| Athletics |
400 metres hurdles
|Men||Kevin Young 46.78 (1992)|
|Women||Dalilah Muhammad 52.16 (2019)|
|Men||Kevin Young 46.78 (1992)|
|Women||Melaine Walker 52.64 (2008)|
|World Championship records|
|Men||Kevin Young 47.18 (1993)|
|Women||Dalilah Muhammad 52.16 (2019)|
The 400 metres hurdles is a track and field hurdling event. The event has been on the Olympic athletics programme since 1900 for men and since 1984 for women.
On a standard outdoor track, 400 metres is the length of the inside lane, once around the stadium. Runners stay in their lanes the entire way after starting out of the blocks and must clear ten hurdles that are evenly spaced around the track. The hurdles are positioned and weighted so that they fall forward if bumped into with sufficient force, to prevent injury to the runners. Although there is no longer any penalty for knocking hurdles over, runners prefer to clear them cleanly, as touching them during the race slows runners down.
The best male athletes can run the 400 m hurdles in a time of around 47 seconds, while the best female athletes achieve a time of around 53 seconds. The current men's and women's world record holders are Kevin Young with 46.78 seconds and Dalilah Muhammad with 52.16 seconds. Compared to the 400 metres run, the hurdles race takes the men about three seconds longer and the women four seconds longer.
The 400 m hurdles was held for both sexes at the inaugural IAAF World Championships in Athletics. The first championship for women came at the 1980 World Championships in Athletics – being held as a one-off due to the lack of a race at the 1980 Summer Olympics.
The first awards in a 400 m hurdles race were given in 1860 when a race was held in Oxford, England, over a course of 440 yards (402.336 m). While running the course, participants had to clear twelve wooden hurdles, over 100 centimetres tall, that had been spaced in even intervals.
To reduce the risk of injury, somewhat more lightweight constructions were introduced in 1895 that runners could push over. However, until 1935 runners were disqualified if they pushed over more than three hurdles in a race and records were only officially accepted if the runner in question had cleared all hurdles clean and left them all standing.
The 400 m hurdles became an Olympic event at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. At the same time, the race was standardized so that virtually identical races could be held and the finish times compared to each other. As a result, the official distance was fixed to 400 metres, or one lap of the stadium, and the number of hurdles was reduced to ten. The official height of the hurdles was set to 91.4 cm (3 feet) for men and 76.20 cm (2 ft, 6 inches) for women. The hurdles were now placed on the course with a run-up to the first hurdle of 45 metres, a distance between the hurdles of 35 metres each, and a home stretch from the last hurdle to the finish line of 40 metres.
The first documented 400 m hurdles race for women took place in 1971. The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) introduced the event officially as a discipline in 1974, although it was not run at the Olympics until 1984, the first Men's World Champion having been crowned the year before at the inaugural IAAF World Championships in Athletics. A special edition of the Women's 400m Hurdles happened in the 1980 IAAF World Championships in Athletics in response to the Women's 400m Hurdles not being included in the boycotted 1980 Moscow Olympics and the Liberty Bell Classic.
Many athletic commentators and officials have often brought up the idea of lifting the height of the women's 400 m hurdles to incorporate a greater requirement of hurdling skill. This is a view held by German athletic coach Norbert Stein: "All this means that the women's hurdles for specialists, who are the target group to be dealt with in this discussion, is considerably depreciated in skill demands when compared to the men's hurdles. It should not be possible in the women's hurdles that the winner is an athlete whose performance in the flat sprint is demonstrably excellent but whose technique of hurdling is only moderate and whose anthropometric characteristics are not optimal. This was the case at the World Championships in Seville and the same problem can often be seen at international and national meetings."[ citation needed ]
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"The 400m hurdle race one of the most demanding of all events in the sprint-hurdle group." (Lindeman)[ citation not found ] It requires speed, endurance, and hurdling technique all along with unique awareness and special concentration throughout the race. Athletes and coaches alike have described sprinting the final 100m stretch in the 400m hurdle race as being the most mentally and physically exhausting run they've ever had to complete.
When preparing to hurdle, the blocks should be set so that the athlete arrives at the first hurdle leading on the desired leg without inserting a stutter step. A stutter step is when the runner has to chop his or her stride down to arrive on the "correct" leg for take off. Throughout the race, any adjustments to stride length stride speed should be made several strides out from the hurdle because a stutter or being too far from the hurdle at take off will result in loss of momentum and speed.
