TT pistol

Last updated
TT-33 2.JPG
A Soviet-produced TT-33 pistol made in 1937
Type Semi-automatic pistol
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service1930–present
Used bySee Users
Wars Spanish Civil War
World War II
Korean War [1]
Chinese Civil War
Arab–Israeli conflict [2]
Bangladesh Liberation War [3]
Vietnam War
Laotian Civil War
Hungarian Revolution of 1956 [4]
Cambodian Civil War
Cambodian-Vietnamese War
Sino-Vietnamese War
Soviet–Afghan War
Gulf War
Yugoslav Wars
Burundian Civil War
Cambodian–Thai border stand-off
War in Afghanistan (2001–present) [5]
Syrian Civil War
and numerous others
Production history
Designer Fedor Tokarev
ManufacturerTula Arsenal, Izhevsk Arsenal, Norinco, Femaru, FB Radom, Cugir Arsenal, Zastava Arms, FÉG
Produced1930–1955 [6]
No. built1,700,000[ citation needed ]
VariantsTT-30, TT-33, TTC, M48, M48 Tokagypt, M57, M70, M70, R-3, Type 51, Type 54, Type 68, K-14
Mass854 g (30.1 oz)
Length194 mm (7.6 in)
Barrel  length116 mm (4.6 in)
Height134 mm (5.3 in)

Cartridge 7.62×25mm Tokarev
Action Short recoil actuated, locked breech, single action
Muzzle velocity 450 m/s (1,476 ft/s)
Effective firing range50 m
Feed system8-round detachable box magazine or 9-round detachable box magazine compatible with Zastava M57
SightsFront blade, rear notch
156 mm (6.1 in) sight radius

The TT-30 [lower-alpha 1] is an out-of-production Russian semi-automatic pistol. It was developed in the early 1930s by Fedor Tokarev as a service pistol for the Soviet military to replace the Nagant M1895 revolver that had been in use since Tsarist times, though it ended up being used in conjunction with rather than replacing the M1895. It served until 1952, when it was replaced by the Makarov pistol.



A Soviet junior political officer armed with a Tokarev TT-33 Service Pistol urges Soviet troops forward against German positions during World War II. The picture is allegedly of political officer Alexey Gordeevich Yeremenko, who is said to have been killed within minutes of this photograph being taken. USSROfficerTT33.JPG
A Soviet junior political officer armed with a Tokarev TT-33 Service Pistol urges Soviet troops forward against German positions during World War II. The picture is allegedly of political officer Alexey Gordeevich Yeremenko, who is said to have been killed within minutes of this photograph being taken.
Tokarev TT-33 Tokarev TT33 (6825679152).jpg
Tokarev TT-33

In 1930, the Revolutionary Military Council approved a resolution to test new small arms to replace its aging Nagant M1895 revolvers. [7] During these tests, on 7 January 1931, the potential of a pistol designed by Fedor Tokarev was noted. A few weeks later, 1,000 TT-30s were ordered for troop trials, and the pistol was adopted for service in the Red Army. [8] The TT-30 was manufactured between 1930 and 1936, with about 93,000 being produced.

But even as the TT-30 was being put into production, design changes were made to simplify manufacturing. Minor changes to the barrel, disconnector, [9] trigger and frame were implemented, the most notable ones being the omission of the removable hammer assembly and changes to the full-circumference locking lugs. This redesigned pistol was the TT-33. [8] Most TT-33s were issued to commanding officers. The TT-33 was widely used by Soviet troops during World War II, but did not completely replace the Nagant.

