|Family:|| Crambidae |
| Phalaena pascuella |
|Some 10,347 species|
The Crambidae are the grass moth family of lepidopterans. They are variable in appearance, the nominal subfamily Crambinae (grass moths) taking up closely folded postures on grass stems where they are inconspicuous, while other subfamilies include brightly coloured and patterned insects which rest in wing-spread attitudes.
In many classifications, the Crambidae have been treated as a subfamily of the Pyralidae or snout-moths. The principal difference is a structure in the tympanal organs called the praecinctorium, which joins two tympanic membranes in the Crambidae, and is absent from the Pyralidae. The latest review by Munroe and Solis, in Kristensen (1999), retains the Crambidae as a full family. The family currently comprises 15 subfamilies with altogether 10,347 species in over 1,000 genera.
Since crambids are relatively common throughout human settlements, the moths tend to affect crops and gardens, whether harmfully, beneficially or harmlessly. Beneficial crambids include the water hyacinth moth ( Niphograpta albiguttalis ), used to control its host ( Eichhornia crassipes ),the water veneer ( Acentria ephemerella ), a biocontrol agent used against Eurasian watermilfoil, and the bamboo borer ( Omphisa fuscidentalis ), of which the caterpillars are used for human consumption (see entomophagy). The mint moth ( Pyrausta aurata ) is an example of a harmless crambid.
Crambid larvae are typically stem borers in plants of the grass family. As this family contains many important crops, some Crambidae species achieve pest status. The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis is perhaps the best known; introduced to the United States in the early 1900s, it is now widespread in all but the westernmost states. Other pest species include the pearl millet stem borer ( Coniesta ignefusalis ), the spotted stalk borer ( Chilo partellus ), the Asiatic rice borer ( Chilo suppressalis ), sod webworms ( Crambus spp.), Duponchelia fovealis , the sugarcane borer ( Diatraea saccharalis ), bean pod borers ( Maruca spp.), the rice white stemborer ( Scirpophaga innotata ), the southwestern corn borer ( Diatraea grandiosella ), and the grape leaffolder ( Desmia maculalis ).
The Pyralidae, commonly called pyralid moths, snout moths or grass moths, are a family of Lepidoptera in the ditrysian superfamily Pyraloidea. In many classifications, the grass moths (Crambidae) are included in the Pyralidae as a subfamily, making the combined group one of the largest families in the Lepidoptera. The latest review by Eugene G. Munroe and Maria Alma Solis, in Kristensen (1999) retains the Crambidae as a full family of Pyraloidea.
The Pyraloidea are a moth superfamily containing about 16,000 described species worldwide, and probably at least as many more remain to be described. They are generally fairly small moths, and as such, they have been traditionally associated with the paraphyletic Microlepidoptera.
Pyraustinae is a large subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae, the crambid snout moths. It currently includes over 1,400 species; most of them tropical but some found in temperate regions including both North America and Europe.
Evergestinae is a fairly small subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae, the crambid snout moths. The subfamily was described by H. Marion in 1952. It contains roughly 140 species on all continents and continental islands. Evergestine moths resemble Pyraustinae; however, the male genitalia have a long uncus and long, slender gnathos. The larvae feed mostly on Brassicaceae.
Spilomelinae is a very species-rich subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae, the crambid snout moths. With 4,132 described species in 340 genera worldwide, it is the most speciose group among pyraloids.
Crambinae is a large subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae, the crambid snout moths. It currently includes over 1,800 species worldwide. The larvae are root feeders or stem borers, mostly on grasses. A few species are pests of sod grasses, maize, sugar cane, rice, and other Poaceae. The monophyly of this group is supported by the structure of the tympanal organs and the phallus attached medially to the juxta.
Ostrinia is a genus of moths in the family Crambidae described by Jacob Hübner in 1825. Several of them, including the European corn borer, are agricultural pests.
Almonia is a genus of moths of the family Crambidae.
Conogethes is a genus of moths in the subfamily Spilomelinae of the family Crambidae. The currently 17 recognized species are distributed in the Indomalayan and Australasian realm.
Lineodes is a genus of snout moths of the subfamily Spilomelinae in the family Crambidae. The genus was described by Achille Guenée in 1854, with Lineodes hieroglyphalis as the type species.
Udea is a genus of snout moths in the subfamily Spilomelinae of the family Crambidae. The genus was erected by Achille Guenée in 1845. The currently known 214 species are present on all continents except Antarctica. About 41 species are native to Hawaii.
Odontiinae is a subfamily of moths of the family Crambidae. The subfamily was described by Achille Guenée in 1854.
Glaphyriinae is a subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae. It was described by William Trowbridge Merrifield Forbes in 1923. The subfamily currently comprises 509 species in 75 genera.
Hydririni is a tribe of the species-rich subfamily Spilomelinae in the pyraloid moth family Crambidae.
Lineodini is a tribe of the species-rich subfamily Spilomelinae in the snout moth family Crambidae.
Margaroniini is a tribe of the species-rich subfamily Spilomelinae in the pyraloid moth family Crambidae. The tribe was erected by Charles Swinhoe and Everard Charles Cotes in 1889.
Asciodini is a tribe of the species-rich subfamily Spilomelinae in the pyraloid moth family Crambidae. The tribe was erected by Richard Mally, James E. Hayden, Christoph Neinhuis, Bjarte H. Jordal and Matthias Nuss in 2019.
Steniini is a tribe of the species-rich subfamily Spilomelinae in the pyraloid moth family Crambidae. The tribe was erected by Achille Guenée in 1854.
Nomophilini is a tribe of the species-rich subfamily Spilomelinae in the pyraloid moth family Crambidae. The tribe was erected by Vladimir Ivanovitsch Kuznetzov and Alexandr A. Stekolnikov in 1979.
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