Rita Verdonk

Last updated

Rita Verdonk
Rita Verdonk.jpg
Rita Verdonk in 2006
Leader of Proud of the Netherlands
In office
17 October 2007 19 November 2011
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded by Hero Brinkman
Chair of Proud of the Netherlands
In office
17 October 2007 19 November 2011
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byTheo Reijnen
Parliamentary leader in the
House of Representatives
In office
14 September 2007 17 June 2010
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byOffice discontinued
Parliamentary group Independent
Member of the House of Representatives
In office
30 November 2006 17 June 2010
Parliamentary group Independent
(2007–2010)
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy

(2006–2007)
Minister of Justice
In office
21 September 2006 22 September 2006
Ad interim
Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende
Preceded by Piet Hein Donner
Succeeded by Ernst Hirsch Ballin
Minister for Integration, Rehabilitation,
Prevention, Youth Justice
In office
14 December 2006 22 February 2007
Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende
Preceded byHerself
as Minister for Integration
and Asylum Affairs
Succeeded byOffice discontinued
Minister for Integration
and Asylum Affairs
In office
27 May 2003 14 December 2006
Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende
Preceded by Hilbrand Nawijn
Succeeded byHerself
as Minister for Integration,
Rehabilitation, Prevention,
Youth Justice
Personal details
Born
Maria Cornelia Frederika Verdonk

(1955-10-18) 18 October 1955 (age 64)
Utrecht, Netherlands
Nationality Dutch
Political party Independent (since 2012)
Other political
affiliations
Proud of the Netherlands
(2007–2012)
Independent
(2007)
People's Party for
Freedom and Democracy

(2002–2007)
Pacifist Socialist Party
(1978–1980)
Political Party of Radicals
(1976–1978)
Spouse(s)
Peter Willems(m. 1980)
Children2 children
Residence Nootdorp, Netherlands
Alma mater Radboud University Nijmegen
(Bachelor of Criminal Justice, Master of Criminal Justice)
Occupation Politician · Civil servant · Businesswoman · Corporate director · Nonprofit director · Management consultant · Political consultant · Columnist

Maria Cornelia Frederika "Rita" Verdonk (born 18 October 1955) is a retired Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and later founder of the Proud of the Netherlands (Trots) party and businesswoman.

Contents

Verdonk attended a Gymnasium in Utrecht from June 1968 until June 1974 and applied at the Radboud University Nijmegen in June 1974 majoring in Law before switching to Criminology and obtaining an Bachelor of Criminal Justice degree in July 1979 before graduating with an Master of Criminal Justice degree in July 1983. Verdonk worked as a civil servant for the Ministry of Justice from September 1983 until October 1996 and as director of the department of State Security of the Domestic Security Service (BVD) from October 1996 until November 1999. Verdonk worked as a management consultant for KPMG and Atos from November 1999 until May 2003.

After the election of 2003 Verdonk was appointed as Minister for Integration and Asylum Affairs in the Cabinet Balkenende II, taking office on 27 May 2003. After the Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and Parliamentary leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy in the House of Representatives Jozias van Aartsen announced that he was stepping down as Leader and Parliamentary leader in the House of Representatives following the defeat in the municipal elections of 2006, Verdonk announced her candidacy to succeed him. Verdonk lost the leadership election to incumbent State Secretary for Education, Culture and Science Mark Rutte on May 31 2006. The Cabinet Balkenende II fell on 30 June 2006 and continued to serve in a demissionary capacity until it was replaced by the caretaker Cabinet Balkenende III with Verdonk continuing as Minister for Integration and Asylum Affairs, taking office on 7 July 2006. Verdonk served as acting Minister of Justice from 21 September 2006 until 22 September 2006 following the resignation of Piet Hein Donner.

Verdonk was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives after the election of 2006, taking office on 30 November 2006. The Cabinet Balkenende III was replaced by the Cabinet Balkenende IV following the cabinet formation of 2007 on 22 February 2007. On 14 September 2007 Verdonk was expelled from the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy parliamentary group in the House of Representatives following months of tensions with Leader and Parliamentary leader Rutte and continued to serve in the House of Representatives as a Independent. On 17 October 2007 she announced the founding of her own political party Proud of the Netherlands (Dutch : Trots op Nederland) (Trots). For the Dutch general election of 2010 Verdonk served as Lijsttrekker (top candidate) but Proud of the Netherlands did not win any seats in the House of Representatives and she continued to serve until the end of the parliamentary term on 17 June 2010.

