This article needs additional citations for verification . (September 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Thumpamon Vadakkumnatha Temple|
Thumpamon Vadakkumnatha Temple
|Festivals||Uthrada Maholsavam Maha Shivaratri|
|Type||Traditional Kerala style|
Thumpamon Vadakkumnatha Temple is an ancient temple near Pandalam in Kerala, India.This temple has two Sreekovils (sanctum sanctorum). Both Sreekovils are round (vatta). It is an age old temple whispering several fascinating legendary fables of the bygone eras.
Pandalam is a municipal town in Pathanamthitta district of Kerala, India. Among the fastest growing towns, Pandalam is considered a holy town due to its connection with Lord Ayyappa and Sabarimala. It is also a renowned educational and health care centre in central Travancore. Rightly recognised as the educational and cultural headquarters of Central Travancore, Pandalam hosts educational institutions ranging from reputed schools to post graduate, training, ayurveda, and engineering colleges. There are seven colleges and 23 schools at Pandalam, including N. S. S. College, Pandalam. The Kerala state government plans to make the place a special Township, by including the Pandalam municipality and Kulanada panchayat.
The first Sreekovil of this temple is dedicated to a deity named as Vadakkumnathan. The day to day pooja procedure of the deity consider the lord as a representation of Lord Subramanya or Murugan,i.e. Lord Kartikeya. But some worshippers believed that the Lord installed in this Sreekovil is a form of Lord Shiva. Anyway, the concept of Lord Murugan is more famous.
Shiva also known as Mahadeva is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is one of the supreme beings within Shaivism, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism.
The worshipers believe that the deity in the second Sreekovil (known as Thekkumnathan) is Balamurugan. It is believed that this deity was worshiped by Sakthibhadra the author of Acharya Chudamani (a drama for Koodiyatta). The Sreekovil has been adorned with magnificent mural paintings that augment its beauty.The important festivals that are celebrated in this temple include Uthrada Maholsavam (Thiruutsavam - yearly celebration) Sreemath Bhagavatha Sapthaham, Mahashivarathri, Thaipooyam, Vishu, Onam, etc. The Uthrada Maholsavam is celebrated in the Uthradam star of Malayalam month Meenam.
The general form of Thumpamon Sree Vadkkumnatha temple is based on the Pancha-Prakara Layout-scheme of the traditional Kerala temples. The Bhakti movement and resurgence of Hinduism also marked the revival of temple construction. According to Kularnava Tantra human body itself is a temple and Sadashiva or Paramathma is the deity in this temple. This Sidhantha (theory) is adopted in the construction of Kerala Temples. Sreekovil or Garbhagruham (sanctum sanctorum) is considered as the head of the deity, Antharalam or inner Balivattom is considered as the face, Mukhamandapam or Namaskara mandapam is considered as the neck, Nalambalam is considered as the hands, Pradakshinaveethi is considered as the Kukshi Pradesa (stomach), compound wall is considered as the legs and the main Gopuram is considered as the foot of the deity. That means Panchaprakaras (Prakaram or compound wall, Bahyahara or Sheevelippura, Madhyahara or Vilakkumadam, Anthahara or Nalambalam and Antharalam or inner Balivattom) of the temple is the Sthoola Sareera (visible part of the body) of the deity. The Deva Prathishta or idol inside the Sreekovil or Garbhagriha and the Shadaadharas (Aadharashila, Nidhikumbham, Padmam, Koormam, Yoganaalam and Napumsaka Shila) under the Prathishta is the Sookshma Sareera (soul) of the deity. The Dwajam (flag staff) or Kodimaram is the spinal code of the deity. Hence a typical Kerala temple resembles a human body in all aspects. Fully realising the need to create places of worship that would attract devotees, the Pancha-Prakara scheme became the standard for temple architecture. The dimensions of the five components of the temple architecture are laid out in Tantra Samucchaya, a treatise on temple architecture, compiled and written in ca. 1300 AD. The five (Pancha) enclosures (Prakaras) around the Sanctum of the Thumpamon Sree Vadkkumnatha temple is as follows:
