Crambidae

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Crambidae
Scoparia.ambigualis.jpg
Scoparia ambigualis
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Superfamily: Pyraloidea
Family: Crambidae
Latreille, 1810
Type species
Phalaena pascuella
Subfamilies
Diversity
Some 11,630 species

The Crambidae are the grass moth family of lepidopterans. They are variable in appearance, the nominal subfamily Crambinae (grass moths) taking up closely folded postures on grass stems where they are inconspicuous, while other subfamilies include brightly coloured and patterned insects which rest in wing-spread attitudes.

Contents

In many classifications, the Crambidae have been treated as a subfamily of the Pyralidae or snout-moths. The principal difference is a structure in the ears called the praecinctorium, which joins two tympanic membranes in the Crambidae, and is absent from the Pyralidae. The latest review by Munroe and Solis, in Kristensen (1999), retains the Crambidae as a full family.


Taxonomy

Relationship with humans

Since crambids are relatively common throughout human settlements, the moths tend to affect crops and gardens, whether harmfully, beneficially or harmlessly. Beneficial crambids include the water hyacinth moth ( Niphograpta albiguttalis ), used to control its host ( Eichhornia crassipes ), [3] the water veneer ( Acentria ephemerella ), a biocontrol agent used against Eurasian watermilfoil, [4] and the bamboo borer ( Omphisa fuscidentalis ), of which the caterpillars are used for human consumption (see entomophagy). The mint moth ( Pyrausta aurata ) is an example of a harmless crambid. Crambid larvae are typically stem borers in plants of the grass family. As this family contains many important crops, some Crambidae species achieve pest status. The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis is perhaps the best known; introduced to the United States in the early 1900s, it is now widespread in all but the westernmost states. Other pest species include the spotted stalk borer ( Chilo partellus ), the Asiatic rice borer ( Chilo suppressalis ), sod webworms ( Crambus spp.), Duponchelia fovealis , the sugarcane borer ( Diatraea saccharalis ), bean pod borers ( Maruca spp.), the rice white stemborer ( Scirpophaga innotata ), the southwestern corn borer ( Diatraea grandiosella ), and the grape leaffolder ( Desmia maculalis ).

Related Research Articles

Pyralidae Family of moths

The Pyralidae, commonly called pyralid moths, snout moths or grass moths, are a family of Lepidoptera in the ditrysian superfamily Pyraloidea. In many classifications, the grass moths (Crambidae) are included in the Pyralidae as a subfamily, making the combined group one of the largest families in the Lepidoptera. The latest review by Eugene G. Munroe and Maria Alma Solis, in Kristensen (1999) retains the Crambidae as a full family of Pyraloidea.

Pyraloidea Superfamily of moths

The Pyraloidea are a moth superfamily containing about 16,000 described species worldwide, and probably at least as many more remain to be described. They are generally fairly small moths, and as such, they have been traditionally associated with the paraphyletic Microlepidoptera.

Pyraustinae subfamily of insects

Pyraustinae is a large subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae, the crambid snout moths. It currently includes over 1,400 species, the majority of them tropical but some found in temperate regions including both North America and Europe.

Evergestinae subfamily of insects

Evergestinae is a fairly small subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae, the crambid snout moths. The subfamily was described by H. Marion in 1952. It contains roughly 140 species on all continents and continental islands. Evergestine moths resemble Pyraustinae; however, the male genitalia have a long uncus and long, slender gnathos. The larvae feed mostly on Brassicaceae.

Spilomelinae subfamily of insects

Spilomelinae is a very species-rich subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae, the crambid snout moths. With 4,132 described species in 340 genera worldwide, it is the most speciose group among pyraloids.

Crambinae Subfamily of moths

Crambinae is a large subfamily of the lepidopteran family Crambidae, the crambid snout moths. It currently includes over 1,800 species worldwide. The larvae are root feeders or stem borers, mostly on grasses. A few species are pests of sod grasses, maize, sugar cane, rice, and other Poaceae. The monophyly of this group is supported by the structure of the tympanal organs and the phallus attached medially to the juxta.

Almonia is a genus of moths of the family Crambidae.

<i>Conogethes</i> genus of insects

Conogethes is a genus of moths in the subfamily Spilomelinae of the family Crambidae. The currently 17 recognized species are distributed in the Indomalayan and Australasian realm.

<i>Lineodes</i> Genus of moth

Lineodes is a genus of snout moths of the subfamily Spilomelinae in the family Crambidae. The genus was described by Achille Guenée in 1854, with Lineodes hieroglyphalis as the type species.

<i>Udea</i> genus of insects

Udea is a genus of snout moths in the subfamily Spilomelinae of the family Crambidae. The genus was erected by Achille Guenée in 1845. The currently known 214 species are present on all continents except Antarctica. About 41 species are native to Hawaii.

Odontiinae subfamily of insects

Odontiinae is a subfamily of moths of the family Crambidae. The subfamily was described by Achille Guenée in 1854.

Hydririni Tribe of moths

Hydririni is a tribe of the species-rich subfamily Spilomelinae in the pyraloid moth family Crambidae.

Lineodini Tribe of moths

Lineodini is a tribe of the species-rich subfamily Spilomelinae in the snout moth family Crambidae.

Udeini is a tribe in the species-rich subfamily Spilomelinae in the pyraloid moth family Crambidae. The tribe was erected by Richard Mally, James E. Hayden, Christoph Neinhuis, Bjarte H. Jordal and Matthias Nuss in 2019.

Margaroniini

Margaroniini is a tribe of the species-rich subfamily Spilomelinae in the pyraloid moth family Crambidae. The tribe was erected by Charles Swinhoe and Everard Charles Cotes in 1889.

Steniini is a tribe of the species-rich subfamily Spilomelinae in the pyraloid moth family Crambidae. The tribe was erected by Achille Guenée in 1854.

References

  1. 1 2 Regier, J. C., C. Mitter, M. A. Solis, J. E. Hayden, B. Landry, M. Nuss, T. J. Simonsen, S.-H. Yen , A. Zwick & M. P. Cummings 2012: A molecular phylogeny for the pyraloid moths (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea) and its implications for higher-level classification. Archived 2016-03-05 at the Wayback Machine – Systematic Entomology, London 37 (4): 635–656.
  2. Minet, J. 2015: Lathrotelidae Clarke, 1971: a rehabilitated name deserving subfamily rank (Lepidoptera, Crambidae). – Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, Paris 120 (1): 109–112.
  3. McLeod, Robin (April 24, 2016). "Species Niphograpta albiguttalis - Water Hyacinth Moth - Hodges#5149". BugGuide. Archived from the original on May 1, 2019. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
  4. McLeod, Robin (February 1, 2019). "Species Acentria ephemerella - Water Veneer - Hodges#5299". BugGuide. Archived from the original on May 1, 2019. Retrieved February 5, 2020.

Further reading

See also