1840 in science

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List of years in science (table)

The year 1840 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

Science systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Technology making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods of organization

Technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.

Contents

Events

William Whewell English philosopher & historian of science

Rev Dr William Whewell DD HFRSE was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science. He was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. In his time as a student there, he achieved distinction in both poetry and mathematics.

Scientist Person that studies a science

A scientist is someone who conducts scientific research to advance knowledge in an area of interest.

Physicist scientist who does research in physics

A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. Physicists generally are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, and usually frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, through biological physics, to cosmological length scales encompassing the universe as a whole. The field generally includes two types of physicists: experimental physicists who specialize in the observation of physical phenomena and the analysis of experiments, and theoretical physicists who specialize in mathematical modeling of physical systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena. Physicists can apply their knowledge towards solving practical problems or to developing new technologies.

Astronomy

John William Draper American photographer, chemist and historian

John William Draper was an English-born American scientist, philosopher, physician, chemist, historian and photographer. He is credited with producing the first clear photograph of a female face (1839–40) and the first detailed photograph of the moon in 1840. He was also the first president of the American Chemical Society (1876–77) and a founder of the New York University School of Medicine. One of Draper's books, the History of the Conflict between Religion and Science, popularised the conflict thesis proposing intrinsic hostility in the relationship between religion and science. It was widely read and was translated into several languages. His son, Henry Draper, and his granddaughter, Antonia Maury, were astronomers, her younger sister, Carlotta Maury, was a paleontologist, his eldest son, John Christopher Draper, was a chemist, and son Daniel Draper, was a meteorologist.

Moon Earths natural satellite

Earth's Moon is an astronomical body that orbits the planet and acts as its only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits. The Moon is, after Jupiter's satellite Io, the second-densest satellite in the Solar System among those whose densities are known.

Biology

John Gould English ornithologist and illustrator

John Gould FRS was an English ornithologist and bird artist. He published a number of monographs on birds, illustrated by plates that he produced with the assistance of his wife, Elizabeth Gould, and several other artists including Edward Lear, Henry Constantine Richter, Joseph Wolf and William Matthew Hart. He has been considered the father of bird study in Australia and the Gould League in Australia is named after him. His identification of the birds now nicknamed "Darwin's finches" played a role in the inception of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. Gould's work is referenced in Charles Darwin's book, On the Origin of Species.

<i>The Birds of Australia</i> (Gould) set of works by James Gould about the birds of Australia

The Birds of Australia was a book written by John Gould and published in seven volumes between 1840 and 1848. It was the first comprehensive survey of the birds of Australia and included descriptions of 681 species, 328 of which were new to science and were first described by Gould.

Chemistry

Hesss law relationship in physical chemistry

Hess' law of constant heat summation, also known as Hess' law, is a relationship in physical chemistry named after Germain Hess, a Switzerland-born Russian chemist and physician who published it in 1840. The law states that the total enthalpy change during the complete course of a chemical reaction is the same whether the reaction is made in one step or in several steps.

George Richards Elkington British businessman

George Richards Elkington was a manufacturer from Birmingham, England. He patented the first commercial electroplating process.

Patent Intellectual property conferring a monopoly on a new invention

A patent is a form of intellectual property that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using, selling, and importing an invention for a limited period of years, in exchange for publishing an enabling public disclosure of the invention. In most countries patent rights fall under civil law and the patent holder needs to sue someone infringing the patent in order to enforce his or her rights. In some industries patents are an essential form of competitive advantage; in others they are irrelevant.

Earth sciences

Louis Agassiz 19th-century Swiss naturalist

Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz was a Swiss-American biologist and geologist recognized as an innovative and prodigious scholar of Earth's natural history. Agassiz grew up in Switzerland. He received doctor of philosophy and medical degrees at Erlangen and Munich, respectively. After studying with Cuvier and Humboldt in Paris, Agassiz was appointed professor of natural history at the University of Neuchâtel. He emigrated to the United States in 1847 after visiting Harvard University. He went on to become professor of zoology and geology at Harvard, to head its Lawrence Scientific School, and to found its Museum of Comparative Zoology.

