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Athletics at the 1990 Commonwealth Games | ||
---|---|---|

Track events | ||

100 m | men | women |

200 m | men | women |

400 m | men | women |

800 m | men | women |

1500 m | men | women |

3000 m | women | |

5000 m | men | |

10,000 m | men | women |

100 m hurdles | women | |

110 m hurdles | men | |

400 m hurdles | men | women |

3000 m steeplechase | men | |

4×100 m relay | men | women |

4×400 m relay | men | women |

Road events | ||

Marathon | men | women |

10 km walk | women | |

30 km walk | men | |

Field events | ||

High jump | men | women |

Pole vault | men | |

Long jump | men | women |

Triple jump | men | |

Shot put | men | women |

Discus throw | men | women |

Hammer throw | men | |

Javelin throw | men | women |

Combined events | ||

Heptathlon | women | |

Decathlon | men | |

The **women's 1500 metres ** event at the 1990 Commonwealth Games was held on 2 and 3 February at the Mount Smart Stadium in Auckland.^{ [1] }

The **1500 metres** or **1,500-metre run** is the foremost middle distance track event in athletics. The distance has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 and the World Championships in Athletics since 1983. It is equivalent to 1.5 kilometers or approximately ^{15}⁄_{16} miles.

At the **1990 Commonwealth Games**, the **athletics** events were held at the Mount Smart Stadium in Auckland, New Zealand from 27 January to 3 February 1990. A total of 42 events were contested, 23 by male and 19 by female athletes.

The **Mount Smart Stadium** is a stadium in Auckland, New Zealand. It is the home ground of National Rugby League team, the New Zealand Warriors. Built within the quarried remnants of the Rarotonga / Mount Smart volcanic cone, it is located 10 kilometres south of the city centre, in the suburb of Penrose.

Gold | Silver | Bronze |

Angela Chalmers | Christina Cahill | Bev Nicholson |

Qualification: First 5 of each heat (Q) and the next 2 fastest (q) qualified for the final.

Rank | Heat | Name | Nationality | Time | Notes |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 1 | Lynne MacIntyre | 4:10.57 | Q | |

2 | 1 | Karen Hutcheson | 4:10.65 | Q | |

3 | 1 | Angela Chalmers | 4:10.67 | Q | |

4 | 1 | Shireen Bailey | 4:10.71 | Q | |

5 | 1 | Christine Pfitzinger | 4:11.07 | Q | |

6 | 1 | Sarah Collins | 4:12.26 | q | |

7 | 2 | Christina Cahill | 4:14.76 | Q | |

8 | 2 | Debbie Bowker | 4:15.29 | Q | |

9 | 2 | Bev Nicholson | 4:15.50 | Q | |

10 | 2 | Yvonne Murray | 4:15.67 | Q | |

11 | 2 | Michelle Baumgartner | 4:16.10 | Q | |

12 | 2 | Robyn Meagher | 4:16.27 | q | |

13 | 1 | Ursula McKee | 4:16.44 | ||

14 | 2 | Carolyn Schuwalow | 4:16.58 | ||

15 | 1 | Anne Hare | 4:20.25 | ||

16 | 2 | Debbie Sheddan | 4:21.42 | ||

17 | 1 | Khanyisile Lukhele | 4:48.65 |

Rank | Name | Nationality | Time | Notes |
---|---|---|---|---|

Angela Chalmers | 4:08.41 | |||

Christina Cahill | 4:08.75 | |||

Bev Nicholson | 4:09.00 | |||

4 | Yvonne Murray | 4:09.54 | ||

5 | Lynne MacIntyre | 4:09.75 | ||

6 | Debbie Bowker | 4:11.20 | ||

7 | Michelle Baumgartner | 4:12.74 | ||

8 | Shireen Bailey | 4:13.31 | ||

9 | Sarah Collins | 4:13.52 | ||

10 | Karen Hutcheson | 4:13.77 | ||

11 | Christine Pfitzinger | 4:17.36 | ||

12 | Robyn Meagher | 4:28.51 |

An **allele** is a variant form of a given gene. Sometimes, different alleles can result in different observable phenotypic traits, such as different pigmentation. A notable example of this trait of color variation is Gregor Mendel's discovery that the white and purple flower colors in pea plants were the result of "pure line" traits which could be used as a control for future experiments. However, most alleles result in little or no observable phenotypic variation.

In descriptive statistics, the **interquartile range** (**IQR**), also called the **midspread** or **middle 50%**, or technically **H-spread**, is a measure of statistical dispersion, being equal to the difference between 75th and 25th percentiles, or between upper and lower quartiles, IQR = *Q*_{3} − *Q*_{1}. In other words, the IQR is the first quartile subtracted from the third quartile; these quartiles can be clearly seen on a box plot on the data. It is a trimmed estimator, defined as the 25% trimmed range, and is a commonly used robust measure of scale.

**Q** is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. In nearly all languages using the Latin script, it is a consonant, not a vowel.

In statistics, the **standard deviation** is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values. A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be close to the mean of the set, while a high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a wider range of values.

An **electric field** surrounds an electric charge, and exerts force on other charges in the field, attracting or repelling them. Electric field is sometimes abbreviated as **E**-field. The electric field is defined mathematically as a vector field that associates to each point in space the force per unit of charge exerted on an infinitesimal positive test charge at rest at that point. The SI unit for electric field strength is volt per meter (V/m). Newtons per coulomb (N/C) is also used as a unit of electric field strength. Electric fields are created by electric charges, or by time-varying magnetic fields. Electric fields are important in many areas of physics, and are exploited practically in electrical technology. On an atomic scale, the electric field is responsible for the attractive force between the atomic nucleus and electrons that holds atoms together, and the forces between atoms that cause chemical bonding. Electric fields and magnetic fields are both manifestations of the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature.