At the beginning of the take-off, the knee must be driven toward the hurdle and the foot then extended. The leg position when extended must be stretched out, in a position of a split. The knee should be slightly bent when crossing the hurdle. Unless an athlete's body has great flexibility, the knee must be slightly bent to allow a forward body lean. Unlike the 110m hurdles, a significant forward body lean is not that necessary due to the hurdles being lower. However, the trail leg must be kept bent and short to provide a quick lever action allowing a fast hurdle clearance. The knee should pull through under the armpit and should not be flat across the top of the hurdle.
It is also important that the hurdler doesn't reach out on the last stride before the hurdle as this will result in a longer bound being made to clear the hurdle. This will also result in a loss of momentum if the foot lands well in front of the center of gravity.
Using a left lead leg on the bends allows the hurdler to run closer to the inside of the lane and cover a shorter distance. Additionally, if the left leg is used for the lead, then the athlete's upper body can be leaned to the left, making it easier to bring the trail leg through. Additionally, an athlete hurdling with a right leg lead around the bends must take care that they do not inadvertently trail their foot or toe around the hurdle rather than passing over the top, which would lead to a disqualification from the race. Depending on the height and strength of the athlete, men work toward a stride pattern of 13 to 15 steps between each hurdle, and women work toward a stride pattern of 15 to 17. This does not include the landing step from the previous hurdle. Weaker athletes will typically hold a longer step pattern throughout the race so that they do not bound or reach with each step, which also results in a loss of speed. These patterns are ideal because it allows the hurdler to take off from their predominant leg throughout the race without switching legs. However, fatigue from the race will knock athletes of their stride pattern and force runners to switch legs. At an early age, many coaches train their athletes to hurdle with both legs. This is a useful skill to learn since as a runner tires, their stride length may decrease, resulting in the need either to add a stutter stride, or to take a hurdle on the other leg. The 400 metre hurdles is a very physically demanding race. It requires intense training to get the endurance, speed and technique needed to compete.
|1||46.78||Kevin Young||United States||6 August 1992||Barcelona|
|2||46.87||Karsten Warholm||Norway||23 August 2020||Stockholm|
|3||46.98||Abderrahman Samba||Qatar||30 June 2018||Paris|
|Rai Benjamin||United States||29 August 2019||Zürich|
|5||47.02||Edwin Moses||United States||31 August 1983||Koblenz|
|6||47.03||Bryan Bronson||United States||21 June 1998||New Orleans|
|7||47.10||Samuel Matete||Zambia||7 August 1991||Zürich|
|8||47.19||Andre Phillips||United States||25 September 1988||Seoul|
|9||47.23||Amadou Dia Ba||Senegal||25 September 1988||Seoul|
|10||47.24||Kerron Clement||United States||26 June 2005||Carson|
|11||47.25||Félix Sánchez||Dominican Republic||29 August 2003||Saint-Denis|
|Angelo Taylor||United States||18 August 2008||Beijing|
|13||47.30||Bershawn Jackson||United States||9 August 2005||Helsinki|
|14||47.37||Stéphane Diagana||France||5 July 1995||Lausanne|
|15||47.38||Danny Harris||United States||10 July 1991||Lausanne|
|16||47.43||James Carter||United States||9 August 2005||Helsinki|