1. Akatthe-Balivattam - (a) The innermost enclosure, which includes two Sreekovils for building housing of the principal deities Vadakkumnathan and Thekkumnathan. (b) Anthar-Mandala: Space outside the Sreekovil occupied by protective deities in the form of small stone platforms - Bali-Kall (c) Namaskaara-Mandapa: A raised platform for prostrations 2. Naalambalam / Chuttambalam - Area around the sanctum which consists of (a) Valia-Ambalam: Covered spaces around the Sreekovil for rituals and prayers (b) Thittapalli: A small temple kitchen (c) Mulayara: Storage space for grains, fruits, utensils, firewood 3. Madhya Haara / Vilakku Madom - The Vilakkumadom galaxy of lamps around temple, lost in the "dark ages", was reconstructed recently. 4. Puratthe-Balivattam / Sivelippura - Outer enclosure and cirumambulatory pathway consists the following: (a) Agra-Mandapa: Pathway leading to the Naalambalam (b) Valiya-Balikall: Large decorated stone platform for sacrificial offerings (c) Bali-Peetha: Positions for protective deities outside the temple (d) Kshetra-Paala: Positions for temple guardians (e) Kovil of minor deities: Sub-shrines within the temple compound The temple had lost the Sivelippura and Koothamabalam (the enclosure for temple musicians) in the "dark ages". 5. Maryaada / Puram Mathil - The outer boundary wall consists the following: (a) Gopuram - Tower marking the main gateways (b) Reconstructed Oottu-Pura: Lunch-hall (c) Puram-Mathil: Outer-wall
The evolution of Thumpamon Sreevadkkumnatha temple is closely related to the evolution of other great temples in Kerala and the Kerala’s social and cultural history. Historians divide the history of Kerala temples into four stages:
1. Earliest shrines (Before 300 BC) 2. Age of Jain temples (ca. 300 BC to 500 AD) 3. Age of Buddhist temples (ca. 200 BC to 800 AD) 4. Revival of Hinduism & the 'new' Brahminical temples (ca. 800 AD onwards)
According to this classification, Thumpamon Sree Vadkkumnatha temple belongs to the third and fourth stages. This temple consists two Sreekovils (Sanctum Sanctorum). Both Sreekovils are round (Vatta) in shape. The deity in the first Sreekovil is called Vadakkumnatha. Some worshipers believe that this deity is Shiva. Some another worshipers believe that this deity is Muruga and another opinion is that the deity is Vishnu. Not too much evidence is remaining about the deity in first Sreekovil, i.e., Vadakkumnatha. In between 300 BC and 800 AD the Hinduism was dominated by Jainism and Buddhism. Both these religions are originated from the revival movements in Hinduism. Buddhism was introduced in Kerala by the missions sent out by emperor Ashoka. For more than 700 years, Buddhism flourished in Kerala. The Paliyam copper plates of the Ay King, Varaguna (885-925 AD) shows that at least in South Kerala, Buddhists continued to enjoy royal patronage even until 1000 AD. According to some of the historians in Kerala, many Hindu temples were once Buddhist shrines, including Vadakkunathan temple of Thrissur. So Thumpamon Sree Vadkkumnatha temple might also have a close relation to the Buddhist tradition.
Shankaracharya and the Revival of Hinduism by Brahmin scholars in 800-1000 AD gradually wiped out Buddhism from Kerala. Royal patronage by the Vaisnavite Kulashekara dynasty hastened this process. The Vedic Brahmins arrived in Kerala only in 700-800 AD, along the west coast Tulu-nadu and from Andhra Pradhesh (Thazhamom madom, the Thanthris of Thumpamon Sree Vadkkumnatha Temple belongs to Andhra Pradesh). But unlike in North India, the Brahmins in Kerala adopted the Tantric form of temple ritual-worship.
During the time of Maurya Sharman, a Kadamba King, large colonies of Brahmins from North India were invited to settle in Tulu and Kerala. In 792 AD, King Udaya Varman of Mooshika dynasty settled 237 Brahmin families in Kerala. One tradition has it that six outstanding Brahmins came with these immigrants, defeated Buddhist leaders in public debates and established the intellectual supremacy of Hinduism. (Nearby Thumpamon Sree Vadkkumnatha temple there are house names like Velenikkal Madom, Onpalli Madom, Thazhamon Madom etc.). The Brahmin scholars like Guru Prabhakara and Shankaracharya (788-820 AD) reinforced the supremacy of Hinduism. It is believed that the deity (Balamuruga) in the second Sreekovil of the Thumpamon Sree Vadkkumnatha temple (known as Thekkumnathan) was worshiped by Sakthibhadra, the author of Acharya Chudamani. Sakthibhadra was a contemporary of Shankaracharya and after completing Achrya Choodanani he had given it to Sankaracharya for his opinion. That time Shankaracharya was at Chenganoor Mahadeva temple and was in Munavritha. So he did not give the opinion and Sakthibhadra thought that Shankarachrya does not like his text. So he burned it. But after some times Shankara visited Shakthibhadra and said that the text was remarkable. But Shakthibhadra informed Shankara, that he had burned the text. Then Shankara recaptured the full text from his memory and gave it to Shakthibhadra. All these stories relate the Thumpamon Sree Vadkkumnatha temple to Shankara and Shakthibhadra.