Ice age Period of long-term reduction in temperature of Earths surface and atmosphere

An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Earth is currently in the Quaternary glaciation, known in popular terminology as the Ice Age. Individual pulses of cold climate are termed "glacial periods", and intermittent warm periods are called "interglacials" or "interstadials" with both climatic pulses part of the Quaternary or other periods in Earth's history.

Exploration

History of science

Medicine

Metrology

Physics

Technology

Awards

Births

Deaths

Related Research Articles

Justus von Liebig 19th-century German chemist

Justus Freiherr von Liebig was a German scientist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry. As a professor at the University of Giessen, he devised the modern laboratory-oriented teaching method, and for such innovations, he is regarded as one of the greatest chemistry teachers of all time. He has been described as the "father of the fertilizer industry" for his emphasis on nitrogen and trace minerals as essential plant nutrients, and his formulation of the law of the minimum, which described how plant growth relied on the scarcest nutrient resource, rather than the total amount of resources available. He also developed a manufacturing process for beef extracts, and with his consent a company, called Liebig Extract of Meat Company, was founded to exploit the concept; it later introduced the Oxo brand beef bouillon cube. He popularized an earlier invention for condensing vapors, which came to be known as the Liebig condenser.

The year 1825 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

The year 1828 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

The year 1831 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

The year 1832 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

The year 1842 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

The year 1776 in science and technology involved some significant events.

The year 1853 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

The year 1803 in science and technology involved some significant events.

The year 1857 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

The year 1764 in science and technology involved some significant events.

Meat extract is highly concentrated meat stock, usually made from beef. It is used to add meat flavour in cooking, and to make broth for soups and other liquid-based foods.

Robert Bunsen German chemist

Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen was a German chemist. He investigated emission spectra of heated elements, and discovered caesium and rubidium with the physicist Gustav Kirchhoff. Bunsen developed several gas-analytical methods, was a pioneer in photochemistry, and did early work in the field of organoarsenic chemistry. With his laboratory assistant, Peter Desaga, he developed the Bunsen burner, an improvement on the laboratory burners then in use. The Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after Bunsen and Kirchhoff.

Heinrich Debus (chemist) chemist

Heinrich Debus was a German chemist.

Mellins Food

Mellin's Food Company was a maker of Mellin's Food for Infants and Invalids in Boston, Massachusetts.

William Hodson Brock is a British chemist and science historian.

Aleksandr Voskresensky Russian chemist

Aleksandr Abramovich Voskresensky was a Russian chemist who served as rector of Saint Petersburg Imperial University in 1861–1863 and 1865–1867. Dmitri Mendeleev regarded him as a "grandfather of Russian chemistry". One of his major scientific achievements is the discovery of theobromine, the major alkaloid of cacao beans.

John Buddle Blyth

John Buddle Blyth was a Jamaican-born chemist who was the first professor of chemistry at Queen's College Cork in Ireland. With August Wilhelm von Hofmann, he was the first to report photopolymerisation which they observed when styrene became metastyrol after exposure to sunlight.

References

  1. Whewell, William (1840). "Introduction". The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, founded upon their history. 1. London: J. W. Parker. pp. 113, 71.
  2. "scientist, n". Oxford English Dictionary online version. Oxford University Press. September 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-02.(subscription or UK public library membership required)
  3. "physicist, n". Oxford English Dictionary online version. Oxford University Press. September 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
  4. Black, George W. (1978). "Justus Liebig's Contribution to Agricultural Chemistry". Journal of Chemical Education . 55 (1): 33. Bibcode:1978JChEd..55...33B. doi:10.1021/ed055p33.1.
  5. "Hess, Germain Henri". Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2007-03-12.
  6. "Antarctic Exploration — Chronology". Quark Expeditions. 2004. Archived from the original on 2006-09-08. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
  7. Guillon, Jacques (1986). Dumont d'Urville. Paris: France-Empire. ISBN   978-2-7048-0472-6.
  8. Headrick, Daniel R. (1981). The Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-502832-4.
  9. Bühler, Walter Kaufmann (1987). Gauss: a biographical study. Springer-Verlag. pp. 144–145. ISBN   978-0-387-10662-5.
  10. Hecht, Eugene (1987). Optics. Addison Wesley. p. 134. ISBN   978-0-201-11609-0.