|17||47.48||Harald Schmid||West Germany||8 September 1982||Athens|
|18||47.50||Kyron McMaster||British Virgin Islands||9 May 2021||Walnut|
|19||47.53||Hadi Soua'an Al-Somaily||Saudi Arabia||27 September 2000||Sydney|
|20||47.54||Derrick Adkins||United States||5 July 1995||Lausanne|
|Fabrizio Mori||Italy||10 August 2001||Edmonton|
|22||47.60||Winthrop Graham||Jamaica||4 August 1993||Zürich|
|23||47.63||Johnny Dutch||United States||26 June 2010||Des Moines|
|24||47.66 A||L. J. van Zyl||South Africa||25 February 2011||Pretoria|
|47.66||31 May 2011||Ostrava|
|25||47.67||Bennie Brazell||United States||11 June 2005||Sacramento|
Below is a list of all other times superior to 47.43:
As of October 2019
|1||52.16||Dalilah Muhammad||United States||4 October 2019||Doha|
|2||52.23||Sydney McLaughlin||United States||4 October 2019||Doha|
|3||52.34||Yuliya Pechonkina||Russia||8 August 2003||Tula|
|4||52.42||Melaine Walker||Jamaica||20 August 2009||Berlin|
|5||52.47||Lashinda Demus||United States||1 September 2011||Daegu|
|6||52.61||Kim Batten||United States||11 August 1995||Gothenburg|
|7||52.62||Tonja Buford-Bailey||United States||11 August 1995||Gothenburg|
|8||52.70||Natalya Antyukh||Russia||8 August 2012||London|
|9||52.74||Sally Gunnell||Great Britain||19 August 1993||Stuttgart|
|10||52.75||Shamier Little||United States||25 June 2017||Sacramento|
|11||52.77||Fani Halkia||Greece||22 August 2004||Athens|
|12||52.79||Sandra Farmer-Patrick||United States||19 August 1993||Stuttgart|
|Kaliese Spencer||Jamaica||5 August 2011||London|
|14||52.82||Deon Hemmings||Jamaica||31 July 1996||Atlanta|
|15||52.83||Zuzana Hejnová||Czech Republic||15 August 2013||Moscow|
|16||52.89||Daimí Pernía||Cuba||25 August 1999||Seville|
|17||52.90||Nezha Bidouane||Morocco||25 August 1999||Seville|
|18||52.94||Marina Stepanova||Soviet Union||17 September 1986||Tashkent|
|19||52.95||Sheena Johnson||United States||11 July 2004||Sacramento|
|Kori Carter||United States||25 June 2017||Sacramento|
|21||53.02||Irina Privalova||Russia||27 September 2000||Sydney|
|22||53.11||Tatyana Ledovskaya||Soviet Union||29 August 1991||Tokyo|
|Ashley Spencer||United States||25 June 2017||Sacramento|
|28 July 2019||Des Moines|
|24||53.14||Georganne Moline||United States||25 June 2017||Sacramento|
|25||53.17||Debbie Flintoff-King||Australia||28 September 1988||Seoul|
Below is a list of all other times superior to 52.88.
American athlete Glenn Davis had a prodigious start to his hurdling career, running his first race in April 1956 in 54.4 s. Two months later, he ran a new world record with 49.5 s and later that year he won the 400 m hurdles at the Olympics, and was also the first to repeat that feat in 1960.
In terms of success and longevity in competition, Edwin Moses' record is significant: he won 122 races in a row between 1977 and 1987 plus two gold medals, at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montréal and the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. He was undefeated for exactly nine years nine months and nine days, from 26 August 1977 until 4 June 1987. The U.S. boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow prevented him from winning a hat-trick of gold medals, but his career is nonetheless widely regarded as one of the most successful in hurdling. He finished third in the 1988 Olympic final, the last race in his professional career. He also held the world record for sixteen years from when he first broke it at the Olympics on 25 July 1976 (twice in one day) until it was finally broken by Kevin Young at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona.