Verdonk retired from active politics and became active in the private sector and public sector and occupied numerous seats as a corporate director and nonprofit director on several boards of directors and supervisory boards and worked as a political consultant and management consultant. [1]

Biography

Early life

Maria Cornelia Frederika Verdonk was born on 18 October 1955 in Utrecht. She attended High School at Utrecht's Niels Stensen College at the atheneum level. She went on to study sociology at the Radboud University in Nijmegen, which at the time was considered left-wing, and specialized in the sociology of organisations and criminology. Verdonk was member of a sub-faculty board of the University and a member of the activist group Bond voor Wetsovertreders (BWO; English: Union for Lawbreakers) which had close ties with the far-left Pacifist Socialist Party. Its 1977 manifesto included as the organisation's aims: "to curb and/or prevent material damage and immaterial damage inflicted to individuals or groups in our society by the Dutch legal system". The BWO campaigned for reforms such as detainee minimum wages, the abolition of censorship of letters for detainees, and the right to unsupervised visits. The group visited inmates at a local prison and undertook legal interventions on their behalf.

Verdonk participated in a non-violent human blockade during the Pierson riots of 1981, when plans for housing demolition to make room for a parking lot triggered violent civil unrest. Because of her activism during this period, she earned the nickname "Red Rita."

After graduating in 1983, Verdonk became a trainee at the Department of Correction at the Ministry of Justice. In 1984, she was promoted to Assistant-Director at the Scheveningen Detention Centre. In 1988, she became a member of the board of the Prison 'De Schie' in Rotterdam. In 1992, she switched to the Ministry of Justice's department of Youth and Hospital Orders Institutions, where she reached the position of Vice-Director. In 1996, she was appointed as Director of the Department of State Security of the Ministry of Interior Affairs.

Between 1999 and 2003 she was Senior Manager / Director of the consulting firm KPMG (as of 2002, Atos KPMG Consulting). In 2002 she became a member of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) to become more active in politics. In a 2006 article, some of Verdonk's friends and colleagues from her Nijmegen days expressed surprise at Verdonk's radical switch in political orientation after graduating in 1983. Some observed that Verdonk had never held outspoken left-wing ideals and criticized communist regimes; others hypothesized that it was part of a growing-up phase; a former treasurer of the BWO suspected that Verdonk had been a police informer all those years. [2]

Minister for Integration

In 2003, Verdonk was appointed Minister for Integration and Immigration. She soon developed a reputation for toughness and outspokenness, with her uncompromising immigration policies earning her the nickname IJzeren Rita (Iron Rita). As a minister, Verdonk enjoyed a rare level of recognition and popularity amongst voters, but was also reviled by many as a populist with an impulsive style of governing. In June 2004 Verdonk was smeared with ketchup by two females protestors in opposition to her stance on immigration as part of a "playful protest", for which they got 11 days of prisontime. [3] After the political murders of politician Pim Fortuyn in 2002 and film director Theo van Gogh in 2004, the Dutch Ministry of Interior Affairs began to monitor Verdonk's security tightly for her own protection. From 4 June 2008, the Dutch Cabinet discontinued the monitoring on the grounds that the threat level had abated.

Asylum case of Ayaan Hirsi Ali

Earlier in 2006, a TV programme had reported that MP Hirsi Ali had provided false information on her asylum application in 1992 concerning her name, date of birth, and country where she had been residing prior to seeking asylum. Members of her family interviewed for the TV programme denied her earlier claims that she had sought asylum to prevent an arranged marriage that she objected to, stating instead that she had agreed to it. A government investigation raised many questions about the veracity of these claims.