Design details

Externally, the TT-33 is very similar to John Browning's blowback operated FN Model 1903 semiautomatic pistol, and internally it uses Browning's short recoil tilting-barrel system from the M1911 pistol. In other areas the TT-33 differs more from Browning's designs—it employs a much simpler hammer/sear assembly than the M1911. This assembly is removable from the pistol as a modular unit and includes machined magazine feed lips, preventing misfeeds when a damaged magazine was loaded into the magazine well. [10] Soviet engineers made several alterations to make the mechanism easier to produce and maintain, most notably the simplifications of the barrel's locking lugs, allowing fewer machining steps. Some models use a captive recoil spring secured to the guide rod, which does depend on the barrel bushing to hold it under tension. The TT-33 is chambered for the 7.62×25mm Tokarev cartridge, which was itself based on the similar 7.63×25mm Mauser cartridge used in the Mauser C96 pistol. The 7.62×25mm cartridge is powerful, has an extremely flat trajectory, and is capable of penetrating thick clothing and soft body armor. Able to withstand tremendous abuse, large numbers of the TT-33 were produced during World War II and well into the 1950s. In modern times the robust TT-33 has been converted to many extremely powerful cartridges including .38 Super and 9×23mm Winchester. The TT-33 omitted a safety catch other than the half cock notch, which rendered the trigger inoperable until the hammer was pulled back to full cock and then lowered manually to the half cock position. Many imported variants have manual safeties added, which vary greatly in placement and function.


The Wehrmacht captured a fair number of TT-33s and issued them to units under the Pistole 615(r) designation. This was made possible by the fact that Russian 7.62 mm Model 1930 Type P cartridges were nearly identical to the German 7.63×25mm Mauser cartridge. Therefore, German ammunition could be used in captured Russian arms, but not vice versa. Due to much higher pressures, the Russian cartridges should never be used in the German Mauser pistols. Such use could be very dangerous. [10]

Interarms marketed World War II–surplus Russian-made Tokarevs in Europe and the United States as the Phoenix. They had new wooden grips with a phoenix design on them and were overstamped INTERARMS on the barrel. Later gun laws banned their sale due to their lack of a safety.[ citation needed ]

In 1949 a silenced variant was produced. Uniquely, the silencer is attached to the barrel bushing rather than the barrel itself (incidentally a similar method is commonly used for attaching modern aftermarket muzzle brakes). The combined weight of the suppressor with the slide prevents semi-auto cycling of the action, forcing the user to manually cycle it in the same manner as pump action firearms. It would later be replaced by the PB pistol in 1967.

Foreign production

The TT-33 was eventually replaced by the 8-round, 9×18mm Makarov PM pistol in 1952. Production of the TT-33 in Russia ended in 1954, but copies (licensed or otherwise) were also made by other countries. At one time or another most communist or Soviet bloc countries made a variation of the TT-33 pistol.


Type 54 with manual safety ChineseType54Pistol.jpg
Type 54 with manual safety

The TT pistol was copied in China as the Type 51, Type 54 , M20, and TU-90. [11]

Norinco, the People's Liberation Army's state armaments manufacturer in China, manufactured a commercial variant of the Tokarev pistol chambered in the more common 9×19mm Parabellum round, known as the Tokarev Model 213, as well as in the original 7.62×25mm caliber.

The 9mm model features a safety catch, which was absent on Russian-produced TT-33 handguns. Furthermore, the Model 213 features the thin slide grip grooves, as opposed to the original Russian wide-types. The 9mm model is featured with a magazine well block mounted in the rear of the magazine well to accept 9mm type magazines without frame modification.

The Norinco model in current production is not available for sale in the United States due to import prohibitions on Chinese firearms, although older handguns of the Model 213 type imported in the 1980s and 1990s are common.

7.62×25mm ammo is also rather inexpensive and locally produced or imported from China, also made by Norinco.


The Hungarian 'Tokagypt-58' - is a 9 mm variant of the Soviet TT pistol Tokagypt 58.jpg
The Hungarian 'Tokagypt-58' - is a 9 mm variant of the Soviet TT pistol

Hungary rebarreled the TT to fire 9×19mm Parabellum as the M48, as well as an export version for Egypt known as the Tokagypt 58 which was widely used by police forces there. [10] Tokagypts differ from the original Tokarevs by an external safety lever that can be engaged in safety decocking as well as cocked hammer position. By changing the barrel and magazine into original TT parts, a calibre change system can be made easily (after proof-shooting in countries affiliated with the CIP).