| 1900 Paris || Walter Tewksbury |
| Henri Tauzin |
| George Orton |
| 1904 St. Louis || Harry Hillman |
| Frank Waller |
| George Poage |
| 1908 London || Charles Bacon |
| Harry Hillman |
| Jimmy Tremeer |
|1912 Stockholm||not included in the Olympic program|
| 1920 Antwerp || Frank Loomis |
| John Norton |
| August Desch |
| 1924 Paris || Morgan Taylor |
| Erik Wilén |
| Ivan Riley |
| 1928 Amsterdam || David Burghley |
| Frank Cuhel |
| Morgan Taylor |
| 1932 Los Angeles || Bob Tisdall |
| Glenn Hardin |
| Morgan Taylor |
| 1936 Berlin || Glenn Hardin |
| John Loaring |
| Miguel White |
| 1948 London || Roy Cochran |
| Duncan White |
| Rune Larsson |
| 1952 Helsinki || Charles Moore |
| Yuriy Lituyev |
| John Holland |
| 1956 Melbourne || Glenn Davis |
| Eddie Southern |
| Josh Culbreath |
| 1960 Rome || Glenn Davis |
| Clifton Cushman |
| Dick Howard |
| 1964 Tokyo || Rex Cawley |
| John Cooper |
| Salvatore Morale |
| 1968 Mexico City || David Hemery |
| Gerhard Hennige |
| John Sherwood |
| 1972 Munich || John Akii-Bua |
| Ralph Mann |
| David Hemery |
| 1976 Montreal || Edwin Moses |
| Michael Shine |
| Yevgeniy Gavrilenko |
| 1980 Moscow || Volker Beck |
| Vasyl Arkhypenko |
| Gary Oakes |
| 1984 Los Angeles || Edwin Moses |
| Danny Harris |
| Harald Schmid |
| 1988 Seoul || André Phillips |
| Amadou Dia Ba |
| Edwin Moses |
| 1992 Barcelona || Kevin Young |
| Winthrop Graham |
| Kriss Akabusi |
| 1996 Atlanta || Derrick Adkins |
| Samuel Matete |
| Calvin Davis |
| 2000 Sydney || Angelo Taylor |
| Hadi Al-Somaily |
| Llewellyn Herbert |
| 2004 Athens || Félix Sánchez |
| Danny McFarlane |
| Naman Keïta |
| 2008 Beijing || Angelo Taylor |
| Kerron Clement |
| Bershawn Jackson |
| 2012 London || Félix Sánchez |
| Michael Tinsley |
| Javier Culson |
| 2016 Rio de Janeiro || Kerron Clement |
| Boniface Mucheru Tumuti |
| Yasmani Copello |
| 1984 Los Angeles || Nawal El Moutawakel |
| Judi Brown |
| Cristieana Cojocaru |
| 1988 Seoul || Debbie Flintoff-King |
| Tatyana Ledovskaya |
| Ellen Fiedler |
| 1992 Barcelona || Sally Gunnell |
| Sandra Farmer-Patrick |
| Janeene Vickers |
| 1996 Atlanta || Deon Hemmings |
| Kim Batten |
| Tonja Buford-Bailey |
| 2000 Sydney || Irina Privalova |
| Deon Hemmings |
| Nezha Bidouane |
| 2004 Athens || Fani Halkia |
| Ionela Târlea-Manolache |
| Tetyana Tereshchuk-Antipova |
| 2008 Beijing || Melaine Walker |
| Sheena Tosta |
| Tasha Danvers |
| 2012 London || Natalya Antyukh |
| Lashinda Demus |
| Zuzana Hejnová |
| 2016 Rio de Janeiro || Dalilah Muhammad |
| Sara Petersen |
| Ashley Spencer |
| 1983 Helsinki ||Edwin Moses (USA)||Harald Schmid (FRG)||Aleksandr Kharlov (URS)|
| 1987 Rome ||Edwin Moses (USA)||Danny Harris (USA)||Harald Schmid (FRG)|
| 1991 Tokyo ||Samuel Matete (ZAM)||Winthrop Graham (JAM)||Kriss Akabusi (GBR)|
| 1993 Stuttgart ||Kevin Young (USA)||Samuel Matete (ZAM)||Winthrop Graham (JAM)|
| 1995 Gothenburg ||Derrick Adkins (USA)||Samuel Matete (ZAM)||Stéphane Diagana (FRA)|
| 1997 Athens ||Stéphane Diagana (FRA)||Llewellyn Herbert (RSA)||Bryan Bronson (USA)|
| 1999 Seville ||Fabrizio Mori (ITA)||Stéphane Diagana (FRA)||Marcel Schelbert (SUI)|
| 2001 Edmonton ||Félix Sánchez (DOM)||Fabrizio Mori (ITA)||Dai Tamesue (JPN)|
| 2003 Saint-Denis ||Félix Sánchez (DOM)||Joey Woody (USA)||Periklis Iakovakis (GRE)|
| 2005 Helsinki ||Bershawn Jackson (USA)||James Carter (USA)||Dai Tamesue (JPN)|
