400 metres hurdles

Last updated

Athletics
400 metres hurdles
Naisten 400 m aidat.jpg
Women's 400m hurdles.
World records
Men Flag of the United States.svg Kevin Young 46.78 (1992)
Women Flag of the United States.svg Dalilah Muhammad 52.16 (2019)
Olympic records
Men Flag of the United States.svg Kevin Young 46.78 (1992)
Women Flag of Jamaica.svg Melaine Walker 52.64 (2008)
World Championship records
Men Flag of the United States.svg Kevin Young 47.18 (1993)
Women Flag of the United States.svg Dalilah Muhammad 52.16 (2019)

The 400 metres hurdles is a track and field hurdling event. The event has been on the Olympic athletics programme since 1900 for men and since 1984 for women.

Contents

On a standard outdoor track, 400 metres is the length of the inside lane, once around the stadium. Runners stay in their lanes the entire way after starting out of the blocks and must clear ten hurdles that are evenly spaced around the track. The hurdles are positioned and weighted so that they fall forward if bumped into with sufficient force, to prevent injury to the runners. Although there is no longer any penalty for knocking hurdles over, runners prefer to clear them cleanly, as touching them during the race slows runners down.

The best male athletes can run the 400 m hurdles in a time of around 47 seconds, while the best female athletes achieve a time of around 53 seconds. The current men's and women's world record holders are Kevin Young with 46.78 seconds and Dalilah Muhammad with 52.16 seconds. Compared to the 400 metres run, the hurdles race takes the men about three seconds longer and the women four seconds longer.

The 400 m hurdles was held for both sexes at the inaugural IAAF World Championships in Athletics. The first championship for women came at the 1980 World Championships in Athletics – being held as a one-off due to the lack of a race at the 1980 Summer Olympics.

History

The first awards in a 400 m hurdles race were given in 1860 when a race was held in Oxford, England, over a course of 440 yards (402.336 m). While running the course, participants had to clear twelve wooden hurdles, over 100 centimetres tall, that had been spaced in even intervals.

To reduce the risk of injury, somewhat more lightweight constructions were introduced in 1895 that runners could push over. However, until 1935 runners were disqualified if they pushed over more than three hurdles in a race and records were only officially accepted if the runner in question had cleared all hurdles clean and left them all standing.

The 400 m hurdles became an Olympic event at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. At the same time, the race was standardized so that virtually identical races could be held and the finish times compared to each other. As a result, the official distance was fixed to 400 metres, or one lap of the stadium, and the number of hurdles was reduced to ten. The official height of the hurdles was set to 91.4 cm (3 feet) for men and 76.20 cm (2 ft, 6 inches) for women. The hurdles were now placed on the course with a run-up to the first hurdle of 45 metres, a distance between the hurdles of 35 metres each, and a home stretch from the last hurdle to the finish line of 40 metres.

The first documented 400 m hurdles race for women took place in 1971. The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) introduced the event officially as a discipline in 1974, although it was not run at the Olympics until 1984, the first Men's World Champion having been crowned the year before at the inaugural IAAF World Championships in Athletics. A special edition of the Women's 400m Hurdles happened in the 1980 IAAF World Championships in Athletics in response to the Women's 400m Hurdles not being included in the boycotted 1980 Moscow Olympics and the Liberty Bell Classic.

Many athletic commentators and officials have often brought up the idea of lifting the height of the women's 400 m hurdles to incorporate a greater requirement of hurdling skill. This is a view held by German athletic coach Norbert Stein: "All this means that the women's hurdles for specialists, who are the target group to be dealt with in this discussion, is considerably depreciated in skill demands when compared to the men's hurdles. It should not be possible in the women's hurdles that the winner is an athlete whose performance in the flat sprint is demonstrably excellent but whose technique of hurdling is only moderate and whose anthropometric characteristics are not optimal. This was the case at the World Championships in Seville and the same problem can often be seen at international and national meetings."[ citation needed ]

Hurdling technique

"The 400m hurdle race one of the most demanding of all events in the sprint-hurdle group." (Lindeman)[ citation not found ] It requires speed, endurance, and hurdling technique all along with unique awareness and special concentration throughout the race. Athletes and coaches alike have described sprinting the final 100m stretch in the 400m hurdle race as being the most mentally and physically exhausting run they've ever had to complete.

