Pyralinae

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Pyralinae
Pyralis.farinalis.jpg
Meal moth (Pyralis farinalis) imago (Pyralini)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Pyralidae
Subfamily: Pyralinae
Latreille, 1809
Type species
Phalaena (Pyralis) farinalis
Tribes

Endotrichini
Hypotiini
Pyralini
and see text

The Pyralinae are the typical subfamily of snout moths (family Pyralidae) and occur essentially worldwide, in some cases aided by involuntary introduction by humans. They are rather rare in the Americas however, and their diversity in the Australian region is also limited. Altogether, this subfamily includes about 900 described species, but new ones continue to be discovered. Like many of their relatives in the superfamily Pyraloidea, the caterpillar larvae of many Pyralinae and in some cases even the adults have evolved the ability to use unusual foods for nutrition; a few of these can become harmful to humans as pests of stored goods. [1]

Contents

Description and ecology

Adult Endotricha flammealis of the Endotrichini in typical resting pose Endotricha flammealis 20050724 081 part.jpg
Adult Endotricha flammealis of the Endotrichini in typical resting pose

This subfamily unites generally mid-sized to smallish moths with a more or less cryptic coloration including most often various hues of brownish colors. Adult females of Pyralinae (except Cardamyla and Embryoglossa ) are characterized by the short genital ductus bursae, their corpus bursae barely extending forward beyond abdominal segment 7. Otherwise they are rather nondescript mid-sized moths (large by Pyralidae standards) which at least sometimes can be distinguished from their relatives by possessing forewing vein 7 and having hindwing veins 7 and 8 unjoined as adults. [2]

The meal moth (Pyralis farinalis) and the grease moth (Aglossa pinguinalis) are pests of stored food products, in the case of the grease moth including fats (which are also eaten by the adult moths), and have been inadvertently spread almost worldwide by transport of such goods. Most other species' caterpillars are leaf feeders; the extremely polyphagous larvae of Pyralis manihotalis have been reared from bat guano. [1]

Systematics

The systematics and taxonomy of this subfamily is somewhat provisional. No quantitative phylogenetic analysis had been done as of 2007, though in the mid-late 1990s Michael Shaffer of the London Natural History Museum and Maria Alma Solis of the NMNH prepared the groundwork for further studies by their comprehensive qualitative reviews of Pyralinae morphology. Some cladistic studies of the Pyraloidea do exist however, and these place the Pyralinae among the advanced snout moths, a lineage which otherwise includes the even more autapomorphic subfamilies Epipaschiinae and Phycitinae. [1]

Even though the Pyralinae contain a high number of genera and species, there are a mere three tribes generally accepted nowadays; others that were proposed earlier (in some cases even as independent subfamilies within Pyralidae) are presently treated as junior synonyms of the Pyralini. A large number of genera are considered not to be reliably assignable to one of the three tribes; it is not at all certain that the presently-used subdivisions of the Pyralinae are the last word on the issue. [1]

The tribes with some significant genera and species also noted and the genera of unclear affiliation in this subfamily are: [3]

Genera incertae sedis

The genus Micronix , formerly placed here, seems to belong to the Crambidae, but its exact placement is obscure. For a similar case, see Tanaobela .

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 3 4 Solis (2007)
  2. Clarke (1986), Solis (2007)
  3. See references in Savela (2011)

Related Research Articles

Pyraustinae Subfamily of moths

Pyraustinae is a large subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae, the crambid snout moths. It currently includes over 1,400 species; most of them tropical but some found in temperate regions including both North America and Europe.

Spilomelinae Subfamily of moths

Spilomelinae is a very species-rich subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae, the crambid snout moths. With 4,132 described species in 340 genera worldwide, it is the most speciose group among pyraloids.

Pyralini Tribe of moths

The Pyralini are a tribe of snout moths described by Pierre André Latreille in 1809. They belong to the subfamily Pyralinae, which contains the "typical" snout moths of the Old World and some other regions. The genus list presented here is provisional.

Crambinae Subfamily of moths

Crambinae is a large subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae, the crambid snout moths. It currently includes over 1,800 species worldwide. The larvae are root feeders or stem borers, mostly on grasses. A few species are pests of sod grasses, maize, sugar cane, rice, and other Poaceae. The monophyly of this group is supported by the structure of the tympanal organs and the phallus attached medially to the juxta.

<i>Omiodes</i> Genus of moths

Omiodes is a moth genus in the family Crambidae. Several species are endemic to Hawaii.

<i>Udea</i> Genus of moths

Udea is a genus of snout moths in the subfamily Spilomelinae of the family Crambidae. The genus was erected by Achille Guenée in 1845. The currently known 214 species are present on all continents except Antarctica. About 41 species are native to Hawaii.

<i>Pycnarmon</i> Genus of moths

Pycnarmon is a genus of moths of the family Crambidae described by Julius Lederer in 1863.

<i>Hypsopygia</i> Genus of moths

Hypsopygia is a genus of moths belonging to the family Pyralidae. Though fairly small, they are large among their relatives. It was described by Jacob Hübner in 1825.

<i>Hypotia</i> Genus of moths

Hypotia is a genus of moths of the family Pyralidae described by Philipp Christoph Zeller in 1847.

Chrysauginae Subfamily of moths

The Chrysauginae are a subfamily of snout moths. They are primarily Neotropical and include about 400 described species.

Epipaschiinae Subfamily of moths

The Epipaschiinae are a subfamily of snout moths. Almost 600 species are known today, which are found mainly in the tropics and subtropics. Some occur in temperate regions, but the subfamily is apparently completely absent from Europe, at least as native species. A few Epipaschiinae are crop pests that may occasionally become economically significant.

Phycitini Tribe of moths

The Phycitini are a tribe of moths of the family Pyralidae.

<i>Endotricha</i> Genus of moths

Endotricha is a genus of snout moths. It was described by Philipp Christoph Zeller in 1847.

Odontiinae Subfamily of moths

Odontiinae is a subfamily of moths of the family Crambidae. The subfamily was described by Achille Guenée in 1854.

Cybalomiinae Subfamily of moths

Cybalomiinae is a subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae. It was described by Hubert Marion in 1955.

Glaphyriinae Subfamily of moths

Glaphyriinae is a subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae. It was described by William Trowbridge Merrifield Forbes in 1923. The subfamily currently comprises 509 species in 75 genera.

Agroterini is a tribe of the species-rich subfamily Spilomelinae in the pyraloid moth family Crambidae. The tribe was erected by Alexandre Noël Charles Acloque in 1897.

Margaroniini Tribe of moths

Margaroniini is a tribe of the species-rich subfamily Spilomelinae in the pyraloid moth family Crambidae. The tribe was erected by Charles Swinhoe and Everard Charles Cotes in 1889.

References