| 2007 Osaka ||Kerron Clement (USA)||Félix Sánchez (DOM)||Marek Plawgo (POL)|
| 2009 Berlin ||Kerron Clement (USA)||Javier Culson (PUR)||Bershawn Jackson (USA)|
| 2011 Daegu ||Dai Greene (GBR)||Javier Culson (PUR)||L. J. van Zyl (RSA)|
| 2013 Moscow ||Jehue Gordon (TRI)||Michael Tinsley (USA)||Emir Bekrić (SRB)|
| 2015 Beijing ||Nicholas Bett (KEN)||Denis Kudryavtsev (RUS)||Jeffery Gibson (BAH)|
| 2017 London ||Karsten Warholm (NOR)||Yasmani Copello (TUR)||Kerron Clement (USA)|
| 2019 Doha ||Karsten Warholm (NOR)||Rai Benjamin (USA)||Abderrahman Samba (QAT)|
| 1980 Sittard ||Bärbel Broschat (GDR)||Ellen Neumann (GDR)||Petra Pfaff (GDR)|
| 1983 Helsinki ||Yekaterina Fesenko (URS)||Ana Ambrazienė (URS)||Ellen Neumann-Fiedler (GDR)|
| 1987 Rome ||Sabine Busch (GDR)||Debbie Flintoff (AUS)||Cornelia Feuerbach (GDR)|
| 1991 Tokyo ||Tatyana Ledovskaya (URS)||Sally Gunnell (GBR)||Janeene Vickers (USA)|
| 1993 Stuttgart ||Sally Gunnell (GBR)||Sandra Farmer-Patrick (USA)||Margarita Ponomaryova (RUS)|
| 1995 Gothenburg ||Kim Batten (USA)||Tonja Buford (USA)||Deon Hemmings (JAM)|
| 1997 Athens ||Nezha Bidouane (MAR)||Deon Hemmings (JAM)||Kim Batten (USA)|
| 1999 Seville ||Daimí Pernía (CUB)||Nezha Bidouane (MAR)||Deon Hemmings (JAM)|
| 2001 Edmonton ||Nezha Bidouane (MAR)||Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS)||Daimí Pernía (CUB)|
| 2003 Saint-Denis ||Jana Pittman (AUS)||Sandra Glover (USA)||Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS)|
| 2005 Helsinki ||Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS)||Lashinda Demus (USA)||Sandra Glover (USA)|
| 2007 Osaka ||Jana Rawlinson (AUS)||Yuliya Pechenkina (RUS)||Anna Jesień (POL)|
| 2009 Berlin ||Melaine Walker (JAM)||Lashinda Demus (USA)||Josanne Lucas (TRI)|
| 2011 Daegu ||Lashinda Demus (USA)||Melaine Walker (JAM)||Natalya Antyukh (RUS)|
| 2013 Moscow ||Zuzana Hejnová (CZE)||Dalilah Muhammad (USA)||Lashinda Demus (USA)|
| 2015 Beijing ||Zuzana Hejnová (CZE)||Shamier Little (USA)||Cassandra Tate (USA)|
| 2017 London ||Kori Carter (USA)||Dalilah Muhammad (USA)||Ristananna Tracey (JAM)|
| 2019 Doha ||Dalilah Muhammad (USA)||Sydney McLaughlin (USA)||Rushell Clayton (JAM)|
Sprinting is running over a short distance at the top-most speed of the body in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running, typically as a way of quickly reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an opponent. Human physiology dictates that a runner's near-top speed cannot be maintained for more than 30–35 seconds due to the depletion of phosphocreatine stores in muscles, and perhaps secondarily to excessive metabolic acidosis as a result of anaerobic glycolysis.
Hurdling is the act of jumping over an obstacle at a high speed or in a sprint. In the early 19th century, hurdlers ran at and jumped over each hurdle, landing on both feet and checking their forward motion. Today, the dominant step patterns are the 3-step for high hurdles, 7-step for low hurdles, and 15-step for intermediate hurdles. Hurdling is a highly specialized form of obstacle racing, and is part of the sport of athletics. In hurdling events, barriers known as hurdles are set at precisely measured heights and distances. Each athlete must pass over the hurdles; passing under or intentionally knocking over hurdles will result in disqualification.