Block start

When preparing to hurdle, the blocks should be set so that the athlete arrives at the first hurdle leading on the desired leg without inserting a stutter step. A stutter step is when the runner has to chop his or her stride down to arrive on the "correct" leg for take off. Throughout the race, any adjustments to stride length stride speed should be made several strides out from the hurdle because a stutter or being too far from the hurdle at take off will result in loss of momentum and speed.

Hurdling

At the beginning of the take-off, the knee must be driven toward the hurdle and the foot then extended. The leg position when extended must be stretched out, in a position of a split. The knee should be slightly bent when crossing the hurdle. Unless an athlete's body has great flexibility, the knee must be slightly bent to allow a forward body lean. Unlike the 110m hurdles, a significant forward body lean is not that necessary due to the hurdles being lower. However, the trail leg must be kept bent and short to provide a quick lever action allowing a fast hurdle clearance. The knee should pull through under the armpit and should not be flat across the top of the hurdle.

It is also important that the hurdler doesn't reach out on the last stride before the hurdle as this will result in a longer bound being made to clear the hurdle. This will also result in a loss of momentum if the foot lands well in front of the center of gravity.

Stride length

Using a left lead leg on the bends allows the hurdler to run closer to the inside of the lane and cover a shorter distance. Additionally, if the left leg is used for the lead, then the athlete's upper body can be leaned to the left, making it easier to bring the trail leg through. Additionally, an athlete hurdling with a right leg lead around the bends must take care that they do not inadvertently trail their foot or toe around the hurdle rather than passing over the top, which would lead to a disqualification from the race. Depending on the height and strength of the athlete, men work toward a stride pattern of 13 to 15 steps between each hurdle, and women work toward a stride pattern of 15 to 17. This does not include the landing step from the previous hurdle. Weaker athletes will typically hold a longer step pattern throughout the race so that they do not bound or reach with each step, which also results in a loss of speed. These patterns are ideal because it allows the hurdler to take off from their predominant leg throughout the race without switching legs. However, fatigue from the race will knock athletes of their stride pattern and force runners to switch legs. At an early age, many coaches train their athletes to hurdle with both legs. This is a useful skill to learn since as a runner tires, their stride length may decrease, resulting in the need either to add a stutter stride, or to take a hurdle on the other leg. The 400 metre hurdles is a very physically demanding race. It requires intense training to get the endurance, speed and technique needed to compete.

All-time top 25

Men

RankTimeAthleteCountryDatePlaceRef
146.78 Kevin Young Flag of the United States.svg United States6 August 1992 Barcelona
246.87 Karsten Warholm Flag of Norway.svg Norway23 August 2020 Stockholm [3]
346.98 Abderrahman Samba Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar30 June 2018 Paris [4]
Rai Benjamin Flag of the United States.svg United States29 August 2019 Zürich [5]
547.02 Edwin Moses Flag of the United States.svg United States31 August 1983 Koblenz
647.03 Bryan Bronson Flag of the United States.svg United States21 June 1998 New Orleans
747.10 Samuel Matete Flag of Zambia.svg Zambia7 August 1991 Zürich
847.19 Andre Phillips Flag of the United States.svg United States25 September 1988 Seoul
947.23 Amadou Dia Ba Flag of Senegal.svg Senegal25 September 1988 Seoul
1047.24 Kerron Clement Flag of the United States.svg United States26 June 2005 Carson
1147.25 Félix Sánchez Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic29 August 2003 Saint-Denis
Angelo Taylor Flag of the United States.svg United States18 August 2008 Beijing
1347.30 Bershawn Jackson Flag of the United States.svg United States9 August 2005 Helsinki
1447.37 Stéphane Diagana Flag of France.svg France5 July 1995 Lausanne
1547.38 Danny Harris Flag of the United States.svg United States10 July 1991 Lausanne
1647.43 James Carter Flag of the United States.svg United States9 August 2005 Helsinki
1747.48 Harald Schmid Flag of Germany.svg West Germany8 September 1982 Athens
1847.50 Kyron McMaster Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg British Virgin Islands9 May 2021 Walnut
1947.53 Hadi Soua'an Al-Somaily Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia27 September 2000 Sydney
2047.54 Derrick Adkins Flag of the United States.svg United States5 July 1995 Lausanne
Fabrizio Mori Flag of Italy.svg Italy10 August 2001 Edmonton
2247.60 Winthrop Graham Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica4 August 1993 Zürich
2347.63 Johnny Dutch Flag of the United States.svg United States26 June 2010 Des Moines
2447.66 A L. J. van Zyl Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa25 February 2011 Pretoria
47.6631 May 2011 Ostrava
2547.67 Bennie Brazell Flag of the United States.svg United States11 June 2005 Sacramento

