6 Metre

Last updated
6 Metre insigna.png
Class symbol
1912 mac miche.PNG
French Mac Miche – gold medalist at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm.
Development
Year1907 (rule design)
DesignDevelopment class

The International Six Metre class is a class of classic racing yachts. Sixes are a construction class , meaning that the boats are not identical but are all designed to meet specific measurement formula, in this case International rule. At their heyday, Sixes were the most important international yacht racing class, and they are still raced around the world. "Six metre" in class name does not, somewhat confusingly, refer to length of the boat, but product of the formula; 6mR boats are, on average, 10–11 metres long.

Contents

History

Danish Nurdug II. Silver medalist at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm 1912 Nurdug II.JPG
Danish Nurdug II. Silver medalist at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm

The International rule was set up in 1907 to replace numerous handicap systems which were often local, or at best national, and often also fairly simple, producing extreme boats which were fast but lightly constructed and impractical. The Six Metre class was not the smallest rating established under the rule, but was nonetheless the most popular, and they were chosen as an Olympic class in 1908. However, it was not until revision of the Rule in 1920 when the Sixes really became a popular international racing class. The 1920s and '30s were 'golden age' of the International Rule boats and Sixes were still the most popular class, attracting top sailors and designers to compete for prestigious trophies such as Scandinavian Gold Cup and Olympic medals.

Alexander Robertson & Sons produced a total of five Six Metre yachts between 1921 and 1953. In 1937 their young naval architect David Boyd designed the sleek Six Metre racing yacht Circe, which was described by many as the most successful racing yacht produced at the yard. Mr J. Herbert Thom, one of the Clyde's best helmsmen sailed the yacht with tremendous success in America in 1938 and brought back the Seawanhaka Cup, which was successfully defended in home waters the following year. In later years Circe represented Russia in the 1952 Summer Olympics.

However, Six Metres were criticized as having become too expensive and towards the end of the 1930s they became more so, making the class too exclusive. Under what is known as the Second International rule (1920-33) the yachts had gone from being less than 9.1 metres (30 ft) in overall length to being almost 12 metres (40 ft). By 1929, the 5 Metre class was becoming more popular as a cheaper and smaller alternative for Sixes, but the final blow was creation of the International 5.5 Metre class in 1949. The 5.5 Metres soon replaced the Six Metres as the premier international racing class, and after the 1952 Helsinki Olympics Sixes were dropped from Olympic regattas. The Gold Cup was also transferred to the 5.5 m class from 1953 onwards.

Despite this, the class continued to exist, and new boats were made utilising the newest contemporary technologies, although sparingly. During the 1980s, many old sailboat classes experienced revival of interest and Sixes were at the forefront of this development. The Class has undergone a renaissance which has continued to this day, with many old yachts restored or rebuilt to racing condition. Six Metre competition is thriving once again with active fleets in Europe, North America and Scandinavia. Performance differences between classic and modern era Sixes are usually small and they can be raced together.

In 2019 the International Six Metre Association launched an online archive website, allowing researchers around the world to access historical information about the class.