Egypt, however, cancelled much of the order of the Tokagypt and PP-like pistols manufactured in Hungary; those were marketed then in the West, like the F.R.Germany, where it was imported by Hege.

North Korea

North Korea manufactured them as the Type 68 [12] or M68. [10]


A crude Pakistani-made knockoff copy of the TT-33 Pistol. TT Pakistan.jpg
A crude Pakistani-made knockoff copy of the TT-33 Pistol.

Both legal and illegal TT pistols are still manufactured in various Pakistani Khyber Pass factories. [13]


Poland produced their own copies as the PW wz.33, manufactured from 1947 to 1959. [10] In mid-50s a training version of PW wz. 33 was created, chambered in .22lr called TT Sportowy . All of those pistols were converted between 1954 and 1958 from the 7.62mm variant by changing the barrel and removing the locking lugs from slide.

Additionally, the Radom M48 was created in Radom, Poland as another slightly modified copy of the TT33.


Romania produced a TT-33 copy as the TTC, or Cugir Tokarov well into the 1950s. These have been made available for commercial sale in great numbers in recent years. However, to be importable into the United States, a trigger blocking safety was added. [14]


The K54 is a copy of the TT-33. [15] An updated version known as the K14-VN is made by Factory Z111, and has an increased capacity of 13 rounds, with a wider grip to incorporate a double stack magazine. [15] [16] Research and development started in 2001. [17] The K14-VN began to see service with PAVN forces on May 10, 2014. [18]

The industry name for the regular K54 and the K14-VN is known as SN7M and the SN7TD. [19]

Yugoslavia (Serbia)

The Yugoslavian M57 variant with loaded 9-round magazine. Yugo Tokarev M57.jpg
The Yugoslavian M57 variant with loaded 9-round magazine.

Zastava produces an improved version of the TT-33 designated M57 .

The M57 has a longer grip and longer 9-round magazine (versus 8 rounds in TT). A 9×19mm version is also made by Zastava designated M70A as well as a compact version M88.

Zastava manufactures a sub compact pistol M70 (a.k.a.Pčelica ("little bee")) roughly based on TT design in 7,65mm Browning (.32 ACP) or 9mm Kratak (.380 ACP). [ citation needed ]

Since 2012, the M57A, M70A and M88A was formerly imported into the U.S. by Century International Arms, but has since been replaced by Zastava USA. [20] [21]


The TT-33 is still in service in the Bangladeshi and North Korean armed forces today while police in Pakistan still commonly use the TT pistol as a sidearm, though unofficially, as it is being replaced by modern 9 mm Beretta and SIG pistols. In China, the TT-33 pistol is also occasionally supplied to the People's Armed Police and People's Liberation Army under the name Type 54. [22]

The Tokarev is popular with pistol collectors and shooters in the West because of its ruggedness and reliability as well as its similar design to the M1911.

However, some complaints include poor-quality grips (which are often replaced by the wrap-around Tokagypt 58 grips) and a hand grip which extends at a vertical angle awkward for many Western shooters. Another complaint is the poor placement of the post-production safeties installed to comply with US import regulations; many shooters disassemble the pistols, remove them and restore the Tokarevs to the original configuration.

Nonetheless, the Tokarev, as well as its variants in 9mm, is renowned for its simplicity, power and accuracy. [23]


Tokarev Pistol historical usage map Tokarev Pistol historical usage map.jpg
Tokarev Pistol historical usage map

See also

Related Research Articles

7.62 mm caliber is a nominal caliber used for a number of different cartridges. Historically, this class of cartridge was commonly known as .30 caliber, the imperial unit equivalent, and was most commonly used for indicating a class of full power military main battle rifle (MBR) cartridges. The measurement equals 0.30 inches or three decimal lines, written .3″ and read as three-line.

