49er (dinghy)

Last updated
49er black.svg
Class symbol
49er skiff.svg
Boat
Crew2 (double trapeze)
Draft 1,447 mm (4 ft 9 in)
Hull
Hull weight94 kg (207 lb)
LOA 4,876 mm (16 ft)
Beam without wings:
1,752 mm (5 ft 9 in)
with wings:
2,743 mm (9 ft 0 in)
Sails
Spinnaker area37.16 m2 (400 sq ft)
Upwind sail area19.97 m2 (215 sq ft)
Racing
D-PN 68.2 [1]
RYA PN 710 [2]
Current Olympic equipment

The 49er and 49er FX is a two-handed skiff-type high-performance sailing dinghy. The two crew work on different roles with the helm making many tactical decisions, as well as steering, and the crew doing most of the sail control. Both of the crew are equipped with their own trapeze and sailing is done while cantilevered over the water to the fullest extent to balance against the sails.

Helmsman sailor

A helmsman or helm is a person who steers a ship, sailboat, submarine, other type of maritime vessel, or spacecraft. The rank and seniority of the helmsman may vary: on small vessels such as fishing vessels and yachts, the functions of the helmsman are combined with that of the skipper; on larger vessels, there is a separate officer of the watch who is responsible for the safe navigation of the ship and gives orders to the helmsman, who physically steers the ship in accordance with those orders.

Trapeze (sailing) wire used on sailboats

In sailing, the trapeze is a wire that comes from a point high on the mast, usually where the shrouds are fixed, to a hook on the crew member's harness at approximately waist level. The position when extended on the trapeze is outside the hull, braced against it with the soles of the feet, facing the masthead, and clipped on by a hook on the trapeze harness. This gives the crew member more leverage to keep the boat flat by allowing the crew member's centre of gravity to balance the force of the wind in the sails.

Contents

The 49er was designed by Julian Bethwaite (the son of Frank Bethwaite) and developed by a consortium consisting of Bethwaites, Performance Sailcraft Japan, Peter Johnston, and Ovington boats. [3] The boat has been an Olympic class since it was selected by the International Sailing Federation to be the men's high performance double handed dinghy Sydney Summer Games of 2000. Its derivative featuring a re-designed rig, the 49er FX, was selected by World Sailing to be the women's high performance double-hander at the Rio Summer Olympics of 2016.

Julian Bethwaite is an Australian, Sydney-based skiff sailor and sailboat designer. He wrote one chapter of his father Frank's book, Higher Performance Sailing.

Frank Bethwaite DFC, OAM was a boat designer, author and Olympic meteorologist.

Sailing at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney was held from 17–30 September 2000 at the Olympic Sailing Shore Base in the Sydney Harbour.

History

The 49er's name comes from its hull length of 4.99 metres. It incorporates ideas developed in Julian Bethwaite's 18ft Skiffs, notably the Prime Computer series of boats, which were double handers. [4]

18ft Skiff

The 18 ft Skiff is considered the fastest class of sailing skiffs. The class has a long history beginning with races on Sydney Harbour, Australia in 1892 and later in New Zealand. The boat has changed significantly since the early days, bringing in new technology as it became available. Because of the need of strength, agility and skill, the class is considered to be the top level of small boat sailing. In Australia this boat is called the "Aussie 18" due to its inherent connections to Australia. It is the fastest conventional non-foiling monohull on the yardstick rating, with a score of 675, coming only third after the Tornado and Inter 20.

To handle a large and powerful sail area, the mast uses a square topped sail that causing the upper main to twist off and flatten, allowing a controllable sail with fast gust response and reducing the heeling moment. The use of solid wings, rather than tubes as on similar boats (RS800 etc.), makes it easier for the crew to run across the deck from gunwale to gunwale during maneuvers.