Based on a ruling by the Hoge Raad (Supreme Court), Verdonk said that Hirsi Ali did not have legitimate Dutch citizenship. According to the Hoge Raad, except under very special circumstances, Dutch citizenship could not be granted if the subject had lied about his or her name and date of birth. In a broadcast on the Dutch public network, Hirsi Ali had admitted that she had lied about her name and date of birth in her application, and that she had been living with her family for 12 years in Kenya before arriving in the Netherlands, and had not arrived directly from Somalia, which at that time was experiencing civil war. The decision by Verdonk caused considerable controversy. VVD-deputy prime minister Zalm said he was surprised that events known for years suddenly resulted in action by Verdonk two days after a television program about Hirsi Ali's past. He said Verdonk has disqualified herself from being the prime candidate for the VVD in the coming elections. [4] On 16 May 2006, Ayaan Hirsi Ali who was herself an MP for the VVD, as well as Gerrit Zalm, criticized Verdonk for her decision to revoke Hirsi Ali's passport.

In a session in parliament on the issue of Hirsi Ali's citizenship, Verdonk said that she had no choice but to revoke her passport, as it had been issued under a false name and false date of birth. Some members of parliament suggested that Verdonk's stern actions were a result of her political ambitions in the 2006 VVD leadership elections. [5] The result of the debate was that Verdonk promised to have another look at the case and see if it was possible for Hirsi Ali keep her citizenship.

On 27 June 2006 Verdonk informed parliament of her decision to allow MP Ayaan Hirsi Ali to keep her Dutch passport. According to Verdonk, Hirsi Ali had presented her with new convincing evidence related to her use of her grandfather's surname, and the false date of birth was insufficient grounds to cancel her passport. The next day, during a parliamentary debate took place, minister Verdonk and prime-minister Jan Peter Balkenende were questioned about the decision. At the end of the first period of the debate, the prime minister said that Hirsi Ali had to sign a letter accepting responsibility for her false statements in order to retain her citizenship. Otherwise, the solution would not be acceptable for minister Verdonk.

In the second period of the debate, a vote of no confidence was proposed by the Green Party GroenLinks. It was supported by the Balkenende cabinet coalition partner, Democrats 66 (D66). The vote did not meet the required majority as it was opposed by the right-wing populist LPF. Because a coalition partner supported the motiona unique situation in Dutch politicsthe Balkenende cabinet had to decide if this had consequences for Rita Verdonk as minister, and the second Balkenende cabinet.

Van Beek, an MP for the VVD, said after the debate that it would be almost unthinkable that if Verdonk resigned, the cabinet would stay intact, as one of the coalition partners of the cabinet had lost its confidence in the minister. [6] D66, feeling dissatisfied that minister Verdonk did not resign following the debate, withdrew its support for the cabinet. This resulted in the cabinet's fall on 29 June. [7]

Outgoing Minister

On 30 November 2006 the new parliament was sworn in as the result of elections a week earlier. On 1 November Labour Party leader Wouter Bos proposed a motion for what in effect would constitute an amnesty for an estimated 26,000 asylum seekers who had asked for asylum more than five years ago and had their asylum applications turned down. This motion requested of the cabinet, "in anticipation of a definite discussion on the amnesty by the new House of Representatives, not to take any irreversible measures with respect to this group". [8] [9]

During her tenure as Minister for Immigration, Verdonk had specifically cited the rejection of those 26,000 persons as an example of her toughening of the immigration laws (see Policy below). The motion was passed with a 75-74 majority, the VVD, Prime Minister Balkenende's CDA, and the right-wing PVV and SGP parties dissenting. Both Verdonk, although now considered a 'caretaker', and Prime Minister Balkenende criticized the motion. There was speculation that Verdonk resigned for this reason. [10] On 3 December after several meetings, the cabinet decided not to honor the motion, because an amnesty would be impossible to implement. It agreed to postpone expulsion of asylum seekers until after a special parliamentary session to be held on 12 December. [11]

During this session on 12 December, a motion was proposed by the PvdA asking Verdonk to refrain from acting on expulsions until the new cabinet was formed. This motion was supported by all the left-wing and centre-left parties and it passed with a slim 76-72 majority. Verdonk claimed this motion amounted to a de facto amnesty and affirmed her well-known stance: any amnesty was unenforceable. She declared expulsions would continue after the debate, before cabinet could issue an official statement the next day. Verdonk also refused to postpone those expulsions for another 24 hours until a new debate could take place the next day. In reaction, the whole parliament asked for an official statement from the cabinet that same evening. [12]