Events

Olympics

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1908 London
details
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Gilbert Laws
Thomas McMeekin
Charles Crichton
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Léon Huybrechts
Louis Huybrechts
Henri Weewauters
Flag of France.svg  France
Henri Arthus
Louis Potheau
Pierre Rabot
1912 Stockholm
details
Flag of France.svg  France
Gaston Thubé
Amédée Thubé
Jacques Thubé
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Hans Meulengracht-Madsen
Steen Herschend
Sven Thomsen
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Eric Sandberg
Otto Aust
Harald Sandberg
1920 Antwerp
1907 rule
details
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Emile Cornellie
Frédéric Bruynseels
Florimond Cornellie
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Einar Torgersen
Leif Erichsen
Andreas Knudsen
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Henrik Agersborg
Einar Berntsen
Trygve Pedersen
1920 Antwerp
1919 rule
details
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Andreas Brecke
Paal Kaasen
Ingolf Rød
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Léon Huybrechts
Charles van den Bussche
John Klotz
no further competitors
1924 Paris
details
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Anders Lundgren
Christopher Dahl
Eugen Lunde
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Vilhelm Vett
Knud Degn
Christian Nielsen
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Johan Carp
Anthonij Guépin
Jan Vreede
1928 Amsterdam
details
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Johan Anker
Erik Anker
Håkon Bryhn
Crown Prince Olav
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Vilhelm Vett
Aage Høy-Petersen
Nils Otto Møller
Peter Schlütter
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia
Nikolai Vekšin
Andreas Faehlmann
Georg Faehlmann
Eberhard Vogdt
William von Wirén
1932 Los Angeles
details
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Tore Holm
Olle Åkerlund
Åke Bergqvist
Martin Hindorff
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Robert Carlson
Temple Ashbrook
Frederic Conant
Emmett Davis
Donald Douglas
Charles Smith
Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg  Canada
Philip Rogers
Gardner Boultbee
Ken Glass
Jerry Wilson
1936 Berlin
details
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Christopher Boardman
Miles Bellville
Russell Harmer
Charles Leaf
Leonard Martin
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Magnus Konow
Karsten Konow
Fredrik Meyer
Vaadjuv Nyqvist
Alf Tveten
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Sven Salén
Lennart Ekdahl
Martin Hindorff
Torsten Lord
Dagmar Salén
1948 London
details
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Herman Whiton
Alfred Loomis
Michael Mooney
James Smith
James Weekes
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina
Enrique Sieburger, Sr.
Emilio Homps
Rodolfo Rivademar
Rufino Rodríguez de la Torre
Enrique Sieburger, Jr.
Julio Sieburger
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Tore Holm
Carl Robert Ameln
Martin Hindorff
Torsten Lord
Gösta Salén
1952 Helsinki
details
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Herman Whiton
Everard Endt
John Morgan
Eric Ridder
Julian Roosevelt
Emelyn Whiton
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Finn Ferner
Tor Arneberg
Johan Ferner
Erik Heiberg
Carl Mortensen
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Ernst Westerlund
Ragnar Jansson
Jonas Konto
Rolf Turkka
Paul Sjöberg

World Cup

Year
GoldSilverBronze
1973
Seattle USA
20 Boats
US100 - St Francis V
Flag of the United States.svg  Tom Blackaller  (USA)
KA8 - Pacemaker
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  David Forbes  (AUS)
US87 - May Be VII
Flag of the United States.svg Sunny Vynne (USA)
1975
Sandhamn
35 Boats
S75 - May Be X
Flag of Sweden.svg  Patric Fredell  (SWE)
KA7 - Toogooloowoo VUS101 - Poisson Soluble
1977
Marstrand
19 Boats
S91 - Irene
Flag of Sweden.svg  Pelle Pettersson  (SWE)
S88 - May Be XI
Flag of Sweden.svg  Patric Fredell  (SWE)
US111 - Razzle Dazzle
Flag of the United States.svg Scott Rohrer (USA)
1979
Seattle
25 Boats
S97 - Irene
Flag of Sweden.svg  Pelle Pettersson  (SWE)
US100 - St Francis V
Flag of the United States.svg  Tom Blackaller  (USA)
US115 - Warhorse
Flag of the United States.svg Brian Wertheimer (USA)
1981
Lake Constance
Boats
no wind
1983
Newport Harbor
15 Boats [1]
S104/US117 - Irene/California I
Flag of Sweden.svg  Pelle Pettersson  (SWE)
US116 - Chinook
Flag of the United States.svg  Carl Buchan  (USA)
US118 - St Francis VIII
Flag of the United States.svg  Paul Cayard  (USA)
1985
Cannes FRA
39 Boats
Z77 - Junior
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Philippe Dürr  (SUI)
US120 - St Francis IX
Flag of the United States.svg  Tom Blackaller  (USA)
N85 - Filippa
Flag of Sweden.svg Thomas Lundqvist (SWE)
1987
Oyster Bay
23 Boats
K86 - Scoundrel
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Bruce Owen  (GBR)
S114 - Notorious
Flag of Sweden.svg Jorgen Sundelin (SWE)
S112 - J Cool
Flag of Sweden.svg  Peter Norlin  (SWE)
1989
Marstrand SWE
37 Boats
US120 - St Francis IX US120
Flag of the United States.svg  John Kostecki  (USA)
S125 - Kratos
Pettersson
S118 - Sexa Nova
Johansson
1991 TorquaySWE
Leif Carlsson
1993
Cannes FRA
24 Boats
ITA 74 - Nivola

