Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai

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The Tirumurukarruppatai poem is dedicated to Murugan. Murugan by Raja Ravi Varma.jpg
The Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai poem is dedicated to Murugan.

Tirumurukātṟuppatai (Tamil : திருமுருகாற்றுப்படை, meaning Guide to Lord Murugan) is an ancient intensely devotional Tamil poem in the Sangam literature genre entirely dedicated to the god Murugan. Murugan is described as the nephew of the god Vishnu, who is called Mayon or the ruler of the worlds. [1] Authored by Nakkiranar, it is the first poem in the Ten Idylls (Pattuppāṭṭu) anthology. [1] The poem is generally dated to the late classical period (2nd to 4th century CE), [2] with some scholars suggesting it may have been composed a few centuries later. [3]

Contents

Topics in Sangam literature
Sangam literature
Agattiyam Tolkāppiyam
Eighteen Greater Texts
Eight Anthologies
Aiṅkurunūṟu Akanāṉūṟu
Puṟanāṉūṟu Kalittokai
Kuṟuntokai Natṟiṇai
Paripāṭal Patiṟṟuppattu
Ten Idylls
Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai Kuṟiñcippāṭṭu
Malaipaṭukaṭām Maturaikkāñci
Mullaippāṭṭu Neṭunalvāṭai
Paṭṭiṉappālai Perumpāṇāṟṟuppaṭai
Poruṇarāṟṟuppaṭai Ciṟupāṇāṟṟuppaṭai
Related topics
Sangam Sangam landscape
Tamil history from Sangam literature Ancient Tamil music
Eighteen Lesser Texts
Nālaṭiyār Nāṉmaṇikkaṭikai
Iṉṉā Nāṟpatu Iṉiyavai Nāṟpatu
Kār Nāṟpatu Kaḷavaḻi Nāṟpatu
Aintiṇai Aimpatu Tiṉaimoḻi Aimpatu
Aintinai Eḻupatu Tiṇaimālai Nūṟṟaimpatu
Tirukkuṟaḷ Tirikaṭukam
Ācārakkōvai Paḻamoḻi Nāṉūṟu
Ciṟupañcamūlam Mutumoḻikkānci
Elāti Kainnilai
Bhakti Literature
Naalayira Divya Prabandham Ramavataram
Tevaram Tirumuṟai
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The anthologies and poems of the Sangam literature have numerous references and verses to Murugan – also known as Subrahmanya, Kumara, Skanda, Kartikeya in other parts of India. [4] The Tirumurukarruppatai poem is exclusively about different manifestations and shrines of Murugan. It describes different major temples dedicated to him in the Tamil region, six locations, the natural scenes, worship practices and the culture of the people. [4] [5]

Description

The Tirumurukarruppatai has 312 akaval meter verses, states Zvelebil. [6] According to Francis, the critical editor has 317 verses. [7] It describes the beauty and the warrior nature of Murugan, six sacred shrine regions of Murugan, legends such as the killing of Surapadma, his six faces and the twelve arms along with their functions. The Hindu god is described as a gentle erotic lover of goddesses as well as a gruesome bloody warrior on the battlefield. [6] [7] This elaboration includes 30 verses on the beauty of every body part of heavenly maidens. [8] Metaphors refer to Indra, kantal flowers, emerald sea and others to paint "magnificent natural scenes", states Zvelebil. The poem highlights the peacock and his war banner flag. Both his consorts Devasena – the daughter of the Vedic god of rain, thunder and war Indra, and Valli – the Kuruvar Vedar girl, are included in the poem. It also mentions the Vedas and has numerous loanwords from the classical Sanskrit literature. [9]

Murugan, as described in the Tirumurukarruppatai, has features that include those found in ancient north Indian descriptions of Skanda. According to Zvelebil, this may reflect that the Tirumurukarruppatai was composed after significant interactions between north and south India had already happened. Murugan's father Shiva and mother Korravai (Parvati, Durga) are also reverentially covered in the poem. [10]

The Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai is not only a part of the Sangam literature, it is also part of another Tamil textual canon, as the eleventh of twelve Tirumuṟai . The twelve Tirumurais (books) are the devotional Tamil corpus in the Hindu Shaiva tradition in Tamil Nadu. The Tirumurukarruppatai was likely included in this corpus for god Shiva, because Murugan is one of his sons and the historic reverence for the text. [7] The text is part of these two anthologies, but in some Tamil Hindu communities, the Tirumurukarruppatai manuscripts are found as a separate text, on its own, as a devotional guide. [7]

See also

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Paṭṭiṉappālai is a Tamil poem in the ancient Sangam literature. It contains 301 lines, of which 296 lines are about the port city of Kaveripoompattinam, the early Chola kingdom and the Chola king Karikalan. The remaining 5 lines are on the proposed separation by a man who wants to move there and the separation pain of his wife who would miss her husband's love. Of the 301 lines, 153 are in the vanci meter and the rest are in akaval. It is sometimes referred to as Vancinetumpattu, or the "long song in the vanci meter". The poem was composed by Katiyalur Uruttirankannanar, sometime around 1st century and 2nd century CE, states Kamil Zvelebil – a Tamil literature scholar. There are mentions of Mahalakshmi painted on walls and considered her as the goddess of fortune and wealth. The poem explains that the high and strong walls of the city secure the king where Mahalakshmi sits enthroned. There are mentions in Paṭṭiṉappālai that many Tamilians worshiped tall pillars or posts as Mayon (Vishnu). There are Many mentions of Maha Vishnu throughout the poem. There are temples present even now, where Maha Vishnu is worshiped in a pillar form. A well known example is the Kaliyuga Varadaraja Perumal Temple. It mentions the worship of Maha Vishnu, Mahalakshmi and Murugan. Muruga was worshiped as the red god and the god of war.

Neṭunalvāṭai is an ancient Tamil poem in the Sangam literature. Also referred to as Nedunalvadai, it is a blend of a love and war story, highlighting the pains of separation of a queen waiting for her lover to return from the distant war. Authored by Nakkirar, it is the seventh poem in the Pattuppāṭṭu anthology. The poem is generally dated to the late classical period.

Nakkīraṉãr, sometimes spelled Nakkirar or Nakkiranar, was a post-Sangam era Tamil poet. He is credited with the devotional poem to the Hindu god Murugan in the Pattuppāṭṭu anthology, titled Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai. In the historic Tamil tradition, he is believed to have also authored a second poem in the Sangam collection titled Neṭunalvāṭai, as well as a detailed commentary on Iraiyanar Akapporul. However, according to the Tamil literature scholar Kamil Zvelebil, the Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai and the Neṭunalvāṭai were likely authored by two different Nakkirar, and Nakkīraṉãr and the older Nakkīrar were different individual. It is uncertain as to which century Nakkiranar lived, much like the chronology of the Sangam literature. Scholars variously place his works between 3rd and 8th century CE, with Zvelebil suggesting late classical.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kartikeya</span> Hindu god of victory and war

Kartikeya, also known as Skanda, Subrahmanya, Shanmukha and Murugan, is the Hindu god of war. He is the son of Shiva and Parvati and the brother of Ganesha.

References

  1. 1 2 Zvelebil 1973, pp. 125–126.
  2. Zvelebil 1973, pp. 119–126.
  3. Zvelebil 1973, p. 130.
  4. 1 2 Linda Penkower; Tracy Pintchman (2014). Hindu Ritual at the Margins: Innovations, Transformations, Reconsiderations. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 28–30. ISBN   978-1-61117-390-1.
  5. Zvelebil 1973, pp. 125–128.
  6. 1 2 Zvelebil 1973, pp. 125–127 with footnotes.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Emmanuel Francis (2017). "The Other Way Round: From Print to Manuscript" (PDF). In Vincenzo Vergiani; Daniele Cuneo; Camillo Alessio Formigatti (eds.). Indic Manuscript Cultures through the Ages: Material, Textual, and Historical Investigations. De Gruyter. pp. 321–322. doi:10.1515/9783110543100. ISBN   978-3-11-054312-4.
  8. Abraham Mariaselvam (1988). The Song of Songs and Ancient Tamil Love Poems: Poetry and Symbolism. Gregorian. p. 245. ISBN   978-88-7653-118-7.
  9. Zvelebil 1973, pp. 129–131 with footnotes.
  10. Zvelebil 1973, pp. 129–130 with footnotes.

Bibliography