RS800

The RS800 is a light-weight sailing dinghy designed by Phil Morrison and manufactured by RS Sailing. The boat is sailed by two people both on trapeze and has a main, jib and spinnaker. The RS800 has a Portsmouth Yardstick number of 820 and a D-PN of 77.0. There is a large racing circuit in the UK, and some European events each year.

49er skiffs in a race 49er.jpg
49er skiffs in a race
49ers at the Extreme Sailing Series in Boston harbor preparing to race, 4th of July, 2011 49er sail boats.jpg
49ers at the Extreme Sailing Series in Boston harbor preparing to race, 4th of July, 2011

The 49er made its first Olympic appearance at the Sydney Olympics in 2000 and has continued to grow in popularity ever since.

With a Portsmouth yardstick Handicap of 740 the 49er is the fastest two person one-design monohull dinghy.

In 2009 the boat received a new rig design, including a larger fully carbon mast (replacing the aluminum mast) and square top (roach) mainsail. [5]

Construction

As a one design class, the 49er has two licensed suppliers, Mackay Boats in Oceania and Ovington in Europe.

Hull

The hull is made of Epoxy GRP and foam sandwich laminate with carbon fibre in high load areas. It includes two solid wings, also called racks, that clip into the side to increase righting moment of the trapezing crew. [6] Its length was fixed at 4.99 metres because the ISAF brief for the high performance Olympic class dinghy called for a 5-metre boat, but Tokao Otani, a member of the development consortium, pointed out that there was a tariff in Japan for boats over 5 metres long. [3] It has a fine entry to efficiently transition between the low speed displacement, and high speed planing modes. [7] According to the International 49er class rules, the minimum hull weight including all permanent fittings can not be less than 94.0 kg. [8]

49er at the 2012 London Olympic Games Weymouth Olympics Polish mens 49er.jpg
49er at the 2012 London Olympic Games

Racing

49er and 49erFX racing is incredibly competitive. Team race for Olympic glory, with the pinnacle sought being the Olympic Games every four years. Some of the biggest superstars of sailing have emerged from 49er sailing including: - 1997-1999 World Champion Chris Nicholson who went on to lead multiple Volvo Ocean Race campaigns - 2002, 2004, and 2010 World Champions Iker Martinez de Lizarduy and Xabier Fernández who each went on to lead multiple Volvo Ocean Race campaigns - 2009, 2011, and 2012 World Champion Nathan Outteridge who lead the Artemis America's Cup team and the Japanese Sail GP team - 2013-2016 World Champions Peter Burling and Blair Tuke won the 2017 America's Cup and each narrowly lost out on winning the 2018 Volvo Ocean Race

Racing for the 49er class can best be followed via 49er.org

Spars

Southern Spars, part of the North Technology Group, is the licensed supplier of the 49er mast. It is a three piece male-moulded assembly made from 100% standard modulus carbon. [9] It is 7.0 meters tall and capable of supporting a combined crew weight up to 165 kg from its dual trapeze. The mast is braced by three sets of shrouds that connect to a fitting on the side of the boat. The crew is able to adjust them by tightening or loosening them, depending on the wind speed and sea states. [10]

The boom is made from an aluminium alloy extrusion.

Foils

The rudder and daggerboard are made out from a composite of epoxy, carbon and glass, covered by a hard gelcoat surface. The head of each class legal foil carries the embossed 49er logo and the ICA label. [8]

Sails

The 49er contains three sails: a main sail, jib, and spinnaker. The main and jib are 20 square meters, fully battened and made of reinforced Mylar (film polyester). The main was redesigned in 2007 from a full, curved roach plan to having a square on top in order to provide more sail area and to control more shape adjustment. The spinnaker is 38 square meters in a tri-radial asymmetric shape. [6]

