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Temporal range: Early Cretaceous-Recent
Chicoreus palmarosae.jpg
The shell of a neogastropod, the muricid species Chicoreus palmarosae
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Caenogastropoda
Order: Neogastropoda
Wenz, 1938

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Neogastropoda is a order of sea snails, both freshwater and marine gastropod molluscs. [1] [2]



Two neogastropods in the picture. Brunneifusus ternatanus (left) Murex trapa (right) in captivity. Two neogastropods Brunneifusus ternatanus (left) Murex trapa (right).jpeg
Two neogastropods in the picture. Brunneifusus ternatanus (left) Murex trapa (right) in captivity.

The available fossil record of Neogastropoda is relatively complete, and supports a widely accepted evolutionary scenario of an Early Cretaceous origin of the group followed by two rapid diversification rounds in the late Cretaceous and the Paleocene. [3]

These sea snails only have one auricle, one kidney and one monopectinate gill, i.e. the gill filaments develop on only one side of the central axis. [4]

The shell has a well-developed siphonal canal. The elongated trunk-like siphon is an extensible tube, formed from a fold in the mantle. It is used to suck water into the mantle cavity. At the base of the siphon is the bipectinate (branching from a central axis) osphradium, a sensory receptacle and olfactory organ, that is more developed than the one in the Mesogastropoda. They achieved important morphological changes including e.g., the elongation of the siphonal canal, a shift in the mouth opening to a terminal position on the head, and the formation of a well-developed proboscis. [3]

The nervous system is very concentrated. Many species have the ganglia in a compact space.

The rachiglossate (rasp-like) radula, a layer of serially arranged teeth within the mouth, has only three denticles (small teeth) in each transverse row. [4]

The Neogastropoda have separate sexes.

There are about 16,000 species. Neogastropoda includes many well-known gastropods including the cone snails, conchs, mud snails, olive snails, oyster drills, tulip shells, and whelks. The Neogastropoda all live in the sea, except Clea , and Rivomarginella that are freshwater genera. The neogastropods are most diverse in tropical seas. [3] They are mostly predators, but some are saprophagous (scavengers).


According to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) the clade Neogastropoda consists of these superfamilies:

When Neogastropoda was an order, it was placed within the prosobranch gastropods according to the taxonomy developed by Thiele (1921). The families which used to form the order Neogastropoda are now included in the clade Neogastropoda Cox, 1960.

Ever since Thiele (1929), [6] Neogastropoda have been considered a natural group, clearly differentiated from other Caenogastropoda. [3] The monophyly of the group is widely accepted among morphologists, and it is based on several synapomorphies mostly related with the anatomy of the digestive system. [3] Current classifications of Neogastropoda generally recognize up to six superfamilies: Buccinoidea, Muricoidea, Olivoidea, Pseudolivoidea, Conoidea, and Cancellarioidea. Phylogenetic relationships among neogastropod superfamilies based on morphological characters are rather unstable, and for instance, Cancellarioidea [7] or Buccinoidea [8] have been alternatively proposed as the sister group of the remaining Neogastropoda. [3]


According to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) the taxonomy of clade Neogastropoda is as follows:

Related Research Articles

Orthogastropoda was a major taxonomic grouping of snails and slugs, an extremely large subclass within the huge class Gastropoda according to the older taxonomy of the Gastropoda.

Volutoidea is a taxonomic superfamily of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the clade Neogastropoda.

Littorinimorpha Order of gastropods

Littorinimorpha is a large order of snails, gastropods, consisting primarily of sea snails, but also including some freshwater snails and land snails.

Stylommatophora Order of gastropods

Stylommatophora is an order of air-breathing land snails and slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs. This taxon includes most land snails and slugs.

Conoidea Superfamily of predatory sea snails

Conoidea is a superfamily of predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks within the suborder Hypsogastropoda. This superfamily is a very large group of marine mollusks, estimated at about 340 recent valid genera and subgenera, and considered by one authority to contain 4,000 named living species.

Buccinoidea Superfamily of molluscs

Buccinoidea is a taxonomic superfamily of very small to large predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks.

Basommatophora Informal group of gastropods

Basommatophora was a term that was previously used as a taxonomic informal group, a group of snails within the informal group Pulmonata, the air-breathing slugs and snails. According to the taxonomy of the Gastropoda, whenever monophyly has not been tested, or where a traditional taxon of gastropods has now been discovered to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic, the term "group" or "informal group" was used.