Flag of Italy.svg  Flavio Favini  (ITA)
Flag of Italy.svg  Toni Bassani  (ITA)

SWE 115 - May Be XIV
Flag of Sweden.svg Patric Fredell (SWE)
Woodoo SWE122

Flag of Sweden.svg Leif Carlsson (SWE)
Flag of Sweden.svg Erntemark Carlsson (SWE)

1995
Sandhamn
25 Boats
S 114 - NOTORIOUS
Flag of Sweden.svg  Carl-Gustav Piehl  (SWE)
S 116 - INDISPENSABLE
Flag of Sweden.svg  Jacob Wallenberg  (SWE)
S 123 - STING
Flag of Sweden.svg  Thomas Lundqvist  (SWE)
1997
Cannes
22 Boats
GBR - Scoundrel

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Bruce Owen  (GBR)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Jonathan Howe  (GBR)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Rob Lipsett (GBR)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Jonny Smallridge  (GBR)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Guy Barron  (GBR)

SWE - Sophie Too

Flag of Sweden.svg  Mats Johansson  (SWE)

SWE - May Be XIV

Flag of Sweden.svg  Patric Fredell  (SWE)

1999 Modern
Hanko
13 Boats
SUI 77 - Fleau

Flag of Switzerland.svg  Bernard Haissly  (SUI)
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Nicolas Berthoud  (SUI)
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Christophe Megavand  (SUI)
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Jean Michel Pachoud  (SUI)
Gerald Bechard

SWE / FIN 115 - May Be XIV

Flag of Finland.svg  Tom Jungell  (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg  Henrik Lundberg  (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg  Jari Bremer  (FIN)
Mikael Blom
Abe Kaakinen

GER 104 - Courage VII

Flag of Germany.svg  Dietrich Grünau  (GER)
Albert Batzill
Eddy Eich
Hannes Brochier
Albert Diesch

1999 Classic
Hanko
32 Boats
FIN 50 - Alibaba II

Flag of Finland.svg Henrik TENSTRÖM (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Nappe MOLANDER (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg John BLÄSSAR (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Timo LAURILA (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Kristian RÄME (FIN)

FIN 38 - Mariana

Flag of Finland.svg Antero KAIRAMO (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Rabbe KIHLMAN (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Eero KAIRAMO (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Jaakko KAIRAMO (FIN)

FIN 44 - Toy

Flag of Finland.svg Eero LEHTINEN (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Magnus BÄCKSTRÖM (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Kenneth PERÄNEN (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Jari JÄRVI (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Jarmo HALONEN (FIN)

2003 Modern
St.-Tropez FRA
20 Boats
SWE114 - NOTORIOUS
Flag of Sweden.svg  Carl-Gustav Piehl  (SWE)
GER104 - COURAGE VII
Flag of Germany.svg  Dietrich Grünau  (GER)
Flag of Germany.svg  Albert Batzill  (GER)
SWE125 - DELPHINA
Flag of Sweden.svg  John Michael Larsson  (SWE)
2003 Classic
St.-Tropez FRA
14 Boats
FIN44 - TOY

Flag of Finland.svg Eero LEHTINEN (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Kenneth PERÄNEN (FIN)

FRA111 - DIX AOUT

Flag of France.svg Bernard Divorne (FRA)
Flag of France.svg Pierre-Paul Heckly (FRA)

GBR48 - CAPRICE

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tim Street (GBR)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Richard Bond (GBR)

2005 Modern
Sandhamn
24 Boats
GER - Courage IX
Dietrich Grünau
Albert Batzill
Eddy Eich
GBR - Battlecry
Ben Clothier
SUI - Fleau
Bernard Haissly
2005 Classic
Sandhamn
27 Boats
FIN 44 - TOY (1938)

Flag of Finland.svg Eero LEHTINEN (FIN)