During the reign of the Chera King Rama Varma Kulashekara (1090-1102 AD), Kerala was overrun by the mighty Cholas, led by Koluthunga I. The Cholas burnt down Mahodayapuram (1012 AD), the capital of the Cheras and destroyed Kollam (Quilon), the capital of Venad. Defeated in conventional warfare, the famous warrior class of Kerala, the Nairs, formed suicide squads - Chavar - against the invaders. Numerous Kalaris (gymnasia giving training in attack and self-defence) were established, turning Kerala into one large insurgent military camp. Though the Cholas could not make enduring conquests, they did manage to smash the Chera empire and turn it into numerous, small independent principalities. The Nairs had lost huge numbers of men in battles. The Nair households, the Tharavaads totally lost it glory. The rulers also lost their economic power. Without royal patronage, the powers of the temples too declined. The king handed over the temple to the local Namboothiri Brahmins. The temples then began to be owned and managed by the Namboothiri Brahmins. So we can assume that from this time onwards the Thumpamon Sree Vadakum Nathan temple was owned by Velinikal Illom.
Break-up of joint families led to the weakening of Brahmin communities and the Nair Tharavaads. This age could be called the Dark Ages for Kerala (from late 1300 AD to early 1700 AD) - the Hindu society had created for itself the most difficult citation in the history. At this stage the Thumpamon Sree Vadkkumnatha temple also lost it glory. During this time it might have lost Vilakkumaadam, Sheevelippura, Dwaja-Sthamba (Kodimaram) etc.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thumpamon Vadakkumnatha Temple .|
Kalady or Kaladi is a census town located between Angamaly and Perumbavoor, east of the Periyar river, it is also a village in Aluva Taluk, Ernakulam district of Kerala, India, not far from Cochin International Airport. It is notable as the birthplace of 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian Adi Shankara and is a popular destination for Hindu pilgrims.
Guruvayur Sri Krishna Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the Hindu god Guruvayurappan, located in the town of Guruvayur in Kerala, India. It is one of the most important places of worship for Hindus of Kerala and is often referred to as Bhuloka Vaikunta, which translates to as Holy Abode of Vishnu on Earth.
Vadakkunnathan Temple is an ancient Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva at city of Thrissur, of Kerala state in India. This temple is a classic example of the architectural style of Kerala and has monumental towers on all four sides and also a kuttambalam. Mural paintings depicting various episodes from Mahabharata can be seen inside the temple. The shrines and the Kuttambalam display vignettes carved in wood. The temple, along with the mural paintings, has been declared as a National Monument by India under the AMASR Act. According to popular local lore, this is the first temple built by Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu. Thekkinkadu maidan, encircling the Vadakkunnathan Temple, is the main venue of the Thrissur Pooram.
Kumaranalloor is a suburb of Kottayam city, Kottayam taluk, Kerala, India. Kottayam city is just 5 km south of Kumaranalloor. The region was administrated by the Kumaranallur grama panchayath till 2010, before the local self-governing body was merged into the Kottayam municipality. The former Panchayath office now exists as the regional administrative office for the municipality. The village is situated on the banks of Meenachil river.
The Kamakshi Temple is an ancient Hindu Temple dedicated to Kamakshi, the ultimate form of Goddess Lalitha Maha Tripurasundari(Parvati). It is located in the historic city of Kanchipuram, near Chennai, India. The Meenakshi Temple in Madurai, the Akilandeswari temple in Thiruvanaikaval near Tiruchirappalli and this Kamakshi temple are the important centers of worship of Goddess, in the state of Tamil Nadu. The Temple was most probably built by the Pallava kings, whose capital was Kanchipuram.