Notes

Below is a list of all other times superior to 47.43:

  • Karsten Warholm ran 46.92 (2019), 47.07 (2020), 47.08 (2020), 47.10 (2020), 47.12 (2019), 47.26 (2019), 47.33 (2019), 47.42 (2019), 47.43 (2019).
  • Rai Benjamin ran 47.02 (2018), 47.13 (2021), 47.16 (2019), 47.23 (2019).
  • Edwin Moses ran 47.13 (1980), 47.14 (1981), 47.17 (1980), 47.27 (1981), 47.32 (1984), 47.37 (1981, 1983, 1988), 47.38 (1986), 47.43 (1983).
  • Kevin Young ran 47.18 (1993), 47.37 (1993), 47.40 (1992), 47.42 (1992).
  • Abderrahman Samba ran 47.27 (2019), 47.37 (2018), 47.41 (2018), 47.42 (2018).
  • Bershawn Jackson ran 47.32 (2010).
  • Felix Sanchez ran 47.35 (2002), 47.38 (2001).
  • Kerron Clement ran 47.39 (2006).

Women

As of October 2019 [6]

RankTimeAthleteNationDatePlaceRef
152.16 Dalilah Muhammad Flag of the United States.svg United States4 October 2019 Doha [7]
252.23 Sydney McLaughlin Flag of the United States.svg United States4 October 2019 Doha [7]
352.34 Yuliya Pechonkina Flag of Russia.svg Russia8 August 2003 Tula
452.42 Melaine Walker Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica20 August 2009 Berlin
552.47 Lashinda Demus Flag of the United States.svg United States1 September 2011 Daegu
652.61 Kim Batten Flag of the United States.svg United States11 August 1995 Gothenburg
752.62 Tonja Buford-Bailey Flag of the United States.svg United States11 August 1995 Gothenburg
852.70 Natalya Antyukh Flag of Russia.svg Russia8 August 2012 London [8]
952.74 Sally Gunnell Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Great Britain19 August 1993 Stuttgart
1052.75 Shamier Little Flag of the United States.svg United States25 June 2017 Sacramento [9]
1152.77 Fani Halkia Flag of Greece.svg Greece22 August 2004 Athens
1252.79 Sandra Farmer-Patrick Flag of the United States.svg United States19 August 1993 Stuttgart
Kaliese Spencer Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica5 August 2011 London
1452.82 Deon Hemmings Flag of Jamaica.svg Jamaica31 July 1996 Atlanta
1552.83 Zuzana Hejnová Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic15 August 2013 Moscow
1652.89 Daimí Pernía Flag of Cuba.svg Cuba25 August 1999 Seville
1752.90 Nezha Bidouane Flag of Morocco.svg Morocco25 August 1999 Seville
1852.94 Marina Stepanova Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union17 September 1986 Tashkent
1952.95 Sheena Johnson Flag of the United States.svg United States11 July 2004 Sacramento
Kori Carter Flag of the United States.svg United States25 June 2017 Sacramento [9]
2153.02 Irina Privalova Flag of Russia.svg Russia27 September 2000 Sydney
2253.11 Tatyana Ledovskaya Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union29 August 1991 Tokyo
Ashley Spencer Flag of the United States.svg United States25 June 2017 Sacramento [9]
28 July 2019 Des Moines [10]
2453.14 Georganne Moline Flag of the United States.svg United States25 June 2017 Sacramento [9]
2553.17 Debbie Flintoff-King Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia28 September 1988 Seoul

Notes

Below is a list of all other times superior to 52.88.

Milestones

Most successful athletes

American athlete Glenn Davis had a prodigious start to his hurdling career, running his first race in April 1956 in 54.4 s. Two months later, he ran a new world record with 49.5 s and later that year he won the 400 m hurdles at the Olympics, and was also the first to repeat that feat in 1960.

In terms of success and longevity in competition, Edwin Moses' record is significant: he won 122 races in a row between 1977 and 1987 plus two gold medals, at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montréal and the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. He was undefeated for exactly nine years nine months and nine days, from 26 August 1977 until 4 June 1987. The U.S. boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow prevented him from winning a hat-trick of gold medals, but his career is nonetheless widely regarded as one of the most successful in hurdling. He finished third in the 1988 Olympic final, the last race in his professional career. He also held the world record for sixteen years from when he first broke it at the Olympics on 25 July 1976 (twice in one day) until it was finally broken by Kevin Young at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona.

