Scota and Scotia are the names given to the mythological daughters of two different Egyptian pharaohs in Irish mythology, Scottish mythology and pseudohistory.Though legends vary, all agree that a Scota was the ancestor of the Gaels, who traced their ancestry to Irish invaders, called Scotti, who settled in Argyll and Caledonia, regions which later came to be known as Scotland after their founder.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.
The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland was preserved in a highly-conservative oral tradition. With the arrival of Christianity, the first manuscripts were written in Ireland, preserving many of these tales in medieval Irish literature. Though the Christian influence is also seen in these manuscripts, this literature represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. Although many of the manuscripts have not survived and much more material was probably never committed to writing, there is enough remaining to enable the identification of distinct, if overlapping, cycles: the Mythological Cycle, the Ulster Cycle, the Fenian Cycle and the Historical Cycle. There are also a number of extant mythological texts that do not fit into any of the cycles, and many recorded folk tales that continued as the oral tradition ran parallel to the manuscript tradition which, while not strictly mythological, feature personages from one or more of these four cycles.
Scottish mythology is the collection of myths that have emerged throughout the history of Scotland, sometimes being elaborated upon by successive generations, and at other times being rejected and replaced by other explanatory narratives.
Edward J. Cowan traced the first mention of Scota in literature to the 12th century.Scota appears in the Irish chronicle Book of Leinster (containing a redaction of the Lebor Gabála Érenn ). However, a text found in the 11th-century Historia Brittonum contains an earlier reference to Scota. 12th-century sources state that Scota was the daughter of an Egyptian pharaoh, a contemporary of Moses, who married Geytholos (Goídel Glas), the founder of the Scots and Gaels after being exiled from Egypt. The earliest Scottish sources claim Geytholos was a king of Greece, Neolus or Heolaus, while the Lebor Gabála Érenn describes him as a Scythian. Other manuscripts of the Lebor Gabála Érenn contain a variant legend where Mil Espaine appears as Scota's husband, and connects him to ancient Iberia.
Edward J. Cowan FRSE born in 1944 in Edinburgh is a Scottish historian. Now Emeritus Professor, formerly Professor of Scottish History at the University of Glasgow and Director of the university’s Dumfries Campus, he previously taught at the Universities of Edinburgh and Guelph, Ontario. He is a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, He has also been a Visiting Professor in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the USA.
The Book of Leinster, is a medieval Irish manuscript compiled ca. 1160 and now kept in Trinity College, Dublin, under the shelfmark MS H 2.18. It was formerly known as the Lebor na Nuachongbála "Book of Nuachongbáil", a monastic site known today as Oughaval.
Redaction is a form of editing in which multiple sources of texts are combined (redacted) and altered slightly to make a single document. Often this is a method of collecting a series of writings on a similar theme and creating a definitive and coherent work.
A variant myth in the Lebor Gabála Érenn states that there was another Scota. She was the daughter of an Egyptian pharaoh named Cingris, a name found only in Irish legend. She married Niul, son of Fenius Farsaid. Niul was a Babylonian who traveled to Scythia after the collapse of the Tower of Babel. He was a scholar of languages and was invited by the Pharaoh to Egypt to take Scota's hand in marriage. Scota and Nuil had a son, Goídel Glas, the eponymous ancestor of the Gaels, who created the Gaelic language by combining the best features of the 72 languages then in existence.
Baldred Bisset is credited with being the first to connect the Stone of Scone with the Scota foundation legends in his 1301 work Processus, putting forward an argument that Scotland, not Ireland, was where the original Scota homeland lay.
Baldred Bisset was a medieval Scottish lawyer.
The Stone of Scone —also known as the Stone of Destiny, and often referred to in England as The Coronation Stone—is an oblong block of red sandstone that has been used for centuries in the coronation of the monarchs of Scotland, and later the monarchs of England and those of the United Kingdom. Historically, the artefact was kept at the now-ruined Scone Abbey in Scone, near Perth, Scotland. It is also known as Jacob's Pillow Stone and the Tanist Stone, and in Scottish Gaelic, clach-na-cinneamhain. Its size is approximately 660 mm (26 in) by 425 mm (16.7 in) by 267 mm (10.5 in) and its weight is approximately 152 kg (335 lb). A roughly incised cross is on one surface, and an iron ring at each end aids with transport. The Stone of Scone was last used in 1953 for the coronation of Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Bisset wanted to legitimize a Scottish (as opposed to English) accession to the throne when Alexander III of Scotland died in 1286. At his coronation in 1249, Alexander himself heard his royal genealogy recited generations back to Scota. Bisset attempted to legitimize a Scottish accession by highlighting Scota's importance as the transporter of the Stone of Scone from Egypt during the exodus of Moses to Scotland. In 1296, the Stone was captured by Edward I of England and taken to Westminster Abbey. In 1323, Robert the Bruce used Bisset's legend connecting Scota to the Stone in an attempt to return it to Scone Abbey in Scotland.