A relay race is a racing competition where members of a team take turns completing parts of racecourse or performing a certain action. Relay races take the form of professional races and amateur games. Relay races are common in running, orienteering, swimming, cross-country skiing, biathlon, or ice skating. In the Olympic Games, there are several types of relay races that are part of track and field. Relay race, also called Relay, a track-and-field sport consisting of a set number of stages (legs), usually four, each leg run by a different member of a team. The runner finishing one leg is usually required to pass the next runner a stick-like object known as a "baton" while both are running in a marked exchange zone. In most relays, team members cover equal distances: Olympic events for both men and women are the 400-metre and 1,600-metre relays. Some non-Olympic relays are held at distances of 800 m, 3,200 m, and 6,000 m. In the less frequently run medley relays, however, the athletes cover different distances in a prescribed order—as in a sprint medley of 200, 200, 400, 800 metres or a distance medley of 1,200, 400, 800, 1,600 metresA relay race is a racing competition where members of a team take turns completing parts of racecourse or performing a certain action. Relay races take the form of professional races and amateur games. Relay races are common in running, orienteering, swimming, cross-country skiing, biathlon, or ice skating. In the Olympic Games, there are several types of relay races that are part of track and field. Relay race, also called Relay, a track-and-field sport consisting of a set number of stages (legs), usually four, each leg run by a different member of a team. The runner finishing one leg is usually required to pass the next runner a stick-like object known as a "baton" while both are running in a marked exchange zone. In most relays, team members cover equal distances: Olympic events for both men and women are the 400-metre and 1,600-metre relays. Some non-Olympic relays are held at distances of 800 m, 3,200 m, and 6,000 m. In the less frequently run medley relays, however, the athletes cover different distances in a prescribed order—as in a sprint medley of 200, 200, 400, 800 metres or a distance medley of 1,200, 400, 800, 1,600 metres
The World Athletics Championships are a biennial athletics competition organized by World Athletics. The World Championships were started in 1976 in response to the International Olympic Committee dropping the men's 50 km walk from the Olympic programme for the 1976 Montreal Olympics, despite its constant presence at the games since 1932. The IAAF chose to host its own world championship event instead, a month and a half after the Olympics. It was the first World Championships that the IAAF had hosted separate from the Olympic Games. A second limited event was held in 1980, and the inaugural championships in 1983, with all the events, is considered the official start of the competition. Until 1980, the Olympic champions were considered as reigning World Champions. At their debut, these championships were then held every four years, until 1991, when they switched to a two-year cycle since.
The 400 metres, or 400-metre dash, is a sprinting event in track and field competitions. It has been featured in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1964 for women. On a standard outdoor running track, it is one lap around the track. Runners start in staggered positions and race in separate lanes for the entire course. In many countries, athletes previously competed in the 440-yard dash (402.336 m)—which is a quarter of a mile and was referred to as the 'quarter-mile'—instead of the 400 m (437.445 yards), though this distance is now obsolete.
Angelo F. Taylor is an American track and field athlete, winner of 400-meter hurdles at the 2000 and 2008 Summer Olympics. His personal record for the hurdles event is 47.25 seconds. His time puts him in a tie with Félix Sánchez for the #8 performer of all time. Sánchez also won two Olympic gold medals, in 2004 between Taylor's two golds and 2012, immediately following. Taylor also has a 400-meter dash best of 44.05 seconds, ranking him as the #21 performer of all time, superior to any other athlete who has made a serious effort in the 400 metres hurdles. He won the bronze medal in the 400 m at the 2007 World Championships in Athletics.
The 4 × 100 metres relay or sprint relay is an athletics track event run in lanes over one lap of the track with four runners completing 100 metres each. The first runners must begin in the same stagger as for the individual 400 m race. A relay baton is carried by each runner. Prior to 2018, the baton had to be passed within a 20 m changeover box, preceded by a 10-metre acceleration zone. With a rule change effective November 1, 2017 that zone was modified to include the acceleration zone as part of the passing zone, making the entire zone 30 metres in length. The outgoing runner cannot touch the baton until it has entered the zone, the incoming runner cannot touch the baton after it has left the zone. The zone is usually marked in yellow, frequently using lines, triangles or chevrons. While the rule book specifies the exact positioning of the marks, the colors and style are only "recommended". While most legacy tracks will still have the older markings, the rule change still uses existing marks. Not all governing body jurisdictions have adopted the rule change.
The 4 × 400 metres relay or long relay is an athletics track event in which teams consist of four runners who each complete 400 metres or one lap. It is traditionally the final event of a track meet. At top class events, the first 500 metres is run in lanes. Start lines are thus staggered over a greater distance than in an individual 400 metres race; the runners then typically move to the inside of the track. The slightly longer 4 × 440 yards relay was a formerly run British and American event, until metrication was completed in the 1970s.