M1911 pistol semi-automatic pistol

The M1911, also known as the Colt Government or "Government", is a single-action, semi-automatic, magazine-fed, recoil-operated pistol chambered for the .45 ACP cartridge. It served as the standard-issue sidearm for the United States Armed Forces from 1911 to 1986. It was widely used in World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. The pistol's formal designation as of 1940 was Automatic Pistol, Caliber .45, M1911 for the original model of 1911 or Automatic Pistol, Caliber .45, M1911A1 for the M1911A1, adopted in 1924. The designation changed to Pistol, Caliber .45, Automatic, M1911A1 in the Vietnam War era.

Dragunov sniper rifle 7.62 mm semi-automatic sniper rifle

The Dragunov sniper rifle is a semi-automatic sniper/designated marksman rifle chambered in 7.62×54mmR and developed in the Soviet Union.

Mauser C96 semi-automatic pistol

The Mauser C96 is a semi-automatic pistol that was originally produced by German arms manufacturer Mauser from 1896 to 1937. Unlicensed copies of the gun were also manufactured in Spain and China in the first half of the 20th century.

Makarov pistol semi-automatic pistol model by Nikolay Fyodorovich Makarov

The Makarov pistol or PM is a Russian semi-automatic pistol. Under the project leadership of Nikolay Fyodorovich Makarov, it became the Soviet Union's standard military and police side arm in 1951.

MAT-49 submachine gun

The MAT-49 was a submachine gun which was developed by French arms factory Manufacture Nationale d'Armes de Tulle (MAT) for use by the French Army and was first produced in 1949.

7.62×25mm Tokarev cartridge

The 7.62×25mm Tokarev cartridge is a Russian rimless bottlenecked pistol cartridge widely used in former Soviet satellite states, and in China and Pakistan among other countries. The cartridge has since been replaced in most capacities by the 9×18mm Makarov in Russian service.

PK machine gun 7.62 mm general-purpose machine gun

The PK, is a 7.62×54mmR general-purpose machine gun designed in the Soviet Union and currently in production in Russia. The original PK machine gun was introduced in 1961 and then the improved PKM in 1969 to replace the SGM and RP-46 machine guns in Soviet service. It remains in use as a front-line infantry and vehicle-mounted weapon with Russia's armed forces. The PK has been exported extensively and produced in several other countries under license.

The RPK is a 7.62×39mm light machine gun of Soviet design, developed by Mikhail Kalashnikov in the early 1960s, parallel with the AKM assault rifle. It was created as part of a program designed to standardize the small arms inventory of the Red Army, where it replaced the 7.62×39mm RPD light machine gun. The RPK continues to be used by the armed forces of countries of the former Soviet Union and certain African and Asian nations. The RPK is also manufactured in Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia.

Zastava M76 military weapon

The Zastava M76 is a military semi-automatic sniper/designated marksman rifle developed and manufactured by Zastava Arms.

Type 54 pistol semi-automatic pistol

The Type 54 and its variants are Chinese copies of the Soviet type Tokarev TT-33.

The Zastava M70 is an assault rifle developed and produced by Zastava Arms in Serbia. The design of the M70 was based on the Soviet AKM assault rifle and it became the standard issue weapon in the Yugoslav People's Army in 1970. This weapon is also available as the O-PAP or N-PAP in the United States without select fire capabilities.

Zastava M92

The Zastava M92 is a carbine developed and manufactured by Serbian Zastava Arms. It is nearly identical to the Zastava M85 carbine; the only differences between the two are caliber and, correspondingly, magazine design. The M92 is a shortened version of the Zastava M70 assault rifle, which is a modified copy of the Soviet AKM assault rifle.