Events

Olympics

Men's 49er

Games
GoldSilverBronze
2000 Sydney
details
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland  (FIN)
Thomas Johanson
Jyrki Järvi
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  (GBR)
Ian Barker
Simon Hiscocks
Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)
Jonathan McKee
Charlie McKee
2004 Athens
details
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain  (ESP)
Iker Martínez
Xabier Fernández
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine  (UKR)
Rodion Luka
George Leonchuk
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  (GBR)
Chris Draper
Simon Hiscocks
2008 Beijing
details
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark  (DEN)
Jonas Warrer
Martin Kirketerp
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain  (ESP)
Iker Martínez de Lizarduy
Xabier Fernández
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany  (GER)
Jan-Peter Peckolt
Hannes Peckolt
2012 London
details
Flag of Australia.svg  Australia  (AUS)
Nathan Outteridge
Iain Jensen
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand  (NZL)
Peter Burling
Blair Tuke
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark  (DEN)
Allan Nørregaard
Peter Lang
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand  (NZL)
Peter Burling
Blair Tuke
Flag of Australia.svg  Australia  (AUS)
Nathan Outteridge
Iain Jensen
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany  (GER)
Erik Heil
Thomas Plößel

Women's 49er FX

Games
GoldSilverBronze
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil  (BRA)
Martine Grael
Kahena Kunze
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand  (NZL)
Alex Maloney
Molly Meech
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark  (DEN)
Jena Mai Hansen
Katja Salskov-Iversen

World Championships

Men's 49er

Year GoldSilverBronze
2013 Marseille Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Peter Burling
Blair Tuke
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Marcus Hansen
Josh Porebski
Flag of France.svg  France
Manu Dyen
Stéphane Christidis
2014 Santander
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Peter Burling
Blair Tuke
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Jonas Warrer
Anders Thomsen
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Nathan Outteridge
Iain Jensen
2015 Buenos Aires
details
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Peter Burling
Blair Tuke
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Nathan Outteridge
Iain Jensen
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Federico Alonso
Arturo Alonso
2016 Clearwater [11] Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Peter Burling
Blair Tuke
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
Nico Delle Karth
Nikolaus Resch
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Dylan Fletcher-Scott
Alain Sign
2017 Matosinhos [12]
details
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Dylan Fletcher-Scott
Stuart Bithell
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
James Peters
Fynn Sterritt
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
Benjamin Bildstein
David Hussl
2018 Aarhus [13]
details
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia
Šime Fantela
Mihovil Fantela
Flag of France.svg  France
Mathieu Frei
Noé Delpech
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Tim Fischer
Fabian Graf

Women's 49er FX

Year GoldSilverBronze
2013 Marseille Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Alex Maloney
Molly Meech
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
Martine Grael
Kahena Kunze
Flag of France.svg  France
Sarah Steyaert
Julie Bossard
2014 Santander
details
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
Martine Grael
Kahena Kunze
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Ida Marie Baad Nielsen
Marie Thusgaard Olsen
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Giulia Conti
Francesca Clapcich
2015 Buenos Aires
details
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Giulia Conti
Francesca Clapcich
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
Martine Grael
Kahena Kunze
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Ida Marie Baad Nielsen
Marie Thusgaard Olsen
2016 Clearwater [14] Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Támara Echegoyen
Berta Betanzos
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Maiken Foght Schütt
Anne-Julie Schütt
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Victoria Jurczok
Anika Lorenz
2017 Matosinhos [12]
details
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Jena Mai Hansen
Katja Salskov-Iversen
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
Martine Grael
Kahena Kunze
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
Alexandra Maloney
Molly Meech
2018 Aarhus [15]
details
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Annemiek Bekkering
Annette Duetz
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria
Tanja Frank
Lorena Abicht
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Sophie Weguelin
Sophie Ainsworth

The 49er FX was developed by Mackay Boats to be a women's Olympic class. It consists of a 49er hull, wings, and foils, with a scaled down rig designed to suit the weight of an elite female crew.

The 29er is a smaller, single trapeze trainer to the 49er. It has become popular in North America, Europe and Australia as a fast youth boat. Recently the 29erXX, a twin trapeze version of the 29er, has been produced with a rig very similar to the 49er.

