Walkabout (film)

Last updated

Walkabout
Walkaboutposter.jpg
American release poster
Directed by Nicolas Roeg
Produced bySi Litvinoff
Screenplay by Edward Bond
Based on Walkabout
by James Vance Marshall
Starring
Music by John Barry
CinematographyNicolas Roeg
Edited by
Production
company
Max L. Raab-Si Litvinoff Films
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date
  • 6 May 1971 (1971-05-06)(Cannes) [1]
  • 1 July 1971 (1971-07-01)(U.S.) [1]
  • 17 December 1971 (1971-12-17)(Australia)
Running time
100 minutes [2]
Countries
  • United Kingdom [1]
  • Australia [1]
  • United States [1]
LanguageEnglish [2]
Budget A$1 million [3]

Walkabout is a 1971survival film directed by Nicolas Roeg and starring Jenny Agutter, Luc Roeg, and David Gulpilil. Edward Bond wrote the screenplay, which is loosely based on the 1959 novel Walkabout by James Vance Marshall. Set in the Australian outback, it centres on two white schoolchildren who are left to fend for themselves in the Australian outback and who come across a teenage Aboriginal boy who helps them to survive.

Contents

Roeg's second feature film, Walkabout was released internationally by 20th Century Fox, and was one of the first films in the Australian New Wave cinema movement. Alongside Wake in Fright , it was one of two Australian films entered in competition for the Grand Prix du Festival at the 1971 Cannes Film Festival. [4] It was subsequently released in the United States in July 1971, and in Australia in December 1971.

In 2005, the British Film Institute included it in their list of the "50 films you should see by the age of 14".

Plot

A white teenaged schoolgirl, her younger brother, and their father drive from their home in Sydney into the Australian outback, ostensibly for a picnic. As they prepare to eat, the father draws a gun and begins firing at the children. The boy believes it to be a game, but the daughter realizes her father is attempting to murder them, and flees with her brother, seeking shelter behind rocks. She watches as her father sets their car on fire and shoots himself in the head. The girl conceals the suicide from her brother, retrieves some of the picnic food, and leads him away from the scene, attempting to walk home through the desert.

By the middle of the next day, they are weak and the boy can barely walk. Discovering a small water hole with a fruiting tree, they spend the day playing, bathing, and resting. By the next morning, the water has dried up. They are then discovered by an Aboriginal boy. Although the girl cannot communicate with him, due to the language barrier, her brother mimes their need for water and the newcomer cheerfully shows them how to draw it from the drying bed of the oasis. The three travel together, with the Aboriginal boy sharing Kangaroo meat he has caught from hunting. The boys learn to communicate slightly using words and sign language.

While in the vicinity of a plantation, a white woman walks past the Aboriginal boy, who simply ignores her when she speaks to him. She appears to see the other children, but they do not see her, and they continue on their journey. The children also discover a weather balloon belonging to a nearby research team working in the desert. After drawing markings of a modern-style house, the Aboriginal boy eventually leads them to an abandoned farm, and takes the small boy to a nearby road. The Aboriginal boy hunts down a water buffalo and is wrestling it to the ground when two white hunters appear in a truck and nearly run him over. He watches in shock as they shoot several buffalo with a rifle. The boy then returns to the farm, but passes by without speaking.

Later, the Aboriginal boy lies in a trance among a slew of buffalo bones, having painted himself in ceremonial markings. He returns to the farmhouse, catching the undressing girl by surprise, and initiates a mating ritual by performing a courtship dance in front of her. [5] Although he dances outside all day and into the night until he becomes exhausted, she is frightened and hides from him, and tells her brother they will leave him the next day. In the morning, after they dress in their school uniforms, the brother takes her to the Aboriginal boy's body, hanging in a tree. Before leaving, the girl wipes ants from the dead boy's chest. Hiking up the road, the siblings find a nearly-deserted mining town where a surly employee directs them towards nearby accommodation.

Much later, a businessman arrives home as the now grown-up girl prepares dinner; while he embraces her and relates office gossip, she either imagines or remembers a scene in which she, her brother, and the Aboriginal boy are playing and swimming naked in a billabong in the outback.

