
Second Peel ministry
Government of the United Kingdom
1846–1852
Succeeded by
Who? Who? ministry