Edwin Moses Ed moses.jpg
Edwin Moses

Olympic medalists

Men

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1900 Paris
details
Walter Tewksbury
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
Henri Tauzin
Flag of France.svg  France
George Orton
Canadian Red Ensign (1868-1921).svg  Canada
1904 St. Louis
details
Harry Hillman
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
Frank Waller
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
George Poage
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
1908 London
details
Charles Bacon
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
Harry Hillman
US flag 45 stars.svg  United States
Jimmy Tremeer
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
1912 Stockholmnot included in the Olympic program
1920 Antwerp
details
Frank Loomis
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
John Norton
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
August Desch
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
1924 Paris
details
Morgan Taylor
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Erik Wilén
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Ivan Riley
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
1928 Amsterdam
details
David Burghley
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Frank Cuhel
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Morgan Taylor
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
1932 Los Angeles
details
Bob Tisdall
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland
Glenn Hardin
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Morgan Taylor
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
1936 Berlin
details
Glenn Hardin
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
John Loaring
Canadian Red Ensign 1921-1957 (with disc).svg  Canada
Miguel White
Flag of the Philippines (1919-1936).svg  Philippines
1948 London
details
Roy Cochran
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Duncan White
British Ceylon flag.svg  Ceylon
Rune Larsson
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
1952 Helsinki
details
Charles Moore
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Yuriy Lituyev
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg  Soviet Union
John Holland
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand
1956 Melbourne
details
Glenn Davis
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Eddie Southern
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
Josh Culbreath
US flag 48 stars.svg  United States
1960 Rome
details
Glenn Davis
US flag 49 stars.svg  United States
Clifton Cushman
US flag 49 stars.svg  United States
Dick Howard
US flag 49 stars.svg  United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Rex Cawley
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
John Cooper
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Salvatore Morale
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
1968 Mexico City
details
David Hemery
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Gerhard Hennige
Flag of the German Olympic Team (1960-1968).svg  West Germany
John Sherwood
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
1972 Munich
details
John Akii-Bua
Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda
Ralph Mann
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
David Hemery
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
1976 Montreal
details
Edwin Moses
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Michael Shine
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Yevgeniy Gavrilenko
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
1980 Moscow
details
Volker Beck
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
Vasyl Arkhypenko
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Gary Oakes
Olympic flag.svg  Great Britain
1984 Los Angeles
details
Edwin Moses
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Danny Harris
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Harald Schmid
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
1988 Seoul
details
André Phillips
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Amadou Dia Ba
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal
Edwin Moses
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1992 Barcelona
details
Kevin Young
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Winthrop Graham
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica
Kriss Akabusi
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
1996 Atlanta
details
Derrick Adkins
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Samuel Matete
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia
Calvin Davis
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2000 Sydney
details
Angelo Taylor
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Hadi Al-Somaily
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia
Llewellyn Herbert
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
2004 Athens
details
Félix Sánchez
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic
Danny McFarlane
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica
Naman Keïta
Flag of France.svg  France
2008 Beijing
details
Angelo Taylor
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Kerron Clement
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Bershawn Jackson
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2012 London
details
Félix Sánchez
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic
Michael Tinsley
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Javier Culson
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Kerron Clement
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Boniface Mucheru Tumuti
Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya
Yasmani Copello
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey

Women

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1984 Los Angeles
details
Nawal El Moutawakel
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco
Judi Brown
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Cristieana Cojocaru
Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  Romania
1988 Seoul
details
Debbie Flintoff-King
Flag of Australia.svg  Australia
Tatyana Ledovskaya
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Ellen Fiedler
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
1992 Barcelona
details
Sally Gunnell
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
Sandra Farmer-Patrick
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Janeene Vickers
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1996 Atlanta
details
Deon Hemmings
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica
Kim Batten
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Tonja Buford-Bailey
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2000 Sydney
details
Irina Privalova
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Deon Hemmings
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica
Nezha Bidouane
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco
2004 Athens
details
Fani Halkia
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece
Ionela Târlea-Manolache
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania
Tetyana Tereshchuk-Antipova
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
2008 Beijing
details
Melaine Walker
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica
Sheena Tosta
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Tasha Danvers
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain
2012 London
details
Natalya Antyukh
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Lashinda Demus
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Zuzana Hejnová
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Dalilah Muhammad
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Sara Petersen
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
Ashley Spencer
Flag of the United States.svg  United States