Cast

Themes

Actress Jenny Agutter regards the film as multilayered, in one regard being a story about children lost in the outback finding their way, and in the other, an allegorical tale about modern society and the loss of innocence. [6] Australian filmmaker Louis Nowra noted that biblical imagery runs throughout the film; in one scene there is a cut to a subliminal flashback of the father's suicide, but the scene plays in reverse and the father rises up as if he has been "resurrected". Many writers have also drawn a direct parallel between the depiction of the Outback and the Garden of Eden, with Nowra observing that this went as far as to include "portents of a snake slithering across the bare branches of the tree" above Agutter's character as she sleeps. [7]

Gregory Stephens, an associate professor of English, sees the film framed as a typical "back to Eden" story, including common motifs from 1960s counterculture; he offers the skinny-dipping sequence as an example of a "symbolic shedding of the clothes of the over-civilized world". [8] By way of the girl's rejection of the Aboriginal boy and his subsequent death the film paints the Outback as "an Eden that can only ever be lost". [9] Agutter shares a similar interpretation, noting "we cannot go back and have that Garden of Eden. We cannot go back and make it innocent again." Agutter considers the ages of the two adolescents, who are on the cusp of adulthood and losing their childhood innocence, as a metaphor for the irreversible change wrought by Western civilisation. [6]

Production

The film was the second feature directed by Nicolas Roeg, a British filmmaker. He had long planned to make a film of the novel Walkabout , in which the children are Americans stranded by a plane crash. After the indigenous boy finds and leads them to safety, he dies of influenza contracted from them, as he has not been immunised. Roeg had not been able to find a script he was happy with, until the English playwright Edward Bond did a minimal 14-page screenplay. Roeg then obtained backing from two American businessmen, Max Raab and Si Litvinoff, who incorporated a company in Australia but raised the budget entirely in the US and sold world rights to 20th Century Fox.

Filming began in Sydney in August 1969 and later moved to Alice Springs, [3] and Roeg's son, Luc, played the younger boy in the film. Roeg brought an outsider's eye and interpretation to the Australian setting, and improvised greatly during filming. He commented, "We didn’t really plan anything—we just came across things by chance…filming whatever we found." [10] The film is an example of Roeg's well-defined directorial style, characterised by strong visual composition from his experience as a cinematographer, combined with extensive cross-cutting and the juxtaposition of events, location, or environments to build his themes. [11] The music was composed and conducted by John Barry, and produced by Phil Ramone, and the poem read at the end of the film is Poem 40 from A.E. Housman's A Shropshire Lad .

Reception

Walkabout fared poorly at the box office in Australia. Critics debated whether it could be considered an Australian film, and whether it was an embrace of or a reaction to the country's cultural and natural context. [10] In the US, the film was originally rated R by the MPAA due to nudity, but was reduced to a GP-rating (PG) on appeal.

Critic Roger Ebert called it "one of the great films". [12] [13] He writes that it contains little moral or emotional judgement of its characters, and ultimately is a portrait of isolation in proximity. At the time, he stated: "Is it a parable about noble savages and the crushed spirits of city dwellers? That's what the film's surface suggests, but I think it's about something deeper and more elusive: the mystery of communication." [13] Film critic Edward Guthmann also notes the strong use of exotic natural images, calling them a "chorus of lizards". [14] In Walkabout, an analysis of the film, author Louis Nowra wrote: "I was stunned. The images of the Outback were of an almost hallucinogenic intensity. Instead of the desert and bush being infused with a dull monotony, everything seemed acute, shrill, and incandescent. The Outback was beautiful and haunting." [15]

Walkabout features several scenes of animal hunting and killing, such as a kangaroo being speared and bludgeoned to death. The Cinematograph Films (Animals) Act 1937 makes it illegal in the United Kingdom to distribute or exhibit material where the production involved inflicting pain or terror on an animal. Since the animals did not appear to suffer or be in distress the film was deemed to not contravene the Act.

The film includes scenes of nudity featuring Jenny Agutter, who the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) surmised was 17 years old at the time of filming. The scenes did not pose a problem when submitted to the BBFC in 1971 and later in 1998. The Protection of Children Act 1978 prohibited distribution and possession of indecent images of people under the age of 16 so the issue of potential indecency had not been considered on previous occasions. However, the Sexual Offences Act 2003 raised the age threshold to 18 which meant the BBFC was required to consider the scenes of nudity in the context of the new law when the film was re-submitted in 2011. The BBFC reviewed the scenes and considered them not to be indecent and passed the film uncut. [2]

Legacy

Commenting on the film's enduring appeal, Roeg described the film in 1998 as "a simple story about life and being alive, not covered with sophistry but addressing the most basic human themes; birth, death, mutability." [16]

More than 40 years after its release, on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a score of 84% based on reviews from 37 critics, with an average rating of 8.2 out of 10. [17]

Related Research Articles

A walkabout is an Australian aboriginal ritual of manhood.

Nicolas Roeg English film director and cinematographer

Nicolas Jack Roeg was an English film director and cinematographer, best known for directing Performance (1970), Walkabout (1971), Don't Look Now (1973), The Man Who Fell to Earth (1976), Bad Timing (1980), and The Witches (1990).