Alexander III was King of Scots from 1249 until his death. He concluded the Treaty of Perth, by which Scotland acquired sovereignty over the Western Isles and the Isle of Man. His heir, Margaret, Maid of Norway, died before she could be crowned.
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.
Moses was a prophet according to the teachings of the Abrahamic religions. Scholarly consensus sees Moses as a legendary figure and not a historical person, while retaining the possibility that a Moses-like figure existed.
The 15th-century English chronicler John Hardyng later attempted to debunk Bisset's claims.
John Hardyng (1378–1465), English chronicler, was born in the north.
Andrew of Wyntoun's Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland and John of Fordun's Chronica Gentis Scotorum (1385) are sources of the Scota legends, alongside Thomas Grey's Scalacronica (1362). Hector Boece's 16th-century Historia Gentis Scotorum ("History of the Scottish People") also mentions the Scota foundation myth.
Andrew Wyntoun, known as Andrew of Wyntoun, was a Scottish poet, a canon and prior of Loch Leven on St Serf's Inch and, later, a canon of St. Andrews.
John of Fordun was a Scottish chronicler. It is generally stated that he was born at Fordoun, Mearns. It is certain that he was a secular priest, and that he composed his history in the latter part of the 14th century; and it is probable that he was a chaplain in St Machar's Cathedral of Aberdeen.
The Chronica Gentis Scotorum or Chronicles of the Scottish People was the first substantial work of Scottish history. It was written by John of Fordun, a priest of the diocese of St. Andrews and chaplain of the church of Aberdeen. Before his death, he had finished the first five books down to the reign of David I (1124-53) and had arranged his remaining materials, the last of which was dated 1385.
Walter Bower's 15th-century Scotichronicon included the first illustrations of the legends.
The grave of Scota (or Scotia's Grave) allegedly lies in a valley south of Tralee Town, Co. Kerry, Ireland. The area is known as Glenn Scoithin, "Vale of the Little Flower", but is more popularly referred to as Foley's Glen (Foley's Glen). A trail from the road leads along a stream to a clearing where a circle of large stones marks the grave site, as indicated by a County Council signpost.
Scotia is a Latin placename derived from Scoti, a Latin name for the Gaels, first attested in the late 3rd century. ). From the 9th century, its meaning gradually shifted, so that it came to mean only the part of Britain lying north of the Firth of Forth: the Kingdom of Scotland. By the later Middle Ages it had become the fixed Latin term for what in English is called Scotland. The Romans referred to Ireland as "Scotia" around 500 A.D.
In Irish origin legends, Míl Espáine or Míl Espáne is the mythical ancestor of the final inhabitants of Ireland, the "sons of Míl" or Milesians, who represent the vast majority of the Irish Gaels. His father was Bile, son of Breogan.
In the Lebor Gabála Érenn, a medieval Irish Christian pseudo-history, the Milesians are the final race to settle in Ireland. They represent the Irish people. The Milesians are Gaels who sail to Ireland from Hispania after spending hundreds of years travelling the earth. When they land in Ireland they contend with the Tuatha Dé Danann, who represent the pagan gods. The two groups agree to divide Ireland between them: the Milesians take the world above, while the Tuath Dé take the world below. They are named after the character Míl Espáine, which is the Irish form of the Latin Miles Hispaniae. Scholars believe that the tale is mostly an invention of medieval Christian writers.
Lebor Gabála Érenn is a collection of poems and prose narratives that purports to be a history of Ireland and the Irish from the creation of the world to the Middle Ages. There are a number of versions, the earliest of which was compiled by an anonymous writer in the 11th century. It synthesized narratives that had been developing over the foregoing centuries. The Lebor Gabála tells of Ireland being settled six times by six groups of people: the people of Cessair, the people of Partholón, the people of Nemed, the Fir Bolg, the Tuatha Dé Danann, and the Milesians. The first four groups are wiped out or forced to abandon the island, the fifth group represent Ireland's pagan gods, while the final group represent the Irish people.