M56 submachine gun submachine gun

The M56 submachine gun is a Yugoslavian submachine gun chambered in 7.62×25mm Tokarev, designed for use with the Yugoslav People's Army. Initially a state-funded product, it was later produced by Zastava Arms and saw use in a number of conflicts following the breakup of former Yugoslavia. The M56 is a clone of the MP 40 submachine gun used by Nazi Germany, easily distinguished from the MP 40 by its increased length and curved magazine.

Zastava M57 semi-automatic pistol

The Zastava M57 pistol was a standard sidearm of the Yugoslav Army. It is a single-action pistol chambered for the fast and powerful 7.62×25mm Tokarev cartridge. These are very popular surplus weapons in the West, as they are affordable and plentiful. Currently, the M57 and M70 pistols are produced, updated with slide-mounted safeties.

7.92×33mm Kurz intermediate cartridge

The 7.92×33mm Kurz is a rimless bottlenecked intermediate rifle cartridge developed in Nazi Germany prior to and during World War II. The ammunition is also referred to as 7.9mm Kurz, 7.9 Kurz, 7.9mmK, or 8×33 Polte. It was specifically intended for development of the Sturmgewehr 44. The round was developed as a compromise between the longer 7.92×57mm rifle and the 9×19mm Parabellum pistol rounds, and is known as an intermediate cartridge.

7.63×25mm Mauser cartridge

The 7.63×25mm Mauser round was the original cartridge for the Mauser C96 service pistol. This cartridge headspaces on the shoulder of the case. It later served as the basis for the 7.62mm Tokarev cartridge commonly used in Soviet and Eastern Bloc weapons.

Zastava M70 (pistol) semi-automatic pistol based on Tokarev

The Zastava M70, formerly designated CZ M70 is semi-automatic pistol produced by Zastava Arms as a sidearm for Yugoslav police and certain military officers. The pistol was loosely based on the Zastava M57, but is scaled down to accept the smaller and less powerful 7,65mm Browning or 9mm Kratak.

Tokarev Sportowy .22 Lr

The Tokarev Sportowy semi-automatic pistol is a Tokarev TT-33 training firearm produced in Poland and used within the former Warsaw Pact countries. While the barrel is sized to receive a .22 caliber projectile, the chamber and magazine are sized to receive 7.62×25mm Tokarev cartridges. Typically, .22 LR cartridges are inserted into a hollow 7.62×25mm Tokarev shaped cartridge, which is then loaded into the firearm.

The Z111 Factory is located in Thanh Hoá, Vietnam. It produces small arms for the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN).