The Sundowners is a 1960 Technicolor comedy-drama film that tells the story of a 1920s Australian outback family torn between the father's desires to continue his nomadic sheep-herding ways and the wife's and son's desire to settle down in one place. The film stars Deborah Kerr, Robert Mitchum, and Peter Ustinov, with a supporting cast including Glynis Johns, Dina Merrill, Michael Anderson Jr., and Chips Rafferty.

Jenny Agutter British actress

Jennifer Ann Agutter is a British actress. She began her career as a child actress in 1964, appearing in East of Sudan, Star!, and two adaptations of The Railway Children—the BBC's 1968 television serial and the 1970 film version. She also starred in the critically acclaimed film Walkabout and the TV film The Snow Goose, for which she won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama.

<i>Crocodile Dundee</i> 1986 Australian comedy film directed by Peter Faiman

Crocodile Dundee is an 1986 action comedy film set in the Australian Outback and in New York City. It stars Paul Hogan as the weathered Mick Dundee, and American actress Linda Kozlowski as reporter Sue Charlton. Inspired by the true-life exploits of Rod Ansell, the film was made on a budget of under $10 million as a deliberate attempt to make a commercial Australian film that would appeal to a mainstream American audience, but proved to be a worldwide phenomenon.

David Gulpilil

David Gulpilil Ridjimiraril Dalaithngu AM is a Yolngu traditional dancer and actor.

<i>Dont Look Now</i> 1973 film by Nicolas Roeg

Don't Look Now is a 1973 English-language film directed by Nicolas Roeg. It is a thriller adapted from the 1971 short story by Daphne du Maurier. Julie Christie and Donald Sutherland portray a married couple who travel to Venice following the recent accidental death of their daughter, after the husband accepts a commission to restore a church. They encounter two sisters, one of whom claims to be clairvoyant and informs them that their daughter is trying to contact them and warn them of danger. The husband at first dismisses their claims, but starts to experience mysterious sightings himself.

<i>Insignificance</i> (film) 1985 film by Nicolas Roeg

Insignificance is a 1985 British experimental alternate history film directed by Nicolas Roeg, and starring Gary Busey, Michael Emil, Theresa Russell, Tony Curtis, and Will Sampson. Adapted by Terry Johnson from his 1982 play of the same name, the film follows four famous characters who converge in a New York City hotel one night in 1954: Joe DiMaggio, Albert Einstein, Marilyn Monroe, and Joseph McCarthy—billed as The Ballplayer, The Professor, The Actress and The Senator, respectively.

Theresa Russell American actress

Theresa Lynn Russell is an American actress whose career spans over four decades. Her filmography includes over fifty feature films, ranging from mainstream to independent and experimental films.

<i>The Proposition</i> (2005 film) 2005 Motion Picture

The Proposition is a 2005 Australian Western film directed by John Hillcoat and written by screenwriter and musician Nick Cave. It stars Guy Pearce, Ray Winstone, Emily Watson, John Hurt, Danny Huston and David Wenham. The film's production completed in 2004 and was followed by a wide 2005 release in Australia and a 2006 theatrical run in the U.S. through First Look Pictures. The film was shot on location in Winton, Queensland.

<i>Bad Timing</i> 1980 film directed by Nicolas Roeg

Bad Timing is a 1980 psychological drama film directed by Nicolas Roeg and starring Art Garfunkel, Theresa Russell, Harvey Keitel, and Denholm Elliott. The plot focuses on an American woman and a psychology professor living in Vienna, and, largely told through nonlinear flashbacks, examines the details of their turbulent relationship as uncovered by a detective investigating her apparent suicide attempt.

<i>The Witches</i> (1990 film) 1990 fantasy comedy film directed by Nicolas Roeg

The Witches is a 1990 American dark fantasy comedy film directed by Nicolas Roeg, produced by Jim Henson and starring Anjelica Huston, Mai Zetterling, Rowan Atkinson, and Jasen Fisher. It is based on the 1983 book of the same name by Roald Dahl. As in the original novel, the story features evil witches who masquerade as ordinary women and kill children, and a boy and his grandmother must find a way to foil their plans.

Donald Gordon Payne was an English author, most famous for his 1959 novel, Walkabout. Payne was made a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society in 1962.

<i>Walkabout</i> (novel)

Walkabout is a novel written by James Vance Marshall, first published in 1959 as The Children. It is about two children, a teenage sister and her younger brother, who get lost in the Australian Outback and are helped by an Indigenous Australian teenage boy on his walkabout. A film based on the book, with the same title came out in 1971, but deviated from the original plot.