FIN 12 - FRIDOLIN (1930)

Flag of Finland.svg Timo Koljonen (FIN)

SWE 6 - FÅGEL BLÅ (1937)

Flag of Sweden.svg Fredrich Dahlman (SWE)

2007 Modern
Cowes
23 Boats
Fleau - SUI
Bernard Haissly
Battlecry - GBR
Ben Clothier
John Prentice
Courage IX - GER
Dietrich Grünau
2007 classic
Cowes
25 Boats
SWE 6 - Fagel Bla (1937)

Flag of Sweden.svg Fredrich Dahlman (SWE)

DEN 64 - Sun Ray (1939/2005)

Flag of Denmark.svg Erik Tingleff Larsen (DEN)
Flag of the United States.svg Hans J. Oen (USA)

GBR 48 - Caprice (1946)

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Paul Smith (GBR)

2009 Modern
Newport USA
9 Boats
Sophie II
Flag of Sweden.svg Hugo Stenbeck (SWE)
Scoundrel
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Rob Gray (GBR)
Arunga
Flag of the United States.svg Bob Cadranell (USA)
2009 Classic
Newport USA
24 Boats
KC10 - Gallant

Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Eric Jespersen (CAN)

FIN12 - Fridolin

Flag of Finland.svg Johan Garkman (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Peter Arstrand (FIN)

DEN65 - Great Dane

Flag of Denmark.svg Erik Tingleff Larsen (DEN)

2011 Modern
Helsinki
9 Boats
FRA 177 - Junior

Flag of France.svg  Yann Marilley  (FRA)

SWE 115 - May Be XIV

Flag of Sweden.svg  Patric Fredell  (SWE)

SWE 132 - Sophie II

Flag of Sweden.svg  Hugo Stenbeck  (SWE)

2011 Classic
Helsinki
45 Boats
FIN 49 - Sara af Hangö
Flag of Finland.svg Henrik Tenström (FIN)
KC 10 - Gallant
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Eric JESPERSEN (CAN)
US 83 - Llanoria
Flag of the United States.svg Erik BentzanENTZEN (USA)en
2013 Modern
Flensburg
11 Boats
 CAN 135 - St. Francis IX

Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Ross MacDonald  (CAN)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Andrew Costa  (CAN)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Steve Kinsey  (CAN)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Timothy Vogel  (CAN)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Tony Griffin  (CAN)

 GBR 107 - Valhalla

Robert Smith
John Pollard
Nick Pearson
Paul Smith
Stephen Procter

GER 118 - Courage IX

Albert Batzill
Dietrich Grünau
Albert Diensch
Eddy Eich
Hannes Brochier

2013 Classics
Flensburg
23 Boats
FIN 12
Flag of Finland.svg Henrik Lundberg (FIN)

Flag of Finland.svg Johan Garkman (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Peter Arstrand (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Peter Tevstroem (FIN)
Flag of Finland.svg Tom Boremus (FIN)

NOR 71
Flag of Norway.svg Lars Guck (NOR)
USA 83
Flag of the United States.svg Eric Jespersen (USA)
2015 Modern
La Trinité-sur-Mer
19 Boats
FRA 177 - Junior No Limit Yacht

Flag of France.svg  Yann Marilley  (FRA)
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Nicolas Berthoud  (SUI)
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Kaspar Schadegg  (SUI)
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Philippe Dürr  (SUI)
Flag of France.svg  Alexandre Nicole  (FRA)

SUI 132 - Sophie
Flag of the United States.svg  Hugo Stenbeck  (USA)
CAN 111 - Blade
Steve Kinsey
2015 Classics
La Trinité-sur-Mer
23 Boats
US 83 - LLANORIA
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Eric Jespersen (CAN)
Flag of the United States.svg Herb Cole (USA)
Flag of the United States.svg Pete Watkins (USA)
Flag of the United States.svg Kris Bundy (USA)
Flag of the United States.svg Peter Hoffman (USA)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Matthew Henley (CAN)
K 22 - TITIA
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Andy Postle (GBR)
KC 10 - GALLANT
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Ben Mumford (CAN)
2017 Vancouver [2] SUI 77 - Junior
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Philippe Durr  (SUI)
CAN 129 - New Sweden
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Ben Mumford  (CAN)
K 12 - St. Francis IX
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Andy Beadsworth  (GBR)
2019 Modern
Hanko FIN
Boats [3] [4]
SUI 77 - Junior