World Championships medalists

Men

ChampionshipsGoldSilverBronze
1983 Helsinki
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Edwin Moses  (USA)Flag of Germany.svg  Harald Schmid  (FRG)Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Aleksandr Kharlov  (URS)
1987 Rome
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Edwin Moses  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Danny Harris  (USA)Flag of Germany.svg  Harald Schmid  (FRG)
1991 Tokyo
details
Flag of Zambia.svg  Samuel Matete  (ZAM)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Winthrop Graham  (JAM)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Kriss Akabusi  (GBR)
1993 Stuttgart
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Kevin Young  (USA)Flag of Zambia.svg  Samuel Matete  (ZAM)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Winthrop Graham  (JAM)
1995 Gothenburg
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Derrick Adkins  (USA)Flag of Zambia.svg  Samuel Matete  (ZAM)Flag of France.svg  Stéphane Diagana  (FRA)
1997 Athens
details
Flag of France.svg  Stéphane Diagana  (FRA)Flag of South Africa.svg  Llewellyn Herbert  (RSA)Flag of the United States.svg  Bryan Bronson  (USA)
1999 Seville
details
Flag of Italy.svg  Fabrizio Mori  (ITA)Flag of France.svg  Stéphane Diagana  (FRA)Flag of Switzerland.svg  Marcel Schelbert  (SUI)
2001 Edmonton
details
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Félix Sánchez  (DOM)Flag of Italy.svg  Fabrizio Mori  (ITA)Flag of Japan.svg  Dai Tamesue  (JPN)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Félix Sánchez  (DOM)Flag of the United States.svg  Joey Woody  (USA)Flag of Greece.svg  Periklis Iakovakis  (GRE)
2005 Helsinki
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Bershawn Jackson  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  James Carter  (USA)Flag of Japan.svg  Dai Tamesue  (JPN)
2007 Osaka
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Kerron Clement  (USA)Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Félix Sánchez  (DOM)Flag of Poland.svg  Marek Plawgo  (POL)
2009 Berlin
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Kerron Clement  (USA)Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Javier Culson  (PUR)Flag of the United States.svg  Bershawn Jackson  (USA)
2011 Daegu
details
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Dai Greene  (GBR)Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Javier Culson  (PUR)Flag of South Africa.svg  L. J. van Zyl  (RSA)
2013 Moscow
details
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Jehue Gordon  (TRI)Flag of the United States.svg  Michael Tinsley  (USA)Flag of Serbia.svg  Emir Bekrić  (SRB)
2015 Beijing
details
Flag of Kenya.svg  Nicholas Bett  (KEN)Flag of Russia.svg  Denis Kudryavtsev  (RUS)Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Jeffery Gibson  (BAH)
2017 London
details
Flag of Norway.svg  Karsten Warholm  (NOR)Flag of Turkey.svg  Yasmani Copello  (TUR)Flag of the United States.svg  Kerron Clement  (USA)
2019 Doha
details
Flag of Norway.svg  Karsten Warholm  (NOR)Flag of the United States.svg  Rai Benjamin  (USA)Flag of Qatar.svg  Abderrahman Samba  (QAT)