The 59er dinghy was put into production in Australia and the UK in 2002. It is a non-trapeze, 4.7m (15 feet 5 inches) sailing dinghy, rigged with an asymmetric spinnaker. It is designed for a crew weight of 145 kg to 180 kg (320 lb to 400 lb).

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505 (dinghy) high-performance dinghy

The International 505 is a one-design high-performance two-person monohull planing dinghy, with spinnaker, utilising a trapeze for the crew.

Byte (dinghy) sailing dinghy

The Byte is a small one-design sailing dinghy sailed by one person. It was designed by Canadian Ian Bruce, who also commissioned and marketed the Laser.

Hobie Cat

The Hobie Cat is a small sailing catamaran manufactured by the Hobie Cat Company. Hobie's line of products ranges from surfboards to catamaran sailboats to kayaks and stand-up paddle boards, though the Hobie Cat Company is most famous around the world for its catamarans. Hobie also designed a very successful monohull, the Hobie 33.

Laser 2

The Laser 2 is a double-handed version of the popular Laser one-design class of small sailing dinghy. It is a quick, planing dinghy that differs from the Laser in that it has a jib, symmetric spinnaker and a trapeze for the crew. It was designed by New Zealander Frank Bethwaite and was first launched as a product in Australia then North America in 1979 and in Europe in 1980. The hull is made of GRP. The rig is a Bermudian rig sloop with spinnaker. It is designed to be a mid to high performance racer. In Britain, its most common current use is at university class in British University Sailing Association (BUSA) events. A version known as the Laser Fun was available, the same hull but featuring a reefable mainsail and a roller furling jib, and with the option of an asymmetric spinnaker. As a strict one-design boat the Laser 2 was not available for amateur construction.

Tasar

The Tasar is a 14-foot (4.3 m) fiberglass 2 person sailing dinghy with a mainsail and jib. Designed by Frank Bethwaite of Sydney in 1975, the boat was technologically advanced for it time and continues to evolved. Aimed at a husband-and-wife or parent-and-child crew hence no spinnaker, it is designed for a combined crew weight of around 140kg. The hull weighs 68kg, and is of sandwich foam construction. The hull has a fine angle at the bow to reduce wave impact drag with unusually clean and sharp chines aft to ensure very free planing and outstanding stability. The foam cored hull is stiff and light and the advanced hull shape, together with an innovative rig which combines a rotating mast with a fully battened main sail, allows the Tasar to plane upwind with the crew normally hiked. The wide beam and a cockpit designed for comfortable hiking make the Tasar easy, fun and very exciting to sail in winds up to 25 knots (46 km/h).

29er (dinghy) ship type

The 29er is a two-person high performance sailing skiff designed by Julian Bethwaite and first produced in 1998. Derived from the Olympic class 49er class, it is raced in the ISAF Youth Sailing World Championships. The 29er is able to reach high speeds fairly quickly by having a sleek and hydrodynamic hull and will often exceed the wind speed when planing both up and downwind.

12ft Skiff

The 12 ft Skiff is a development dinghy class dating back to the early 20th century. It is sailed in Australia and New Zealand. It is 12 ft (3.7 m) in length, hence the name, and is a two-man boat. Both the crew and the helm are able to use the trapeze at the same time. It has an asymmetrical spinnaker and a jib, in addition to the mainsail.

Cherub (dinghy) 12-feet long, high performance, two-person, Planing dinghy first designed in 1951

The Cherub is a 12 feet long, high performance, two-person, planing dinghy first designed in 1951 in New Zealand by John Spencer. The class is a development class, allowing for significant variation in design between different boats within the rule framework. The minimum hull weight was originally 110 lbs.