In mathematics, the **quaternions** are a number system that extends the complex numbers. They were first described by Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton in 1843 and applied to mechanics in three-dimensional space. A feature of quaternions is that multiplication of two quaternions is noncommutative. Hamilton defined a quaternion as the quotient of two directed lines in a three-dimensional space or equivalently as the quotient of two vectors.

In mathematics, the **Euclidean distance** or **Euclidean metric** is the "ordinary" straight-line distance between two points in Euclidean space. With this distance, Euclidean space becomes a metric space. The associated norm is called the **Euclidean norm.** Older literature refers to the metric as the **Pythagorean metric**. A generalized term for the Euclidean norm is the **L ^{2} norm** or L

The **ideal gas law**, also called the **general gas equation**, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation of the behavior of many gases under many conditions, although it has several limitations. It was first stated by Émile Clapeyron in 1834 as a combination of the empirical Boyle's law, Charles's law, Avogadro's law, and Gay-Lussac's law. The ideal gas law is often written as

The **Dead Sea Scrolls** are ancient Jewish religious manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves in the Judaean Desert, near Ein Feshkha on the northern shore of the Dead Sea. Scholarly consensus dates these scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE. The texts have great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the second-oldest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. Almost all of the Dead Sea Scrolls collection is currently under the ownership of the Government of the State of Israel, and housed in the Shrine of the Book on the grounds of the Israel Museum.

**Exclusive or** or **exclusive disjunction** is a logical operation that outputs true only when inputs differ.

**Capacitance** is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential. There are two closely related notions of capacitance: *self capacitance* and *mutual capacitance*. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits *self capacitance*. A material with a large self capacitance holds more electric charge at a given voltage than one with low capacitance. The notion of *mutual capacitance* is particularly important for understanding the operations of the capacitor, one of the three elementary linear electronic components.

**Noether's theorem** states that every differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law. The theorem was proven by mathematician Emmy Noether in 1915 and published in 1918, after a special case was proven by E. Cosserat & F. Cosserat in 1909. The action of a physical system is the integral over time of a Lagrangian function, from which the system's behavior can be determined by the principle of least action. This theorem only applies to continuous and smooth symmetries over physical space.

**Hamiltonian mechanics** is a theory developed as a reformulation of classical mechanics and predicts the same outcomes as non-Hamiltonian classical mechanics. It uses a different mathematical formalism, providing a more abstract understanding of the theory. Historically, it was an important reformulation of classical mechanics, which later contributed to the formulation of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics.

In probability theory and statistics, the **Bernoulli distribution**, named after Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli, is the discrete probability distribution of a random variable which takes the value 1 with probability and the value 0 with probability that is, the probability distribution of any single experiment that asks a yes–no question; the question results in a boolean-valued outcome, a single bit whose value is success/yes/true/one with probability *p* and failure/no/false/zero with probability *q*. It can be used to represent a coin toss where 1 and 0 would represent "heads" and "tails", respectively, and *p* would be the probability of the coin landing on heads or tails, respectively. In particular, unfair coins would have

In mathematical statistics, the **Kullback–Leibler divergence** is a measure of how one probability distribution is different from a second, reference probability distribution. Applications include characterizing the relative (Shannon) entropy in information systems, randomness in continuous time-series, and information gain when comparing statistical models of inference. In contrast to variation of information, it is a distribution-wise *asymmetric* measure and thus does not qualify as a statistical *metric* of spread. In the simple case, a Kullback–Leibler divergence of 0 indicates that the two distributions in question are identical. In simplified terms, it is a measure of surprise, with diverse applications such as applied statistics, fluid mechanics, neuroscience and machine learning.

The **De Havilland Canada DHC-8**, commonly known as the **Dash 8**, is a series of turboprop-powered regional airliners, introduced by de Havilland Canada (DHC) in 1984. DHC was later bought by Boeing in 1988, then by Bombardier in 1992; then by Longview Aviation Capital in 2019, reviving the de Havilland Canada brand. Powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PW100s, it was developed from the Dash 7 with improved cruise performance, lowered operational costs but without STOL performance. Three sizes were offered: initially the 37–40 seat -100 until 2005 and the more powerful -200 from 1995, the stretched 50–56 seats -300 from 1989, both until 2009, and the 68–90 seats -400 from 1999, still in production. The **Q Series** are post-1997 variants with quieter cabins.

In linear algebra, a **rotation matrix** is a matrix that is used to perform a rotation in Euclidean space. For example, using the convention below, the matrix

In mathematics, a **rational number** is a number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction *p*/*q* of two integers, a numerator *p* and a non-zero denominator *q*. Since *q* may be equal to 1, every integer is a rational number. The set of all rational numbers, often referred to as "**the rationals**", the **field of rationals** or the **field of rational numbers** is usually denoted by a boldface **Q** ; it was thus denoted in 1895 by Giuseppe Peano after *quoziente*, Italian for "quotient".

**Coulomb's law**, or **Coulomb's inverse-square law**, is an experimental law of physics that quantifies the amount of force between two stationary, electrically charged particles. The electric force between charged bodies at rest is conventionally called *electrostatic force* or **Coulomb force**. The quantity of electrostatic force between stationary charges is always described by Coulomb's law. The law was first published in 1785 by French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, and was essential to the development of the theory of electromagnetism, maybe even its starting point, because it was now possible to discuss quantity of electric charge in a meaningful way.

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