Flag of Switzerland.svg  Philippe Durr  (SUI)
Nicolas Berthoud
Kaspar Schadegg
Yann Marillet
Alexandre Nicole

2019 Classics
Hanko FIN
16 Boats
E 16
Flag of Spain.svg  King of Spain Juan Carlos  (ESP)
Flag of Spain.svg Inaqui Castaner (ESP)
Flag of Spain.svg Alberto Viejo (ESP)
Flag of Spain.svg Roi Alvarez (ESP)
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Ross MacDonald  (CAN)

Scandinavian Gold Cup

Related Research Articles

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5.5 Metre (keelboat)

The International 5.5 Metre class was created to yield a racing keel boat giving a sailing experience similar to that of the International 6 Metre Class, but at a lower cost.

International Americas Cup Class Class of racing yacht that was developed for the Americas Cup between 1992 and 2007

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12 Metre

The 12 Metre class is a rating class for racing sailboats that are designed to the International rule. It enables fair competition between boats that rate in the class whilst retaining the freedom to experiment with the details of their designs. The designation "12 Metre" does not refer to any single measurement on the boat, and is not referencing the vessels overall length, rather, measures the sum of the components directed by the formula which governs design and construction parameters. Typically 12 Metre class boats range from 65 to 75 feet in length overall; they are most often sloop-rigged, with masts roughly 85 feet tall.

Snipe (dinghy)

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J-class yacht

A J-Class yacht is a single-masted racing yacht built to the specifications of Nathanael Herreshoff's Universal Rule. The J-Class are considered the peak racers of the era when the Universal Rule determined eligibility in the America's Cup.

The Universal Rule determined a yacht's eligibility to race in the America's Cup from 1914 to 1937 and for this the J-class was chosen. Boats built according to the rule reached their peak in the large J-class yachts. This Rating Rule is intended to calculate a rating for yachts, which can then be used to calculate its Time Correction Factor (T.C.F.) in order to have disparate yachts racing against each other. The first boat said to be built under the universal rule was Herreshoff's Doris built in 1905.

International rule (sailing)

The International rule, also known as the Metre rule, was created for the measuring and rating of yachts to allow different designs of yacht to race together under a handicap system. Prior to the ratification of the International rule in 1907, countries raced yachts under their own national rules and international competition was always subject to various forms of subjective handicapping.

Dragon (keelboat)

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Skerry cruiser

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Hai (keelboat)

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8 Metre (keelboat)

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12 foot dinghy

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10 Metre

The International Ten Metre Class is a construction class, meaning that the boats are not identical but are all designed to meet specific measurement formula, in this case International Rule. At their heyday, Metre Classes were the most important group of international yacht racing classes, and they are still actively raced around the world. "Ten" in class name does not, somewhat confusingly, refer to length of the boat, but product of the formula; 10mR boats are, on average, 16.5 meters long.

The International Nine Metre Class is a construction class, meaning that the boats are not identical but are all designed to meet specific measurement formula, in this case International Rule. At their heyday, Metre Classes were the most important group of international yacht racing classes, and they are still actively raced around the world. "Nine" in the class name does not, somewhat confusingly, refer to the length of the boat, but the product of the formula; 9mR boats are, on average, 18 meters long.

Sailing (sport)

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The 6 Metre World Cup are biennial international sailing regattas in the 6 Metre class organized by the International Six Metre Association.

References

  1. Trimble, Nancy (October 1984). "One-Design Racing". Yachting . Ziff Davis. 156 (4): 70.
  2. "Sailwave results for 6mR World Championships at Royal Vancouver Yacht ClubSeptember 17–21, 2017English Bay, Vancouver Canada 2017". www.rvan.ca.
  3. https://www.manage2sail.com/en-US/Home/ResultsFragment/event/6mrworlds2019/regatta/#!/?classId=open
  4. https://www.6mrworlds2019.com/regatta/