The Aranmula Parthasarathy Temple is one of the "Divya Desams", the 108 temples of Vishnu revered by the 12 poet saints, or Alwars located near Aranmula, a village in Pathanamthitta District, Kerala, South India. Constructed in the Kerala style of architecture, the temple is glorified in the Divya Prabandha, the early medieval Tamil canon of the Azhwar saints from the 6th–9th centuries AD. It is one of the 108 Divyadesam dedicated to Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu, who is worshipped as Parthasarathy. The nearest railway station to the temple is located in Chengannur, while the nearest airport is Trivandrum International Airport.
Ananthapadmanabhaswamy Temple or Anantha Lake Temple is a Hindu temple built in the middle of a lake in the little village of Ananthapura, around 6 km from the town of Kumbla in Manjeswaram taluk of Kasaragod District of Kerala, South India. This is the only lake temple in Kerala and is believed to be the original seat (Moolasthanam) of Ananthapadmanabha Swami Thiruvananthapuram. Legend has it that this is the original site where Ananthapadmanabha settled down.
Anandavalleeswaram Sri Mahadevar Temple in Kollam city is one of the ancient Hindu temples in Kerala, India. Lord Siva and Goddess Anandavally are the main deities of the temple. According to folklore, sage Parashurama has installed the idol of Lord Shiva. The temple is a part of the 108 famous Shiva temples in Kerala. It is located at Anandavalleeswaram, a major neighborhood of Kollam city, that comes to the west side of Kollam Collectorate.
Thumpamon is a village at Pandalam in Kerala, India. One of the greatest attractions of this village is the Achenkovil River, which is known for its natural sceneries along the riverbank. The village relies on Non-resident Indian (NRIs) and crops like rubber, coconut, paddy and pepper. Because of Non-Resident Indians, this is one of the wealthiest villages in Kerala. Thumpamon is divided into two regions, Thumpamon North and Thumpamon South, by the Achenkovil River.
Hinduism is the largest religion in Kerala and Hindu castes together make up 54% of the population of the state according to the 2011 census.
Sreevallabha Temple is a highly orthodox Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Sreevallabhan. It is one of the oldest and biggest Temples of Kerala, and has been a major destination for devotees all over India for centuries. Located in Thiruvalla city, this ocean of orthodoxy is well known for its architectural grandeur and unique customs that can be found in no other temples. There are stone-wooden carvings and mural paintings inside the temple. Being one among 108 Divya Desams, Sreevallabha temple has been glorified by Alvars and many other ancient works. It is considered to be the vallabha kshethram mentioned in Garuda Purana and Matsya Purana. Kathakali is played daily in the temple as an offering, pushing it to the top in India in terms of places where Kathakali is staged in largest number of days per year. Lord Vishnu appeared here as Sreevallabhan for sage Durvasa and Khandakarnan. Pleased by prayers of an old Brahmin lady Sreevallabhan incarnated as a brahmachari and killed the demon Thokalaasuran. Later the deity of Sreevallabhan worshipped by Lakshmi and Krishna has been installed in the temple in 59 BC. From then till date, the temple follows its own worship protocol that is known to be followed nowhere else yet. Sage Durvasa and Saptarishi are said to reach the temple every midnight for worshipping the Lord. The temple had governed one of the biggest educational institutions in ancient time and heavily contributed to the cultural and educational developments of Kerala
Ernakulam Shiva Temple, also known as Ernakulathappan Temple is one of the major temples of Kerala, located in heart of Ernakulam, the downtown area of the city of Kochi. The temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva, is considered as the city temple, with the presiding deity as the protector of the city, as per local Hindu faiths and traditions. As per the common practice in Kerala, the deity is reverently called Ernakulathappan, which means Lord of Ernakulam. The temple is located within the Durbar Hall Ground. The temple history itself has deep association with history of the city and was one of the 7 royal temples of Kochi Maharajas. The temple is now under administration of Cochin Devasom Board. The temple in its current form was built under active patronage of Diwan Sri Edakkunni Sankara Warrier in year 1846 and raised it level of a Royal temple in the Kochi Kingdom. The temple is built on 1-acre (4,000 m2) land. The temple is one of the major Shiva temples in Kerala counted along with the Ettumanoor Mahadevar Temple, Kaduthruthy Mahadeva Temple, Vaikom Temple, Chengannur Mahadeva Temple and Vadakkunathan temple.
