|, EPI, LACI, TFI, TFPI1, tissue factor pathway inhibitor|
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (or TFPI) is a single-chain polypeptide which can reversibly inhibit factor Xa (Xa). While Xa is inhibited, the Xa-TFPI complex can subsequently also inhibit the FVIIa-tissue factor complex. TFPI contributes significantly to the inhibition of Xa in vivo, despite being present at concentrations of only 2.5 nM.
The gene for TFPI is located on chromosome 2q31-q32.1, and has nine exons which span 70 kb. A similar gene, termed TFPI2 , has been identified on chromosome 7, at locus 7q21.3; in addition to TFPI activity, its product also has retinal pigment epithelial cell growth-promoting properties.
TFPI has a relative molecular mass of 34,000 to 40,000 depending on the degree of proteolysis of the C-terminal region.
TFPI consists of a highly negatively charged amino-terminus, three tandemly linked Kunitz domains, and a highly positively charged carboxy-terminus. With its Kunitz domains, TFPI exhibits significant homology with human inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor and bovine basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor.
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor has been shown to interact with Factor X.
Coagulation, also known as clotting, is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion and aggregation of platelets, as well as deposition and maturation of fibrin.
Thrombin is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene. Prothrombin is proteolytically cleaved to form thrombin in the clotting process. Thrombin in turn acts as a serine protease that converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble strands of fibrin, as well as catalyzing many other coagulation-related reactions.
Coagulation factor XII, also known as Hageman factor, is a plasma protein. It is the zymogen form of factor XIIa, an enzyme of the serine protease class. In humans, factor XII is encoded by the F12 gene.
Coagulation factor VII is one of the proteins that causes blood to clot in the coagulation cascade, and in humans is coded for by the gene F7. It is an enzyme of the serine protease class. Once bound to tissue factor released from damaged tissues, it is converted to factor VIIa, which in turn activates factor IX and factor X.
Factor IX is one of the serine proteases of the coagulation system; it belongs to peptidase family S1. Deficiency of this protein causes haemophilia B. It was discovered in 1952 after a young boy named Stephen Christmas was found to be lacking this exact factor, leading to haemophilia.
Protein C, also known as autoprothrombin IIA and blood coagulation factor XIX, is a zymogen, that is, an inactive enzyme. The activated form plays an important role in regulating anticoagulation, inflammation, and cell death and maintaining the permeability of blood vessel walls in humans and other animals. Activated protein C (APC) performs these operations primarily by proteolytically inactivating proteins Factor Va and Factor VIIIa. APC is classified as a serine protease since it contains a residue of serine in its active site. In humans, protein C is encoded by the PROC gene, which is found on chromosome 2.
Thrombophilia is an abnormality of blood coagulation that increases the risk of thrombosis. Such abnormalities can be identified in 50% of people who have an episode of thrombosis that was not provoked by other causes. A significant proportion of the population has a detectable thrombophilic abnormality, but most of these develop thrombosis only in the presence of an additional risk factor.
Factor X, also known by the eponym Stuart–Prower factor, is an enzyme of the coagulation cascade. It is a serine endopeptidase. Factor X is synthesized in the liver and requires vitamin K for its synthesis.
Factor XI or plasma thromboplastin antecedent is the zymogen form of factor XIa, one of the enzymes of the coagulation cascade. Like many other coagulation factors, it is a serine protease. In humans, Factor XI is encoded by the F11 gene.
Protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI) is a protein circulating in the blood which inhibits factors Xa and XIa of the coagulation cascade. It is a member of the class of the serine protease inhibitors (serpins). Its name implies that it requires protein Z, another circulating protein, to function properly, but this only applies to its inhibition of factor X.
Protein Z is a Protein in humans which is encoded by the PROZ gene.
Tissue factor, also called platelet tissue factor, factor III, or CD142, is a protein encoded by the F3 gene, present in subendothelial tissue and leukocytes. Its role in the clotting process is the initiation of thrombin formation from the zymogen prothrombin. Thromboplastin defines the cascade that leads to the activation of factor X—the tissue factor pathway. In doing so, it has replaced the previously named extrinsic pathway in order to eliminate ambiguity.
The prothrombinase complex consists of the serine protease, Factor Xa, and the protein cofactor, Factor Va. The complex assembles on negatively charged phospholipid membranes in the presence of calcium ions. The prothrombinase complex catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin (Factor II), an inactive zymogen, to thrombin (Factor IIa), an active serine protease. The activation of thrombin is a critical reaction in the coagulation cascade, which functions to regulate hemostasis in the body. To produce thrombin, the prothrombinase complex cleaves two peptide bonds in prothrombin, one after Arg271 and the other after Arg320. Although it has been shown that Factor Xa can activate prothrombin when unassociated with the prothrombinase complex, the rate of thrombin formation is severely decreased under such circumstances. The prothrombinase complex can catalyze the activation of prothrombin at a rate 3 x 105-fold faster than can Factor Xa alone. Thus, the prothrombinase complex is required for the efficient production of activated thrombin and also for adequate hemostasis.
Plasma kallikrein is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction
β2-glycoprotein 1, also known as beta-2 glycoprotein 1 and Apolipoprotein H (Apo-H), is a 38 kDa multifunctional plasma protein that in humans is encoded by the APOH gene. One of its functions is to bind cardiolipin. When bound, the structure of cardiolipin and β2-GP1 both undergo large changes in structure. Within the structure of Apo-H is a stretch of positively charged amino acids, Lys-Asn-Lys-Glu-Lys-Lys, are involved in phospholipid binding.
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFPI2 gene.
Protease activated receptor 3 (PAR-3) also known as coagulation factor II receptor-like 2 (F2RL2) and thrombin receptor-like 2, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the F2RL2 gene.
Hepatocyte growth factor activator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HGFAC gene.
Kunitz domains are the active domains of proteins that inhibit the function of protein degrading enzymes or, more specifically, domains of Kunitz-type are protease inhibitors. They are relatively small with a length of about 50 to 60 amino acids and a molecular weight of 6 kDa. Examples of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors are aprotinin, Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). Kunitz STI protease inhibitor, the trypsin inhibitor initially studied by Moses Kunitz, was extracted from soybeans.
Four drugs from the class of direct Xa inhibitors are marketed worldwide. Rivaroxaban (Xarelto) was the first approved FXa inhibitor to become commercially available in Europe and Canada in 2008. The second one was apixaban (Eliquis), approved in Europe in 2011 and in the United States in 2012. The third one edoxaban was approved in Japan in 2011 and in Europe and the US in 2015. Betrixaban (Bevyxxa) was approved in the US in 2017.