Following an additional debate, during which Prime Minister Balkenende said that Verdonk had the full support of the cabinet, a motion of no confidence was accepted by the same coalition of left-wing parties. Before the vote took place, Mark Rutte declared that should Verdonk resign, all VVD ministers would join her. [13] [14] The cabinet was in a 10-hour meeting on 13 December before deciding that all ministers would stay on and that Hirsch Ballin would take over Verdonk's responsibility for immigration. [15] In exchange, Verdonk added Hirsch Ballin's justice department responsibilities over youth care, prevention and probation to her portfolio. Hirsch Ballin could execute the 12 December motion started by the PvdA, and postpone the expulsions of asylum seekers based on humanitarian grounds, such as the responsibility for under-age children, until a new cabinet was formed. [16]

On 22 February 2007 Verdonk stood down as minister when the fourth cabinet Balkenende was installed. Her portfolios were taken over by Ella Vogelaar (integration) and Nebahat Albayrak (immigration).

Policy

Rita Verdonk in 2007 Rita verdonk.jpg
Rita Verdonk in 2007

Verdonk's most discussed propositions and decisions are:

Minister Verdonk was called to parliament for the following issues:

As a minister, Verdonk has proposed the following, which have not become law:

Verdonk strictly applied the Alien Integration Act of 1998 (Wet Inburgering Nieuwkomers), which was introduced by Job Cohen, the social democratic State Secretary for Justice in the Cabinet Kok II.

Criticism

2006 Bid for VVD leadership

On 4 April 2006, Verdonk announced her ambition to become political leader and to succeed Jozias van Aartsen as the lijsttrekker of the VVD for the coming elections, at the time expected to be held 2006. Her direct competitors in the leadership election were staatssecretaris of Education Mark Rutte and MP Jelleke Veenendaal. Although her political views on subjects other than immigration and integration had mostly been unclear, she was a likely candidate. Shortly after announcing she would be candidate, a poll for the RTL 4 News estimated that 56% of the people preferred Verdonk as the leader of the VVD. Verdonk was advised by Kay van de Linde, who had been part of anti-immigration politician Pim Fortuyn's 2002 election campaign, which was cut short by his assassination on 6 May of that year. Verdonk's opponents said that several of her statements and policies seemed to exploit xenophobic emotions in the country. On an official visit to Morocco, when visiting a poor neighbourhood, she remarked, "I do not understand why these Moroccans come to the Netherlands. There is so much work to do here". [18]

On 31 May 2006, Verdonk lost to Mark Rutte in the 2006 VVD leadership election, gaining 46% of the vote, less than the majority required. [24]

De Telegraaf reported on 23 June 2006 that Verdonk discussed policies with Marco Pastors of Leefbaar Rotterdam. [25] The news report fueled fears that Verdonk might leave the VVD in order to form a new right-wing political party allied with Leefbaar Rotterdam and Lijst Pim Fortuyn. Verdonk denied the rumour [26]

In the 2006 election, Verdonk received a greater number of preference votes (620,555) than the VVD lijsttrekker Mark Rutte (553,200). [27] As a result, on 28 November she held a press conference in which she urged the party to rethink their policies via a special committee. She renewed her desire to become party leader but said she would for the present remain loyal to Rutte. [28] A few hours later on 28 November after meeting with the party, she withdrew both ideas. Chances of Verdonk to become party leader decreased with this action, described as an "attempted coup" by media and party members. [29]

On 20 January 2007 NRC Handelsblad profiled Verdonk (caption: The Netherlands at my feet), observing that her election-campaign team was not resolved. It said that she was still determined to grab the VVD leadership, possibly right after the March provincial 2007 elections, in the event that her opponent Rutte again performed poorly.

Controversies

In the HP/De Tijd issue of 5 June 2007, Verdonk said the following about Mark Rutte: "He is a decent VVD member, but he's not really right-wing. I really can't see how he would be." [30] Rutte objected to this statement, [31] but the prominent VVD elder statesman Hans Wiegel defended Verdonk. [32] Verdonk finally apologised for her statement. [31] After the controversy, the popularity of the VVD in the opinion polls decreased. [33] Rutte gave Verdonk a final warning and said that VVD members had to "obey or get lost". [34]

Around 21 June 2007, Radboud Magazine published an interview with Verdonk, in which she said that the VVD was "hijacked" by "left-wing liberals", and that she wanted to "undo" that. Although Rutte had warned her before, he didn't take any action, because the interview had been done in April before his warning. [35]

VVD member of Parliament

From November 2006 until September 2007, Verdonk served as member of parliament for the VVD in the opposition benches as the education specialist.