Women

ChampionshipsGoldSilverBronze
1980 Sittard
details
Flag of East Germany.svg  Bärbel Broschat  (GDR)Flag of East Germany.svg  Ellen Neumann  (GDR)Flag of East Germany.svg  Petra Pfaff  (GDR)
1983 Helsinki
details
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Yekaterina Fesenko  (URS)Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Ana Ambrazienė  (URS)Flag of East Germany.svg  Ellen Neumann-Fiedler  (GDR)
1987 Rome
details
Flag of East Germany.svg  Sabine Busch  (GDR)Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Debbie Flintoff  (AUS)Flag of East Germany.svg  Cornelia Feuerbach  (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Tatyana Ledovskaya  (URS)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Sally Gunnell  (GBR)Flag of the United States.svg  Janeene Vickers  (USA)
1993 Stuttgart
details
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Sally Gunnell  (GBR)Flag of the United States.svg  Sandra Farmer-Patrick  (USA)Flag of Russia.svg  Margarita Ponomaryova  (RUS)
1995 Gothenburg
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Kim Batten  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Tonja Buford  (USA)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Deon Hemmings  (JAM)
1997 Athens
details
Flag of Morocco.svg  Nezha Bidouane  (MAR)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Deon Hemmings  (JAM)Flag of the United States.svg  Kim Batten  (USA)
1999 Seville
details
Flag of Cuba.svg  Daimí Pernía  (CUB)Flag of Morocco.svg  Nezha Bidouane  (MAR)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Deon Hemmings  (JAM)
2001 Edmonton
details
Flag of Morocco.svg  Nezha Bidouane  (MAR)Flag of Russia.svg  Yuliya Pechonkina  (RUS)Flag of Cuba.svg  Daimí Pernía  (CUB)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Jana Pittman  (AUS)Flag of the United States.svg  Sandra Glover  (USA)Flag of Russia.svg  Yuliya Pechonkina  (RUS)
2005 Helsinki
details
Flag of Russia.svg  Yuliya Pechonkina  (RUS)Flag of the United States.svg  Lashinda Demus  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Sandra Glover  (USA)
2007 Osaka
details
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Jana Rawlinson  (AUS)Flag of Russia.svg  Yuliya Pechenkina  (RUS)Flag of Poland.svg  Anna Jesień  (POL)
2009 Berlin
details
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Melaine Walker  (JAM)Flag of the United States.svg  Lashinda Demus  (USA)Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Josanne Lucas  (TRI)
2011 Daegu
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Lashinda Demus  (USA)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Melaine Walker  (JAM)Flag of Russia.svg  Natalya Antyukh  (RUS)
2013 Moscow
details
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Zuzana Hejnová  (CZE)Flag of the United States.svg  Dalilah Muhammad  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Lashinda Demus  (USA)
2015 Beijing
details
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Zuzana Hejnová  (CZE)Flag of the United States.svg  Shamier Little  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Cassandra Tate  (USA)
2017 London
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Kori Carter  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Dalilah Muhammad  (USA)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Ristananna Tracey  (JAM)
2019 Doha
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Dalilah Muhammad  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Sydney McLaughlin  (USA)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Rushell Clayton  (JAM)

Season's bests

Notes and references

  1. Larsson, Peter (10 August 2019). "All-time men's best 400m hurdles". Track and Field all-time Performances. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  2. "400 Metres Hurdles Men All Time". IAAF. Archived from the original on 17 September 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  3. "Warholm dazzles with 46.87 performance in Stockholm". World Athletics. 23 August 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  4. "400m Hurdles Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 30 June 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  5. Bob Ramsak (29 August 2019). "Warholm sizzles 46.92 in Zurich - IAAF Diamond League". IAAF. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  6. "400 Metres Hurdles Women All Time". IAAF . Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  7. 1 2 "400m Hurdles Results" (PDF). IAAF. 4 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  8. "400 Metres Hurdles Results". IAAF. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Roy Jordan (25 June 2017). "Muhammad wins historic 400m hurdles race at US Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  10. Roy Jordan (29 July 2019). "Muhammad breaks world 400m hurdles record at US Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  11. IAAF World Championships in Athletics. GBR Athletics.

Related Research Articles

Sprint (running) Running over a short distance in a limited period of time

Sprinting is running over a short distance at the top-most speed of the body in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running, typically as a way of quickly reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an opponent. Human physiology dictates that a runner's near-top speed cannot be maintained for more than 30–35 seconds due to the depletion of phosphocreatine stores in muscles, and perhaps secondarily to excessive metabolic acidosis as a result of anaerobic glycolysis.

Hurdling Group of track and field events

Hurdling is the act of jumping over an obstacle at a high speed or in a sprint. In the early 19th century, hurdlers ran at and jumped over each hurdle, landing on both feet and checking their forward motion. Today, the dominant step patterns are the 3-step for high hurdles, 7-step for low hurdles, and 15-step for intermediate hurdles. Hurdling is a highly specialized form of obstacle racing, and is part of the sport of athletics. In hurdling events, barriers known as hurdles are set at precisely measured heights and distances. Each athlete must pass over the hurdles; passing under or intentionally knocking over hurdles will result in disqualification.