Albanactus, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, was the founding king of Albania or Albany. He is in effect Geoffrey's eponym for Scotland. His territory was that north of the River Humber. This myth was then taken up by Giraldus Cambrensis.
The Lia Fáil is a stone at the Inauguration Mound on the Hill of Tara in County Meath, Ireland, which served as the coronation stone for the High Kings of Ireland. It is also known as the Coronation Stone of Tara. In legend, all of the kings of Ireland were crowned on the stone up to Muirchertach mac Ercae c. AD 500.
Cairbre Nia Fer, son of Rus Ruad, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a King of Tara from the Laigin.
Éber Finn, son of Míl Espáine, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland and one of the founders of the Milesian lineage, to which medieval genealogists traced all the important Gaelic royal lines.
Meilge Molbthach, son of Cobthach Cóel Breg, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He took power after killing his predecessor, and his father's killer, Labraid Loingsech. He ruled for seven or seventeen years, until he was killed by Mug Corb, grandson of Rechtaid Rígderg, in Munster. It is said that when his grave was dug, a lake burst over the land, which was called Loch Meilge after him. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with that of Ptolemy III Euergetes of Egypt. The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 369–362 BC, the Annals of the Four Masters to 523–506 BC.
Óengus Ollom, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, was a High King of Ireland who was the son of Ailill, the son of Labraid Loingsech. He took power after he killed the previous incumbent, Mug Corb, and ruled for eighteen years, until he was killed by Irereo, son of Meilge Molbthach. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronizes his reign with that of Ptolemy III Euergetes of Egypt (246–222 BC). The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 355–337 BC, the Annals of the Four Masters to 499–481 BC.
Óengus Tuirmech Temrach, son of Eochaid Ailtlethan, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He came to power after killing his predecessor, and his father's killer, Fergus Fortamail. His sons included Énna Aignech and Fiacha Fer Mara. Énna later became High King himself and was the ancestor of Conn of the Hundred Battles and thus the Connachta and Uí Néill High Kings, while Fiacha was the ancestor of Ailill Érann and the Clanna Dedad.
Énna Aignech, son of Óengus Tuirmech Temrach, was, according to medieval Irish legend, a High King of Ireland. He took power after killing his predecessor, and relative's killer, Nia Segamain, and ruled for twenty or twenty-eight years, after which he was killed by Crimthann Coscrach, the grandson of the man who had killed Énna's grandfather, in the Battle of Ard Crimthainn. Crimthann was killed by Rudraige mac Sithrigi, the great-grandson of the killer of one of Énna's ancestors. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with that of Ptolemy VIII Physcon in Egypt. The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 219–191 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 313–293 BC.
Finnat Már son of Nia Segamain, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He succeeded to the throne after the death of Rudraige mac Sithrigi of plague, but after a reign of one, three or nine years he was killed by Rudraige's son Bresal Bó-Díbad. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with that of Ptolemy X Alexander I in Egypt. The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 154–151 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 219–210 BC.
Fiacha Finnolach, son of Feradach Finnfechtnach, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He took power after killing his predecessor, Fíatach Finn. He ruled for fifteen, seventeen, or twenty-seven years, depending on the source consulted, after which he, and the freemen of Ireland, were killed in an uprising of aithech-tuatha or "subject peoples", led, according to the Lebor Gabála Érenn and the Annals of the Four Masters, by Elim mac Conrach, or by Cairbre Cinnchait according to Geoffrey Keating. His wife Eithne, daughter of the king of Alba (Scotland), who was pregnant, fled home to Alba, where she gave birth to Fíachu's son, Tuathal Techtmar, who would ultimately return to Ireland to claim the throne. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with that of the Roman emperor Nerva (AD 96–98). The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to AD 28–55, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to AD 39–56.
Fénius Farsaid is a legendary king of Scythia who shows up in different versions of Irish mythology. He was the son of Boath, a son of Magog. Other sources describe his lineage from the line of Gomer. According to some traditions, he invented the Ogham alphabet and the Gaelic language.
The origins of the Kingdom of Alba pertain to the origins of the Kingdom of Alba, or the Gaelic Kingdom of Scotland, either as a mythological event or a historical process, during the Early Middle Ages.
According to an Irish and Scottish medieval tradition, Goídel Glas is the creator of the Goidelic languages and the eponymous ancestor of the Gaels.
Lámfhind, son of Agnoman, was, according to medieval Irish historical traditions, a mythical ancestor of the Milesians, who are said to have settled Ireland from the Iberian Peninsula and from whom the lineages of most of the traditional High Kings were traced.
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