Independent member of Parliament

Rita Verdonk on the website of Proud of the Netherlands. Flickr - NewsPhoto! - politici in zwart-wit, Rita Verdonk (Trots).jpg
Rita Verdonk on the website of Proud of the Netherlands.

On 13 September 2007, Verdonk criticised the direction of the VVD again. She said that the VVD was "invisible" in the debate about immigration. [36] [37] The party met to decide on the fate of Verdonk. Rutte said he wanted to expel her. [38] Later that afternoon, news reports confirmed that Verdonk had been expelled. Rutte said that "Verdonk had damaged the reputation of the VVD due to remarks in the media far too often". Verdonk said she would continue in the House of Representatives and that she would not give up her seat. [39] She also confirmed that she would not join the Partij voor de Vrijheid. Geert Wilders, leader of the PVV, was disappointed by this comment and said he still wanted to speak with Verdonk about a possible joint party. [39] Prominent VVD members such as Hans Wiegel and Frans Weisglas spoke of a "disastrous" decision by Rutte. [40]

The next day, Verdonk said that she still needed some more time to think over her decision again, but Rutte declined this, and she was formally expelled from the parliamentary faction of the VVD on 14 September 2007. [41] In October 2007, the VVD party board gave her the option of either giving up her parliamentary seat, or face exclusion procedures from the party. Verdonk announced that she would leave the party but stay in Parliament. After further consideration, she announced the creation of a new political movement, Proud of the Netherlands (Trots op NL), which she launched in April 2008.

According to opinion polls published on 6 December 2009, Verdonk's movement, Trots op NL, would win one seat in the Dutch parliament. [42] In the 2010 elections Trots won no seat. She resigned from politics in 2011. The party has combined with another party on the right.

Decorations

Honours
Ribbon barHonourCountryDateComment
NLD Order of Orange-Nassau - Officer BAR.png Officer of the Order of Orange-Nassau Netherlands11 April 2007

Related Research Articles

Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy Dutch political party

The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy is a conservative-liberal political party in the Netherlands.

Politics of the Netherlands Political system of the Netherlands

The politics of the Netherlands take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, a constitutional monarchy, and a decentralised unitary state. The Netherlands is described as a consociational state. Dutch politics and governance are characterised by a common striving for broad consensus on important issues, within both of the political community and society as a whole.

Jan Peter Balkenende 49th Prime Minister of the Netherlands

Jan Pieter "Jan Peter" Balkenende Jr. is a Dutch jurist and retired politician who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 July 2002 to 14 October 2010. He is a member of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).

Christian Democratic Appeal Dutch political party

The Christian Democratic Appeal is a Christian-democratic political party in the Netherlands. The CDA was originally formed in 1977 from a confederation of the Catholic People's Party, the Anti-Revolutionary Party and the Christian Historical Union, since becoming a unitary party, and has participated in all but three Dutch governments since then. Sybrand van Haersma Buma has been the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal since 18 May 2012.

Second Balkenende cabinet Cabinet of the Netherlands

The Second Balkenende cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 27 May 2003 until 7 July 2006. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the Democrats 66 (D66) after the election of 2003. The centre-right cabinet was a majority government in the House of Representatives.

Ayaan Hirsi Ali Dutch feminist, author

Ayaan Hirsi Ali is a Somali-born Dutch-American activist, feminist, author, scholar and former politician. She received international attention as a critic of Islam and advocate for the rights and self-determination of Muslim women, actively opposing forced marriage, honor violence, child marriage and female genital mutilation. She has founded an organisation for the defense of women's rights, the AHA Foundation.

Alexander Pechtold Dutch politician

Alexander Pechtold is a retired Dutch politician of the Democrats 66 (D66) party and art historian.

Piet Hein Donner Dutch politician

Jan Pieter Hendrik "Piet Hein" Donner is a retired Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) party and jurist. He was granted the honorary title of Minister of State on 21 December 2018.

