|5th Parliament of Great Britain|
Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington, Speaker of the House of Commons
|Term||17 March 1715 – 10 March 1722|
|House of Commons|
|Speaker of the House of Commons||Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington|
|House of Lords|
|Leader of the House of Lords|
The 5th Parliament of Great Britain was summoned by George I of Great Britain on 17 January 1715 and assembled on the 17 March 1715. When it was dissolved on 10 March 1722 it had been the first Parliament to be held under the Septennial Act of 1716.
George I was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death in 1727.
The composition of the new House of Commons represented a massive Whig landslide victory at the election, reversing the pro-Tory landslide of the previous election, with 341 Whigs and 217 Tories. Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington, the Whig member for Sussex, was installed as Speaker of the House of Commons.
The House of Commons of Great Britain was the lower house of the Parliament of Great Britain between 1707 and 1801. In 1707, as a result of the Acts of Union of that year, it replaced the House of Commons of England and the third estate of the Parliament of Scotland, as one of the most significant changes brought about by the Union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington, was a British Whig statesman who served continuously in government from 1715 until his death. He served as the Prime Minister from 1742 until his death in 1743. He is considered to have been Britain's second Prime Minister, after Sir Robert Walpole, but worked closely with the Secretary of State, Lord Carteret, in order to secure the support of the various factions making up the Government.
Sussex was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. It was represented by two Knights of the Shire, elected by the bloc vote system.
George I's administration was largely composed of Whigs, being the party which had wholeheartedly supported his accession, and which now enjoyed the full support of the Commons. Viscount Townshend, Secretary of State for the Northern Department and chief ministerial spokesman in the Lords, emerged as the King’s chief minister. The leader of the Whig ministry in the House of Commons was James Stanhope, Secretary of State for the Southern Department. However, during the first session Stanhope was eclipsed by Robert Walpole, the Paymaster-general and brother-in-law of Viscount Townshend. In October 1715 Walpole was promoted to the post of First Lord of the Treasury.
Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, was an English Whig statesman. He served for a decade as Secretary of State for the Northern Department, 1714–1717, 1721–1730. He directed British foreign policy in close collaboration with his brother-in-law, prime minister Robert Walpole. He was often known as Turnip Townshend because of his strong interest in farming turnips and his role in the British Agricultural Revolution.
The Secretary of State for the Northern Department was a position in the Cabinet of the government of Great Britain up to 1782, when the Northern Department became the Home Office.
James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope was a British statesman and soldier who effectively served as Chief Minister between 1717 and 1721.
The dominance of Townsend and Walpole caused discontent within the party and by early 1717 both had been forced out of their positions. Townsend was replaced by Lord Sunderland, who was also Lord President of the Council and who in March 1718 became First Lord of the Treasury, effectively consolidating his position to that of a Prime Minister. For the next three years George I's ministry would be led jointly by Lord Sunderland and James Stanhope, with Townshend and Walpole in opposition.
Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, KG, PC, known as Lord Spencer from 1688 to 1702, was an English statesman and nobleman from the Spencer family. He served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1714–1717), Lord Privy Seal (1715–1716), Lord President of the Council (1717–1719) and First Lord of the Treasury (1718–1721). He is the 5th paternal great grandfather of Winston Churchill and the 6th paternal great grandfather of Diana, Princess of Wales.
However by 1721, with Sunderland now in the House of Lords, Stanhope dead and the crisis caused by the South Sea Bubble, both Townshend and Walpole had been able to get back into power, Townshend as Secretary of State and Walpole as First Lord of the Treasury in place of Sunderland.
The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.
Much of the first session of the Parliament was concerned with debating the activities of some of Queen Anne's senior ministers who had allegedly been negotiating in secret with the Jacobite court in exile. The landing in Scotland of the Old Pretender in June 1715 added urgency to the proceedings. The rebel ministers were impeached and tried and emergency actions taken such as the suspension of Habeas Corpus.
James Francis Edward Stuart, nicknamed The Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena. He was Prince of Wales from July 1688, until just months after his birth, his Catholic father was deposed and exiled in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. James II's Protestant elder daughter, Mary II, and her husband, William III, became co-monarchs and the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Catholics from the British throne.
Before the first session closed, the Septennial Act was passed, lengthening the life of Parliaments to seven years. An attempt to restrict the royal prerogative to create peers was defeated in 1719.
4th Parliament of Great Britain
| 5th Parliament of Great Britain |
| Succeeded by|
6th Parliament of Great Britain
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford,, known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.
John Aislabie or Aslabie was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1695 to 1721. He was Chancellor of the Exchequer at the time of the South Sea Bubble and his involvement with the Company led to his resignation and disgrace.
Lord Townshend was appointed Secretary of State for the Northern Department by King George I in September 1714, forming the first Townshend ministry. He was the de facto leader of this Whig administration as Northern Secretary until 1717, when he was demoted to Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in favour of the first Stanhope–Sunderland ministry after being outmanoeuvered by his rival Whigs.
Robert Walpole and Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend were removed from their positions in the government, and were replaced by James Stanhope, 1st Viscount Stanhope of Mahon and Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, who cooperatively led the first Stanhope–Sunderland ministry. The two Whigs remained in power from 1717 to 1721, although in 1718, Lord Stanhope exchanged positions with Lord Sunderland to form the second Stanhope–Sunderland ministry. Upon Lord Stanhope's death, Robert Walpole, widely considered the first true Prime Minister of Great Britain, returned to head the government.
Horatio Walpole, 1st Baron Walpole of Wolterton,, English diplomatist, was a son of Robert Walpole of Houghton, Norfolk, and a younger brother of the Prime Minister of Great Britain Sir Robert Walpole.
Thomas Newport, 1st Baron Torrington, styled The Honourable from 1675 until 1716, was an English barrister and Whig politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons between 1695 and 1716 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Torrington.
John Wallop, 1st Earl of Portsmouth, of Hurstbourne Park, near Whitchurch and Farleigh Wallop, Hampshire, known as John Wallop, 1st Viscount Lymington from 1720 to 1743, was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1715 to 1720, when he vacated his seat on being raised to the peerage as Viscount Lymington and Baron Wallop.
John Griffith (V) was a Welsh politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1715 to 1740.
In British politics, a Whig government may refer to the following governments administered by the Whigs:
Thomas de Grey of Merton Hall, Norfolk was an English landowner and Member of Parliament.
Samuel Tufnell, of Langleys, Essex, was a British lawyer and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1715 and 1747.