Oecophoridae

Last updated

Concealer moths
Oecophorinae.jpg
Adult of unidentified Oecophorinae species,
Aranda (Australia)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Superfamily: Gelechioidea
Family: Oecophoridae
Bruand, 1851
Diversity
7 subfamilies (but see text)
Synonyms
  • Ashinagidae Matsumura, 1929

Oecophoridae (concealer moths) is a family of small moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. The phylogeny and systematics of gelechoid moths are still not fully resolved, and the circumscription of the Oecophoridae is strongly affected by this. [1]

Contents

Taxonomy and systematics

Also possibly included is the Peruvian species Auxotricha ochrogypsa , described by Edward Meyrick in 1931 as the sole member of its genus. In the past, the family was circumscribed more widely and included the following subfamilies:

Stathmopoda pedella (Stathmopodinae) near Ilmenau (Thuringia, Germany) Stathmopoda.pedella.7641.jpg
Stathmopoda pedella (Stathmopodinae) near Ilmenau (Thuringia, Germany)

Some treatments include only the Oecophorinae and Stathmopodinae here, placing the others elsewhere in the Gelechoidea (typically in the Elachistidae, but occasionally as independent families). But this approach might make Elachistidae highly paraphyletic. Other authors go as far as to expand the Oecophoridae beyond the delimitation used here, including also such groups as the Ethmiidae and Xyloryctidae. The latter may indeed be part of a monophyletic Oecophoridae, but more research is required; the Ethmiidae on the other hand are more likely a distinct family. The mysterious genus Aeolanthes is also sometimes included in the Oecophoridae (as a monotypic subfamily Aeolanthinae), but its actual relationships are quite obscure. [2]

Some additional genera[ verification needed ] are also treated as Oecophoridae incertae sedis in recent studies: [3]

Relationship with humans

Many concealer moths feed on dead plant material and are nutrient recyclers. On the other hand, the family includes the white-shouldered house moth (Endrosis sarcitrella), which is a widely distributed moth that has caterpillars that infest stored grain, and the brown house moth (Hofmannophila pseudospretella), which feeds on textiles and carpets as well as stored foodstuffs. Other pest species include the black-headed caterpillar (the larva of Opisina arenosella ) on coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in India, and Peleopoda arcanella on Elaeis oleifera oil palms in Central America.

Concealer moths have also been put to useful service. Agonopterix ulicetella , a native of Europe, has been introduced to New Zealand and Hawaii in an attempt to control the European gorse (Ulex europaeus), and the defoliating hemlock moth (Agonopterix alstroemeriana) has been used against Conium maculatum poison hemlock in the United States.

Footnotes

  1. Hodge (1999)
  2. Hodge (1999), ToL (2008), Wikispecies (2010-MAR-24), and see references in Savela (2003)
  3. Wikispecies (2010-MAR-24)
  4. Savela, Markku. "Callimodes Leraut, 1989". Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  5. Skalski, A.W. (1973). "Studies on the Lepidoptera from fossil resins. Part II. Epiborkhausenites obscurotrimaculatus gen. et sp. nov. (Oecophoridae) and a tineid-moth discovered in the Baltic amber" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 18 (1): 153–160.

Related Research Articles

Elachistidae Family of moths

The Elachistidae are a family of small moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. Some authors lump about 3,300 species in eight subfamilies here, but this arrangement almost certainly results in a massively paraphyletic and completely unnatural assemblage, united merely by symplesiomorphies retained from the first gelechioid moths.

Gelechioidea Superfamily of moths

Gelechioidea is the superfamily of moths that contains the case-bearers, twirler moths, and relatives, also simply called curved-horn moths or gelechioid moths. It is a large and poorly understood '"micromoth" superfamily, constituting one of the basal lineages of the Ditrysia.

Ethmiinae Subfamily of moths

The Ethmiinae are a subfamily of small moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea sometimes included in the Elachistidae or the Oecophoridae, but mostly in the Depressariidae as a subfamily Ethmiinae.

Scythrididae Family of moths

Scythrididae is a family of small moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. The family is sometimes included in the Xyloryctidae as a subfamily Scythridinae, but the Xyloryctidae themselves have sometimes been included in the Oecophoridae as subfamily. Scythrididae adults are smallish to mid-sized moths, which when at rest appear teardrop-shaped.

<i>Alabonia geoffrella</i> Species of moth

Alabonia geoffrella is a species of gelechioid moth. Here, it is placed within the subfamily Oecophorinae of the concealer moth family (Oecophoridae). Alternatively it has been placed in the Elachistidae or Depressariinae together with its presumed closest relatives.