<i>Equus</i> (film) 1977 British-American drama film directed by Sidney Lumet

Equus is a 1977 psychological drama film directed by Sidney Lumet and written by Peter Shaffer, based on his play of the same name. The film stars Richard Burton, Peter Firth, Colin Blakely, Joan Plowright, Eileen Atkins, and Jenny Agutter. The story concerns a psychiatrist treating a teenager who has blinded horses in a stable, attempting to find the root of his horse worship.

<i>The Railway Children</i> (1970 film) 1970 film by Lionel Jeffries

The Railway Children is a 1970 British drama film based on the 1906 novel of the same name by E. Nesbit. The film was directed by Lionel Jeffries and stars Dinah Sheridan, Jenny Agutter, Sally Thomsett and Bernard Cribbins in leading roles. The film was released to cinemas in the United Kingdom on 21 December 1970.

<i>Wake in Fright</i> 1971 film by Ted Kotcheff

Wake in Fright is a 1971 psychological thriller film directed by Ted Kotcheff, written by Evan Jones, and starring Gary Bond, Donald Pleasence, Chips Rafferty, Sylvia Kay and Jack Thompson. Based on Kenneth Cook's 1961 novel of the same name, it follows a young schoolteacher who descends into personal moral degradation after finding himself stranded in a brutal, menacing town in outback Australia.

Walkabout was an Australian illustrated magazine published from 1934 to 1974 combining cultural, geographic, and scientific content with travel literature. Initially a travel magazine, in its forty-year run it featured a popular mix of articles by travellers, officials, residents, journalists, naturalists, anthropologists and novelists, illustrated by Australian photojournalists. Its title derived from the supposed ‘racial characteristic of the Australian aboriginal who is always on the move".

E=MC<sup>2</sup> (song) 1986 single by Big Audio Dynamite

"E=MC2" is a 1985 single by Big Audio Dynamite, released as the second single from their debut album This Is Big Audio Dynamite. The song was the group's first Top 40 hit on the UK Singles Chart, peaking at number 11. Additionally, it peaked at number 37 on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Play chart in the United States. The song features prominent dialogue samples from the 1970 film Performance. The song is also played during the opening titles of the French movie Forces spéciales (2011).

<i>We of the Never Never</i> (film) 1982 Australian film directed by Igor Auzins

We of the Never Never is a 1982 Australian drama film directed by Igor Auzins and starring Angela Punch McGregor, Arthur Dignam, John Jarratt, and Tony Barry. It is based on the 1908 autobiographical novel We of the Never Never by Jeannie Gunn. It was nominated for five AFI awards and earned one award for best cinematography.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Walkabout: Movie Details". AFI Catalog of Feature Films . American Film Institute. Archived from the original on 10 January 2021.
  2. 1 2 3 "Walkabout". British Board of Film Classification . Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  3. 1 2 Pike & Cooper 1998, p. 258.
  4. "Official Selection 1971". Festival de Cannes. France. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Official Selection 1971....WALKABOUT directed by Nicolas ROEG
  5. Roeg 1998, 1:20:00.
  6. 1 2 Agutter, Jenny. "Jenny Agutter on Walkabout" (Interview). The Criterion Collection . Retrieved 13 November 2019 via YouTube. It has to be that particular age [adolescence of the European girl and the aboriginal boy] where the innocence is just going. Because of course what Nick Roeg... Nick Roeg is talking about many things - the film has lots of layers to it. There is the story about children lost in the outback, finding their way. There is a story about society and the loss of innocence. And the film is about losing one's innocence and not being able to go back, once you have gone to a certain stage. And that is our Western society: we go to a certain place, and then we are spoiled, we are changed. Whatever it is, we cannot go back and have that Garden of Eden. We cannot go back and make it innocent again. We cannot go back once we have got to a certain stage.
  7. Nowra 2003, p. 36.
  8. Stephens 2018, p. 142.
  9. Goldsmith & Lealand 2010, p. 210.
  10. 1 2 Fiona Harma (2001). "Walkabout". The Oz Film Database. Murdoch University. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
  11. Chuck Kleinhans. "Nicholas Roeg—Permutations without profundity". Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  12. Ebert, Roger (13 April 1997). "Walkabout (1971)". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  13. 1 2 Ebert, Roger. "Walkabout by Nicolas Roeg". The Criterion Collection . Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  14. Guthmann, Edward (3 January 1997). "Intriguing 'Walkabout' in the Past". San Francisco Chronicle . Retrieved 18 February 2008.
  15. Nowra 1998, p. 5.
  16. Danielsen, Shane (27 March 1998), "Walkabout: An Outsider's Vision Endures", The Australian
  17. "Walkabout". Rotten Tomatoes . Retrieved 31 January 2013.

Sources