2006 Dutch general election election of the members of the House of Representatives

General elections were held in the Netherlands on 22 November 2006 following the fall of the Second Balkenende cabinet. The elections proved relatively successful for the governing Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) which remained the largest party with 41 seats, a loss of only three seats. The largest increase in seats was for the Socialist Party (SP), which went from nine to 25 seats. The main opposition party, the social-democratic Labour Party (PvdA) lost nine of its 42 seats, while the right-liberal People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the progressive liberal Democrats 66 lost a considerable portion of their seats, six of 28 and three of six, respectively. New parties, such as the right-wing Party for Freedom (PVV) of former VVD MP Geert Wilders and the animal rights party Party for the Animals (PvdD) were also successful, with the PVV winning nine seats and the PvdD winning two, thereby becoming the first animal rights group to enter a European parliament.

Mark Rutte 50th Prime Minister of the Netherlands

Mark Rutte is a Dutch politician serving as Prime Minister of the Netherlands since 2010 and Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) since 2006.

Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy leadership election, 2006

The 2006 People's Party for Freedom and Democracy leadership election was called to elect the new Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy after incumbent Jozias van Aartsen announced his retirement from national politics. Mark Rutte the State Secretary for Education, Culture and Science closely beat Rita Verdonk the Minister for Integration, Immigration and Asylum Affairs and backbencher Member of the House of Representatives Jelleke Veenendaal.

Third Balkenende cabinet cabinet

The Third Balkenende cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 7 July 2006 until 22 February 2007. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) after the resignation of the Second Balkenende cabinet. The right-wing rump cabinet served as a caretaker government until the election of 2006.

Atzo Nicolaï Dutch politician and corporate director

Atzo Nicolaï is a retired Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and businessman.

2006–07 Dutch cabinet formation

Following the 2006 Dutch general election, held on November 22, a process of cabinet formation started, involving negotiations about which coalition partners to form a common programme of policy and to divide the posts in cabinet. On February 22, 2007 it resulted in the formation of the Fourth Balkenende cabinet.

2003 Dutch cabinet formation

The 2003 Dutch cabinet formation concerned the formation of a new cabinet after the 2003 Dutch general election held on January 22, 2003. It involved negotiations about which coalition partners would form a common programme of policy and it involved the division of the cabinet posts. After severe disagreements in the formation of a CDA-PvdA cabinet, a CDA-VVD-D66 cabinet was formed on May 27, 2003, with Balkenende as prime minister.

This article lists some of the events that took place in the Netherlands in 2006.

Nebahat Albayrak Turco-Dutch politician and civil servant

Nebahat Albayrak is a retired Turkish–Dutch politician of the Labour Party (PvdA) and jurist. She is a corporate director at Upstream International a division of Royal Dutch Shell since 5 November 2012.

Taida Pasić became famous as a result of the circumstances arising from her application for temporary stay in the Netherlands.

First Rutte cabinet cabinet

The First Rutte cabinet, also called the Rutte–Verhagen cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 14 October 2010 until 5 November 2012. The cabinet was formed by the political parties People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) after the election of 2010. The right-wing cabinet was a minority government in the House of Representatives but was supported by the Party for Freedom (PVV) for a majority. It was the first of three cabinets of Mark Rutte, the Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy as Prime Minister, with Maxime Verhagen the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal serving as Deputy Prime Minister.

2012 Dutch general election election of the members of the House of Representatives

Early general elections were held in the Netherlands on 12 September 2012 after Prime Minister Mark Rutte handed in his government's resignation to Queen Beatrix on 23 April. The 150 seats of the House of Representatives of the Netherlands were contested using party-list proportional representation. The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) received a plurality of the votes, followed by the Labour Party (PvdA).