Nassariidae Family of gastropods

The Nassariidae, Nassa mud snails (USA), or dog whelks (UK), are a taxonomic family of small to medium-sized sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the clade Neogastropoda.

Trochoidea (superfamily) Superfamily of sea snails

Trochoidea is a superfamily of small to very large vetigastropod sea snails with gills and an operculum. Species within this superfamily have nacre as the inner shell layer. The families within this superfamily include the Trochidae, the top snails. This superfamily is the largest vetigastropodan superfamily, containing more than 2,000 species.

Cancellariidae Family of sea snails

Cancellariidae, common name the nutmeg snails or nutmeg shells, are a family of small to medium-large sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the clade Neogastropoda. Some of the shells of the species in this family resemble a nutmeg seed.

Neotaenioglossa Group of molluscs

The Neotaenioglossa is a taxonomic name for a large group of mostly sea snails. The name was originally created by Haller in 1882. Ponder and Warén (1988), and Marquet (1997), assigned this name to the superorder Caenogastropoda. ITIS considers the order Neotaenioglossa to be a synonym of Cerithioidea Férussac, 1819 .

Olivellinae Subfamily of gastropods

Olivellinae, are a subfamily of small predatory sea snails with smooth, shiny, elongated oval-shaped shells, in the family Olividae. The shells sometimes show muted but attractive colors, and may have some patterning.

The taxonomy of the Gastropoda, as revised by Winston Ponder and David R. Lindberg in 1997, is an older taxonomy of the class Gastropoda, the class of molluscs consisting of all snails and slugs. The full name of the work in which this taxonomy was published is Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters.

Apogastropoda Group of molluscs

Apogastropoda was previously used as a major taxonomic grouping of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs. This infraclass mostly consisted of marine limpets and operculate snails. At least 20,000 species were considered to exist within the two clades that were included, Heterobranchia and Caenogastropoda.

Vetigastropoda Clade of sea snails

Vetigastropoda is a major taxonomic group of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks that form a very ancient lineage. Taxonomically the Vetigastropoda are sometimes treated as an order, although they are treated as an unranked clade in Bouchet and Rocroi, 2005.

Olivoidea Superfamily of gastropods

Olivoidea is a taxonomic superfamily of minute to medium-large predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the order Neogastropoda.

This overview lists proposed changes in the taxonomy of gastropods at the family level and above since 2005, when the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) was published. In other words, these are recent updates in the way various groups of snails and slugs are classified.

Bellolividae Family of gastropods

The Bellolividae is a taxonomic family of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the superfamily Olivoidea.

Benthobiidae Family of gastropods

The Benthobiidae is a taxonomic family of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the superfamily Olivoidea.

Turbinelloidea Superfamily of gastropods

Turbinelloidea is a superfamily of sea snails in the order Neogastropoda. It comprises the following families:


This article incorporates CC BY 2.0 text from the reference. [3]

  1. "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Neogastropoda". Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  2. "ITIS Standard Report Page: Neogastropoda". Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cunha R. L., Grande C. & Zardoya R. (23 August 2009). "Neogastropod phylogenetic relationships based on entire mitochondrial genomes". BMC Evolutionary Biology 2009, 9: 210. 10.1186/1471-2148-9-210
  4. 1 2 Barnes, Robert D. (1982). Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. p. 376. ISBN   978-0-03-056747-6.
  5. Bouchet P., Rocroi J.P., Hausdorf B., Kaim A., Kano Y., Nützel A., Parkhaev P., Schrödl M. & Strong E.E. (2017). Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia. 61(1-2): 1-526
  6. Thiele J. (1929). Handbuch der Systematischen Weichtierkunde Volume 1 (1) (Loricata; Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Jena, 376 pp. In: (23 October 1929). Reprint, Asher & Co., Amsterdam, 1963; translation by J.S. Bhatti Edited by: R. Bieler & P. Mikkelsen, Smithsonian Libraries, 1993.
  7. Kantor YI. (1996). Phylogeny and Relationships of Neogastropoda. In: Taylor J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 221-230.
  8. Ponder W. F., Colgan D. J., Healy J. M., Nützel A., Simone L. R. L. & Strong E. (2008). Caenogastropoda. In: Ponder W. F., Lindberg D. R. Phylogeny and evolution of the Mollusca. Berkeley, University of California Press, 331-383.