The 110 metres hurdles, or 110-metre hurdles, is a hurdling track and field event for men. It is included in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympic Games. The female counterpart is the 100 metres hurdles. As part of a racing event, ten hurdles of 1.067 metres in height are evenly spaced along a straight course of 110 metres. They are positioned so that they will fall over if bumped into by the runner. Fallen hurdles do not carry a fixed time penalty for the runners, but they have a significant pull-over weight which slows down the run. Like the 100 metres sprint, the 110 metres hurdles begins in the starting blocks.
The 100 metres hurdles, or 100-meter hurdles, is a track and field event run mainly by women. For the race, ten hurdles of a height of 83.8 centimetres (33.0 in) are placed along a straight course of 100 metres (109.36 yd). The first hurdle is placed after a run-up of 13 metres from the starting line. The next 9 hurdles are set at a distance of 8.5 metres from each other, and the home stretch from the last hurdle to the finish line is 10.5 metres long. The hurdles are set up so that they will fall over if bumped into by the runner, but weighted so this is disadvantageous. Fallen hurdles do not count against runners provided that they do not run into them on purpose. Like the 100 metres sprint, the 100 m hurdles begins with athletes in starting blocks.
The first world record in the women's 400 metres hurdles was recognised by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) in 1974. The current record is 52.16 seconds, set by American Dalilah Muhammad on October 4, 2019 at the World Championships in Doha.
Karsten Warholm is a Norwegian athlete who competes in the sprints and hurdles. He has won gold in the 400 m hurdles at the 2017 and 2019 World Championships, and at the 2018 European Championships. He competed in the octathlon as a youth, winning gold at the 2013 World Youth Championships.
Dalilah Muhammad is an American track and field athlete who specializes in the 400 metres hurdles. She won the gold medal at the 2019 World Championships, setting the current world record with a time of 52.16 seconds. She was also the 2013, 2016, and 2017 American national champion. At the 2016 Summer Olympics, she won gold in the 400 metres hurdles. Muhammad is only the second female 400 meter hurdler in history, after Sally Gunnell, to have won the Olympic and World titles and broken the world record.
Ashley Spencer is an American track and field athlete who competes in the 400 metres and the 400 metres hurdles. In the 400m hurdles, she is the 2016 Olympic bronze medalist. In the 400m, she is the 2012 World Junior Champion and the 2016 World Indoor silver medalist. She is coached by 1996 Olympic bronze medalist Tonya Buford-Bailey.
The 400 metres hurdles at the Summer Olympics is the longest hurdling event held at the multi-sport event. The men's 400 m hurdles has been present on the Olympic athletics programme since 1900, with a sole gap at the 1912 Summer Olympics. The women's event was added to the programme over eighty years later, at the 1984 Olympics. It is the most prestigious 400 m hurdles race at elite level.
Oluwakemi Adekoya is a Nigerian-born track and field athlete who competes for Bahrain. She specialises in the 400 metres hurdles and has a personal best of 54.59 seconds – a Bahraini record. In January 2019, it was reported that Adekoya tested positive for an illegal steroid stanozolol in an out-of-competition test in November 2018 and was provisionally suspended. All of her results achieved after 24 August 2018 were also stripped.
Sydney Michelle McLaughlin is an American hurdler and sprinter who competed for the University of Kentucky before turning professional. She won the silver medal at the 2019 World Championships in the 400 m hurdles, setting her new personal best of 52.23 seconds. That mark ranks her as the #2 performer in history only behind the winner of the race while setting the world record, Dalilah Muhammad.
The men's 400 metres hurdles at the 2019 World Athletics Championships was held at the Khalifa International Stadium in Doha from 27 to 30 September 2019.
The women's 400 metres hurdles at the 2019 World Athletics Championships was held at the Khalifa International Stadium in Doha, Qatar, from 1 to 4 October 2019.
The 2019 Bislett Games was the 54th edition of the annual outdoor track and field meeting in Oslo, Norway. Held on 13 June at Bislett Stadium, it was the fifth leg of the 2019 IAAF Diamond League – the highest level international track and field circuit. 29 events were contested with 13 of them being point-scoring Diamond League disciplines.