References

  1. "Rita Verdonk stapt uit de politiek" (in Dutch). NOS. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  2. Rita's rode jaren, (Article) Harm Ede Botje, Sander Donkers, Vrij Nederland , 20 mei 2006
  3. Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  4. "VVD - Homepage". Vvd.nl. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  5. , NOS, May 2006 Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  6. "Cabinet crisis as D66 demands Verdonk resigns < Dutch news | Expatica The Netherlands". Expatica.com. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  7. Archived 31 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  8. "NOS Nieuws". Nos.nl. 24 November 2013. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
  9. "NOS Nieuws". Nos.nl. 24 November 2013. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
  10. "Verdonk moet beslissing van Kamer bevestigen | nu.nl/algemeen | Het laatste nieuws het eerst op". Nu.nl. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  11. "Verdonk wil motie niet uitvoeren" (in Dutch). www.nos.nl. 12 December 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  12. "Kamer steunt motie van afkeuring tegen Verdonk - Binnenland - VK" (in Dutch). Volkskrant.nl. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  13. "Motie van afkeuring tegen Verdonk" (in Dutch). www.nos.nl. 13 December 2006. Archived from the original on 15 December 2006.
  14. "Kabinet blijft aan (video) | nu.nl/algemeen | Het laatste nieuws het eerst op". Nu.nl. Archived from the original on 20 November 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  15. ANP (14 December 2006). "Bos tevreden met benadering Hirsch Ballin in asielkwestie - Binnenland - VK" (in Dutch). Volkskrant.nl. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  16. "Kabinet: Strengere eizen aan gezinsvorming" (in Dutch). Dutch government. 5 March 2004.
  17. 1 2 "euro|topics". Eurotopics.net. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  18. "Verdonk: op straat alleen Nederlands - Politiek - VK" (in Dutch). Volkskrant.nl. 23 January 2006. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  19. Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  20. "'Hall of Shame' Shows Reach of Homophobia". Hrw.org. 17 May 2006. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  21. Archived 26 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  22. Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  23. Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  24. "Verdonk ontkent geruchten over vertrek uit VVD (video) | nu.nl/algemeen | Het laatste nieuws het eerst op". Nu.nl. 16 March 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  25. "Verdonk verslaat Rutte; Koser Kaya verdringt Bakker" (in Dutch). Volkskrant. 27 November 2006.
  26. "Verdonk wil andere koers partij" (in Dutch). www.nu.nl. 28 November 2006.
  27. "Rutte weerstaat aanval" (in Dutch). www.nu.nl. 28 November 2006.
  28. "Verdonk: Rutte is niet echt rechts". De Volkskrant. 5 June 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2007.
  29. 1 2 Bas Benneker (5 June 2007). "Verdonk capituleert na uitspraken over Rutte". Elsevier. Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2007.
  30. "Wiegel neemt het op voor Verdonk". Trouw. 6 June 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2007.
  31. Fleuriëtte van de Velde (10 June 2007). "VVD lijdt onder onrust in partij". Elsevier. Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2007.
  32. "Rutte: Verdonk moet zich wegcijferen". RTL Nieuws. 11 June 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2007.[ dead link ]
  33. "Verdonk: VVD is gekaapt door linkse liberalen". Trouw. 21 June 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2007.
  34. Martijn Koolhoven (13 September 2007). "Verdonk uit weer kritiek" (in Dutch). De Telegraaf . Retrieved 13 September 2007.
  35. "Verdonk expelled from Liberal party". DutchNews. 13 September 2007. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 13 September 2007.
  36. "NOS Nieuws". Nos.nl. 24 November 2013. Archived from the original on 10 January 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
  37. 1 2 "Rutte zet Verdonk uit fractie" (in Dutch). NU.nl. 13 September 2007. Archived from the original on 10 January 2008. Retrieved 13 September 2007.
  38. "VVD Breaks with Rita Verdonk". NIS News. 14 September 2007. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2007.
  39. "Rita Verdonk uit VVD-fractie". VVD. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2007.
  40. "PvdA in problemen door Uruzgan-discussie". Elsevier.nl. Archived from the original on 21 February 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
Official
Party political offices
Preceded by
Office established
Leader of Proud of the Netherlands
2007–2011
Succeeded by
Hero Brinkman
Chair of Proud of the Netherlands
2007–2011
Succeeded by
Theo Reijnen
Parliamentary leader in the
House of Representatives

2007–2010
Succeeded by
Office discontinued
Political offices
Preceded by
Hilbrand Nawijn
Minister for Integration
and Asylum Affairs

2003–2006
Succeeded by
Herself
as Minister for Integration,
Rehabilitation, Prevention,
Youth Justice
Preceded by
Herself
as Integration
and Asylum Affairs
Minister for Integration, Rehabilitation,
Prevention, Youth Justice

2006–2007
Succeeded by
Office discontinued
Preceded by
Piet Hein Donner
Minister of Justice
Ad interim

2006
Succeeded by
Ernst Hirsch Ballin