Relay race

A relay race is a racing competition where members of a team take turns completing parts of racecourse or performing a certain action. Relay races take the form of professional races and amateur games. Relay races are common in running, orienteering, swimming, cross-country skiing, biathlon, or ice skating. In the Olympic Games, there are several types of relay races that are part of track and field. Relay race, also called Relay, a track-and-field sport consisting of a set number of stages (legs), usually four, each leg run by a different member of a team. The runner finishing one leg is usually required to pass the next runner a stick-like object known as a "baton" while both are running in a marked exchange zone. In most relays, team members cover equal distances: Olympic events for both men and women are the 400-metre and 1,600-metre relays. Some non-Olympic relays are held at distances of 800 m, 3,200 m, and 6,000 m. In the less frequently run medley relays, however, the athletes cover different distances in a prescribed order—as in a sprint medley of 200, 200, 400, 800 metres or a distance medley of 1,200, 400, 800, 1,600 metresA relay race is a racing competition where members of a team take turns completing parts of racecourse or performing a certain action. Relay races take the form of professional races and amateur games. Relay races are common in running, orienteering, swimming, cross-country skiing, biathlon, or ice skating. In the Olympic Games, there are several types of relay races that are part of track and field. Relay race, also called Relay, a track-and-field sport consisting of a set number of stages (legs), usually four, each leg run by a different member of a team. The runner finishing one leg is usually required to pass the next runner a stick-like object known as a "baton" while both are running in a marked exchange zone. In most relays, team members cover equal distances: Olympic events for both men and women are the 400-metre and 1,600-metre relays. Some non-Olympic relays are held at distances of 800 m, 3,200 m, and 6,000 m. In the less frequently run medley relays, however, the athletes cover different distances in a prescribed order—as in a sprint medley of 200, 200, 400, 800 metres or a distance medley of 1,200, 400, 800, 1,600 metres

The World Athletics Championships are a biennial athletics competition organized by World Athletics. The World Championships were started in 1976 in response to the International Olympic Committee dropping the men's 50 km walk from the Olympic programme for the 1976 Montreal Olympics, despite its constant presence at the games since 1932. The IAAF chose to host its own world championship event instead, a month and a half after the Olympics. It was the first World Championships that the IAAF had hosted separate from the Olympic Games. A second limited event was held in 1980, and the inaugural championships in 1983, with all the events, is considered the official start of the competition. Until 1980, the Olympic champions were considered as reigning World Champions. At their debut, these championships were then held every four years, until 1991, when they switched to a two-year cycle since.

400 metres Sprint running event

The 400 metres, or 400-metre dash, is a sprinting event in track and field competitions. It has been featured in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1964 for women. On a standard outdoor running track, it is one lap around the track. Runners start in staggered positions and race in separate lanes for the entire course. In many countries, athletes previously competed in the 440-yard dash (402.336 m)—which is a quarter of a mile and was referred to as the 'quarter-mile'—instead of the 400 m (437.445 yards), though this distance is now obsolete.

Angelo Taylor American track and field athlete

Angelo F. Taylor is an American track and field athlete, winner of 400-meter hurdles at the 2000 and 2008 Summer Olympics. His personal record for the hurdles event is 47.25 seconds. His time puts him in a tie with Félix Sánchez for the #8 performer of all time. Sánchez also won two Olympic gold medals, in 2004 between Taylor's two golds and 2012, immediately following. Taylor also has a 400-meter dash best of 44.05 seconds, ranking him as the #21 performer of all time, superior to any other athlete who has made a serious effort in the 400 metres hurdles. He won the bronze medal in the 400 m at the 2007 World Championships in Athletics.

4 × 100 metres relay

The 4 × 100 metres relay or sprint relay is an athletics track event run in lanes over one lap of the track with four runners completing 100 metres each. The first runners must begin in the same stagger as for the individual 400 m race. A relay baton is carried by each runner. Prior to 2018, the baton had to be passed within a 20 m changeover box, preceded by a 10-metre acceleration zone. With a rule change effective November 1, 2017 that zone was modified to include the acceleration zone as part of the passing zone, making the entire zone 30 metres in length. The outgoing runner cannot touch the baton until it has entered the zone, the incoming runner cannot touch the baton after it has left the zone. The zone is usually marked in yellow, frequently using lines, triangles or chevrons. While the rule book specifies the exact positioning of the marks, the colors and style are only "recommended". While most legacy tracks will still have the older markings, the rule change still uses existing marks. Not all governing body jurisdictions have adopted the rule change.

4 × 400 metres relay

The 4 × 400 metres relay or long relay is an athletics track event in which teams consist of four runners who each complete 400 metres or one lap. It is traditionally the final event of a track meet. At top class events, the first 500 metres is run in lanes. Start lines are thus staggered over a greater distance than in an individual 400 metres race; the runners then typically move to the inside of the track. The slightly longer 4 × 440 yards relay was a formerly run British and American event, until metrication was completed in the 1970s.