  1. Russian: 7,62-мм самозарядный пистолет Токарева образца 1930 года, romanized: 7,62 mm Samozaryadny Pistolet Tokareva obraztsa 1930 goda, "7.62 mm Tokarev self-loading pistol model 1930", TT stands for Tula-Tokarev)
  1. Rottman, Gordon L. (December 2002). Korean War Order of Battle: United States, United Nations, and Communist Ground, Naval, and Air Forces, 1950-1953. Praeger. p. 198. ISBN   978-0-275-97835-8. Archived from the original on 2018-12-09. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  2. Katz, Sam (24 Mar 1988). Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars (2). Men-at-Arms 128. Osprey Publishing. p. 39. ISBN   9780850458008.
  3. "Arms for freedom". 29 December 2017. Retrieved 2019-08-31.
  4. Schmidl, Erwin; Ritter, László (10 Nov 2006). The Hungarian Revolution 1956. Elite 148. Osprey Publishing. p. 45. ISBN   9781846030796.
  5. Small Arms Survey (2012). "Surveying the Battlefield: Illicit Arms In Afghanistan, Iraq, and Somalia" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets. Cambridge University Press. p. 332. ISBN   978-0-521-19714-4. Archived from the original on 2018-08-31. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  6. Monetchikov, S. (December 2007). "АРСЕНАЛ: ТТ: МАЛЕНЬКОЕ РУССКОЕ ЧУДО" [TT: Small Russian miracle]. "Bratishka" magazine. Archived from the original on 15 January 2015.
  7. "Tokarev TT pistol (USSR/Russia)". Archived from the original on 2008-04-05. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
  8. 1 2 (March 2001). "Polish M48 (Tokarev TT-33) Pistols". Archived from the original on 2008-01-31. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
  9. Tokarev, Vladimir (2000). "Fedor V. Tokarev". Archived from the original on 2008-01-31. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Bishop, Chris (2006). The Encyclopedia of Small Arms and Artillery. Grange Books. pp. 13–14. ISBN   978-1-84013-910-5.
  11. Kokalis, Peter. Weapons Tests And Evaluations: The Best Of Soldier Of Fortune. Boulder, Colorado, USA: Paladin Press. p. 96. ISBN   978-1-58160-122-0.
  12. "Modern Firearms". Archived from the original on 8 August 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  13. "The Way of the Gun: The legendary gunsmiths of Darra Adam Khel". Riaz Ahmed. Express Tribune. Archived from the original on 2016-11-16. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
  14. Lawrence, Erik (2015-03-13). Practical Guide to the Operational Use of the TT-33 Tokarev Pistol. Erik Lawrence Publications. ISBN   9781941998267.
  15. 1 2 "K14-VN - Modern Firearms". 19 December 2015. Archived from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  16. "Sức mạnh dàn súng Việt Nam tự sản xuất". Archived from the original on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  17. "Sức mạnh dàn súng Việt Nam tự sản xuất". Archived from the original on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  18. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-04. Retrieved 2016-11-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-12-01. Retrieved 2018-12-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-04-20. Retrieved 2019-03-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-04-20. Retrieved 2019-03-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. Lawrence, Erik (2015-03-13). Practical Guide to the Operational Use of the TT-33 Tokarev Pistol. Erik Lawrence Publications. ISBN   9781941998267.
  23. Sergey (April 1, 2002). Williams, Trip (ed.). "Tokarev 213: A Chinese variant of the Soviet Tokarev". Alpha Rubicon. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN   978-0-7106-2869-5.
  25. "Bangladesh Military Forces -". Bangladesh Military Forces - Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  26. Small Arms Survey (2007). "Armed Violence in Burundi: Conflict and Post-Conflict Bujumbura" (PDF). The Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN   978-0-521-88039-8. Archived from the original on 2018-08-27. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  27. 1 2 3 Marchington, James (2004). The Encyclopedia of Handheld Weapons. Lewis International, Inc. ISBN   1-930983-14-X.
  28. Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Information Group. ISBN   0-00-712760-X.
  29. 1 2 "FINNISH ARMY 1918 - 1945: REVOLVERS & PISTOLS PART 2". Archived from the original on 23 April 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  30. 1 2 3 4 5 "Modern Firearms". Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  31. Anders, Holger (June 2014). Identifier les sources d’approvisionnement: Les munitions de petit calibre en Côte d’Ivoire (PDF) (in French). Small Arms Survey and United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire. p. 15. ISBN   978-2-940-548-05-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-10-09. Retrieved 2018-09-05.
  32. Small Arms Survey (2012). "Blue Skies and Dark Clouds: Kazakhstan and Small Arms" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets. Cambridge University Press. p. 131. ISBN   978-0-521-19714-4. Archived from the original on 2018-08-31. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  33. "Lietuvos kariuomenė :: Ginkluotė ir karinė technika » Pistoletai". Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  34. Small Arms Survey (2005). "Sourcing the Tools of War: Small Arms Supplies to Conflict Zones" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War. Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN   978-0-19-928085-8. Archived from the original on 2018-08-30. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  35. "Weapon". Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  36. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-04-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  37. //
  38. Smith, Chris (October 2003). In the Shadow of a Cease-fire: The Impacts of Small Arms Availability and Misuse in Sri Lanka (PDF). Small Arms Survey. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-07-05. Retrieved 2017-11-07.
  39. Peter Abbott (1986). Modern African Wars (1) 1965-80. p. 10. ISBN   0850457289.