Vazhappally Maha Siva Temple is a Hindu temple located in Vazhappally near Changanassery in Kottayam district in the Indian state of Kerala. The temple is administered by the Travancore Devaswom Board. The temple is believed to be constructed by the first Chera king of Kodungallur. The legends suggest that the installation of the idol of god Mahadeva (Shiva) was performed by Parasurama himself. This temple is one among the 108 Shiva temples established by Parasurama. It is one of the few temples in Kerala where two nalambalams and two flag-masts are dedicated. The temple, a Grama Kshetra, also contains some seventeenth century wood carvings depicting figurines from epics. A Vattezhuttu inscription on the northern part of the base of the cultural shrine indicates that the repairs were completed in Kollam Era 840 (1665 AD).
The Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Temple is the foremost temple of Gowda Saraswatha Brahmins in and around Thalassery.
Thirupalkadal SreeKrishna Temple is one of the oldest Hindu temples dedicated to the god Vishnu, located in the village Keezhperoor, Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala, India. The central icon is a four-armed standing Vishnu carrying the conch Panchajanya(Turbinella pyrum), the discus Sudarshana Chakra, the mace Kaumodaki and a lotus with a Holy basil garland. The principal deity, Krishna(Thirupalkadal Bhattarakar) was the family deity of Ay Family, who ruled over the place during the Sangam period. The kingdom and the family later came to be known as Venad Keezhperoor Swaroopam. In the early medieval Tamil literature canon of the Tamil Alvar saints, the temple is one of the 108 principal Divya Desams in Vaishnavism, and is glorified in the Divya Prabandha. The Divya Prabandha glorifies this shrine as being among the 14 Divya Desam in Malai Nadu. It is believed that Kulashekhara Alwar, considered the seventh in the line of the twelve Azhwars, renovated this temple.The Temple legends of this temple are closely intertwined with that of the empires and kingdoms that ruled Tamizhagam and the state presently known as Kerala. The history of this Temple is closely intertwined with the Chera and Chola Empires and the Kingdoms of Venad and Travancore. This Temple is located in the Keezhperoor village, Chirayinkeezhu Taluk, Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala. This Temple is located in a peaceful and serene rustic countryside.
Amunthirathu Devi Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Goddess Sree Bhadra Kali located in Thiruvananthapuram, India. This ancient temple, from the time immemorial, is situated at Mudakkal, around 8 km north of Attingal in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. The temple enshrines a Krishna shila idol of the goddess Amunthirathamma, an incarnation of Bhadra Kali. Devi is in Ardha padmasana, Andarmugha and chathur bahu.
Kallazhagar Temple in Alagar Koyil, a village in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu. Constructed in the Dravidian style of architecture, the temple is glorified in the Divya Prabandha, the early medieval Tamil canon of the Azhwar saints from the 6th–9th centuries AD. It is one of the 108 Divyadesam dedicated to Vishnu, who is worshipped as Kallazhagar and his consort Lakshmi as Thirumamagal.
Iranikulam Sree Mahadeva Temple is located at Iranikulam, Mala in Thrissur district. The temple has two main deities, Thekkadathappan and Vadakkedathappan. Both deities are Lord Shiva. In the rehabilitation of the temple, the new idol was replaced by a broken statue. The South shrine is generally considered to be the two-level Sanctum sanctorum shrine of Lord Shiva. The presiding deities of north shrine are Lord Shiva, Parvati and Subramanya dwell at the same altar in the sanctum sanctorum facing east. It is believed that this temple is one of the 108 Shiva temples of Kerala and is installed by sage Parasurama dedicated to Lord Shiva. The temple is located center of ancient Iranikulam grama (village). Maha Shivarathri festival of the temple celebrates in the Malayalam month of Kumbha.
Thiruvatta Mahadeva Temple is an ancient Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva is situated on the banks of the Manimalayar (river) in Thiruvalla of Pathanamthitta District in Kerala state in India. References to this temple is found in Vazhappally inscription relates to the rule of Kodungallur Chera king Rama Rajasekhara and temple at Vazhappally. It is the earliest available epigraphical record mentioning a Kodungallur Chera king and written in Malayalam language. According to folklore, sage Parashurama has installed the idol of Lord Shiva in the Treta Yuga. The temple is a part of the 108 famous Shiva temples in Kerala.