110 metres hurdles Track and field hurdling event

The 110 metres hurdles, or 110-metre hurdles, is a hurdling track and field event for men. It is included in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympic Games. The female counterpart is the 100 metres hurdles. As part of a racing event, ten hurdles of 1.067 metres in height are evenly spaced along a straight course of 110 metres. They are positioned so that they will fall over if bumped into by the runner. Fallen hurdles do not carry a fixed time penalty for the runners, but they have a significant pull-over weight which slows down the run. Like the 100 metres sprint, the 110 metres hurdles begins in the starting blocks.

100 metres hurdles

The 100 metres hurdles, or 100-meter hurdles, is a track and field event run mainly by women. For the race, ten hurdles of a height of 83.8 centimetres (33.0 in) are placed along a straight course of 100 metres (109.36 yd). The first hurdle is placed after a run-up of 13 metres from the starting line. The next 9 hurdles are set at a distance of 8.5 metres from each other, and the home stretch from the last hurdle to the finish line is 10.5 metres long. The hurdles are set up so that they will fall over if bumped into by the runner, but weighted so this is disadvantageous. Fallen hurdles do not count against runners provided that they do not run into them on purpose. Like the 100 metres sprint, the 100 m hurdles begins with athletes in starting blocks.

The first world record in the women's 400 metres hurdles was recognised by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) in 1974. The current record is 52.16 seconds, set by American Dalilah Muhammad on October 4, 2019 at the World Championships in Doha.

Karsten Warholm Norwegian athletics competitor

Karsten Warholm is a Norwegian athlete who competes in the sprints and hurdles. He has won gold in the 400 m hurdles at the 2017 and 2019 World Championships, and at the 2018 European Championships. He competed in the octathlon as a youth, winning gold at the 2013 World Youth Championships.

Dalilah Muhammad American hurdler

Dalilah Muhammad is an American track and field athlete who specializes in the 400 metres hurdles. She won the gold medal at the 2019 World Championships, setting the current world record with a time of 52.16 seconds. She was also the 2013, 2016, and 2017 American national champion. At the 2016 Summer Olympics, she won gold in the 400 metres hurdles. Muhammad is only the second female 400 meter hurdler in history, after Sally Gunnell, to have won the Olympic and World titles and broken the world record.

Ashley Spencer (athlete) American sprinter

Ashley Spencer is an American track and field athlete who competes in the 400 metres and the 400 metres hurdles. In the 400m hurdles, she is the 2016 Olympic bronze medalist. In the 400m, she is the 2012 World Junior Champion and the 2016 World Indoor silver medalist. She is coached by 1996 Olympic bronze medalist Tonya Buford-Bailey.

400 metres hurdles at the Olympics

The 400 metres hurdles at the Summer Olympics is the longest hurdling event held at the multi-sport event. The men's 400 m hurdles has been present on the Olympic athletics programme since 1900, with a sole gap at the 1912 Summer Olympics. The women's event was added to the programme over eighty years later, at the 1984 Olympics. It is the most prestigious 400 m hurdles race at elite level.

Kemi Adekoya Bahraini hurdler and sprinter of Nigerian descent

Oluwakemi Adekoya is a Nigerian-born track and field athlete who competes for Bahrain. She specialises in the 400 metres hurdles and has a personal best of 54.59 seconds – a Bahraini record. In January 2019, it was reported that Adekoya tested positive for an illegal steroid stanozolol in an out-of-competition test in November 2018 and was provisionally suspended. All of her results achieved after 24 August 2018 were also stripped.

Sydney McLaughlin American hurdler

Sydney Michelle McLaughlin is an American hurdler and sprinter who competed for the University of Kentucky before turning professional. She won the silver medal at the 2019 World Championships in the 400 m hurdles, setting her new personal best of 52.23 seconds. That mark ranks her as the #2 performer in history only behind the winner of the race while setting the world record, Dalilah Muhammad.

The men's 400 metres hurdles at the 2019 World Athletics Championships was held at the Khalifa International Stadium in Doha from 27 to 30 September 2019.

The women's 400 metres hurdles at the 2019 World Athletics Championships was held at the Khalifa International Stadium in Doha, Qatar, from 1 to 4 October 2019.

2019 Bislett Games

The 2019 Bislett Games was the 54th edition of the annual outdoor track and field meeting in Oslo, Norway. Held on 13 June at Bislett Stadium, it was the fifth leg of the 2019 IAAF Diamond League – the highest level international track and field circuit. 29 events were contested with 13 of them being point-scoring Diamond League disciplines.