Laser 3000

The Laser 3000 is a racing sailing dinghy crewed by two persons with a trapeze for the crew. Launched in 1996, the 3000 was developed from the Laser 2, using the original Frank Bethwaite-designed planing hull combined with a brand new self-draining deck by Derek Clark. Clark also re-designed the rig, using spars and sails from premium proprietary sources and replacing the symmetric spinnaker of the Laser 2 by a larger asymmetric spinnaker (gennaker). The gennaker is chute-launched and retrieved using a single halyard line, and is set on a retractable bowsprit. Helm balance and handling were improved using a shorter-footed mainsail with two full-width battens giving a larger roach. A mast with conventional spreaders replaced the now-unusual diamond arrangement of the Laser 2.

3000 (dinghy)

The 3000(formally the Laser 3000) is a racing sailing dinghy crewed by two persons with a trapeze for the crew. Launched in 1996 as the Laser 3000, the 3000 was developed from the Laser 2, using the original Frank Bethwaite-designed planing hull combined with a new designed self-draining deck by Derek Clark. Clark also re-designed the rig, using spars and sails from premium proprietary sources and replacing the symmetric spinnaker of the Laser 2 by a larger asymmetric spinnaker (gennaker). The gennaker is chute-launched and retrieved using a single halyard line, and is set on a retractable bowsprit. Helm balance and handling were improved using a shorter-footed mainsail with two full-width battens giving a larger roach. A mast with conventional spreaders replaced the now-unusual diamond arrangement of the Laser 2.

The Jacksnipe is a two-man racing sailing dinghy with a single trapeze for the crew and symmetrical spinnaker.

Sail Melbourne

Sail Melbourne is an annual sailing Regatta run by Yachting Victoria at various yacht clubs around Port Phillip Bay. Sail Melbourne is a Grade 1 ISAF event.

The 29erXX is a high performance sailing skiff, it was designed to allow light crews, particularly female crews, to sail twin trapeze boats and as a training boat for the more powerful 49er. The class gained International Sailing Federation Class status in May 2011, but lost it in 2014.

A 16 ft Skiff is a class of three-person sailing dinghy with twin trapezes and a large asymmetrical spinnaker. The class is unique to Australia, where it is one of the most popular boats sailing with 95 boats registered in 12 clubs. The class has the largest fleet of high performance skiffs on the east coast of Australia. Due to the nature of only allowing two trapezes, the age of the sailors can vary between 15 and 60 years old, making it a versatile class of boat.

The Laser 5000 is a double-handed, dual trapeze skiff with an asymmetrical spinnaker. It derives its name from its length of 5 metres. Losing out to the Bethwaite-designed 49er for selection as an Olympic class for the 2000 Games, it was one of 11 designs that took part in the ISAF High Performance Olympic Dinghy Evaluation Event in 1996.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sailing:

References

  1. "Centerboard Classes". US Sailing. Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  2. "Portsmouth Number List 2017". Royal Yachting Association. Archived from the original on 2017-03-23. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  3. 1 2 Bethwaite, Frank (2008). Higher performance sailing. London: Adlard Coles Nautical. ISBN   9781408101261. OCLC   854680844.
  4. http://forums.sailinganarchy.com/index.php?showtopic=163903
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-01-27. Retrieved 2010-01-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. 1 2 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-05-18. Retrieved 2015-05-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. http://49er.org/class-info/the-boat/design-elements/
  8. 1 2 http://www.sailing.org/tools/documents/49er2015CR160115-%5B%5D[18262].pdf
  9. http://www.mackayboats.com/mackayboats/assets/File/49erUsers%20Manual%202010%20%20%5BCompatibility%20Mode%5D.pdf
  10. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-06-28. Retrieved 2015-05-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. "2016 World Championship". 49er.org.
  12. 1 2 "2017 World Championship in Porto". 49er.org.
  13. "2018 World Championship in Aarhus". manage2sail.com.
  14. "2016 World Championship". 49er.org.
  15. "2018 World Championship in Aarhus". manage2sail.com.