<i>Pseudatemelia flavifrontella</i> Species of moth

Pseudatemelia flavifrontella is a species of gelechioid moths.

Pseudatemelia subochreella is a species of gelechioid moths. Here, it is placed within the subfamily Amphisbatinae of the concealer moth family (Oecophoridae). The Amphisbatinae have alternatively been merged into the Oecophorinae, raised to full family rank, or placed as a subgroup of the Depressariinae.

Depressariinae Subfamily of moths

The Depressariinae – sometimes spelled "Depressiinae" in error – are a subfamily of moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. Like their relatives therein, their exact relationships are not yet very well resolved. It has been considered part of family Elachistidae sensu lato or included in an expanded Oecophoridae. In modern classifications they are treated as the distinct gelechioid family Depressariidae.

<i>Depressaria</i> Genus of moths

Depressaria is a moth genus of the superfamily Gelechioidea. It is the type genus of subfamily Depressariinae, which is often – particularly in older treatments – considered a distinct family Depressariidae or included in the Elachistidae, but actually seems to belong in the Oecophoridae.

Oecophorinae Subfamily of the "concealer moths" family Oecophoridae

The Oecophorinae are the nominate subfamily of moths in the concealer moth family (Oecophoridae). They are part of the insufficiently studied superfamily Gelechioidea, and like their relatives, the circumscription of this taxon is disputed.

<i>Crassa</i> Genus of moths

Crassa is a genus of the concealer moth family (Oecophoridae). Among these, it belongs to subfamily Oecophorinae. The genus name Tichonia, established by J. Hübner in 1825, was frequently misapplied to these moths by earlier authors. But as the type species of Hübner's genus is the greenweed flat-body moth – originally described as Tinea atomella, but nowadays called Agonopterix atomella –, Tichonia is actually a junior synonym of Agonopterix. That genus does belong to the same superfamily as Crassa, but is placed in the concealer moth subfamily Depressariinae which is sometimes treated as distinct family.

Amphisbatinae Subfamily of moths

The Amphisbatinae was a small subfamily of moths in the superfamily Gelechioidea. Like their relatives therein, their exact relationships are not yet very well resolved. The present lineage is often included in the Depressariinae as a tribe Amphisbatini, though more often within the context of a "splitting" approach to Gelechioidea systematics and taxonomy, wherein the Depressariinae are elevated to full family rank and the Amphisbatinae are treated as a subfamily therein. An even more extremely split-up layout even treats the Amphisbatinae as full family Amphisbatidae. In the scheme used here, the Amphisbatinae are included in the Oecophoridae as a subfamily alongside the Depressariinae.

<i>Pseudatemelia</i> Genus of moths

Pseudatemelia is a genus of gelechioid moths.

<i>Denisia</i> Genus of moths

Denisia is a genus of the concealer moth family (Oecophoridae). Among these, it belongs to subfamily Oecophorinae. It was originally established as a subgenus of Borkhausenia.

Paratemelia is a genus of gelechioid moths. In the systematic layout used here, it is placed in the subfamily Amphisbatinae of the concealer moth family (Oecophoridae). Delimitation of Amphisbatinae versus the close relatives Depressariinae and Oecophorinae is a major problem of Gelechioidea taxonomy and systematics, and some authors separate the former two as full-blown families, and/or include the Amphisbatinae in Depressariinae, or merge them in the Oecophorinae outright.

<i>Agonopterix</i> Genus of moths

Agonopterix is a moth genus of the superfamily Gelechioidea. It is placed in the family Depressariidae, which was often – particularly in older treatments – considered a subfamily of the Oecophoridae or included in the Elachistidae.

<i>Exaeretia</i> Genus of moths

Exaeretia is a moth genus of the superfamily Gelechioidea. It is placed in the family Depressariidae, which is often – particularly in older treatments – considered a subfamily of Oecophoridae or included in the Elachistidae.

<i>Anchinia</i> Genus of moths

Anchinia is a genus of gelechioid moths.

<i>Hypercallia</i> Genus of moths

Hypercallia is a genus of gelechioid moths.

<i>Alabonia staintoniella</i> Species of moth

Alabonia staintoniella is a species of gelechioid moth. Here, it is placed within the subfamily Oecophorinae of the concealer moth family (Oecophoridae). Alternatively it has been placed in the Elachistidae or Depressariinae together with its presumed closest relatives.

References

Wikispecies-logo.svg Data related to Oecophoridae at Wikispecies