60 metres

Last updated
Athletics
60 metres
World records
Men Flag of the United States.svg Christian Coleman 6.34  A (2018)
Women Flag of Russia.svg Irina Privalova 6.92 (1993, 1995)
A 60-metre race in Valencia in 2005 60 metres.jpg
A 60-metre race in Valencia in 2005

60 metres, or 60-meter dash, is a sprint event in track and field. It is a championship event for indoor championships, normally dominated by the best outdoor 100 metres runners. At outdoor venues it is a rare distance, at least for senior athletes. The format of the event is similar to other sprint distances. The sprinters follow three initial instructions: 'ready', instructing them to take up position in the starting blocks; 'set', instructing them to adopt a more efficient starting posture, which also isometrically preloads their muscles. This will enable them to start faster. The final instruction is the firing of the starter's pistol. Upon hearing this the sprinters stride forwards from the blocks.

Contents

The 60 metres was an Olympic event in the 1900 and 1904 Summer Games but was removed from the schedule thereafter. American Christian Coleman currently holds the men's world record in the 60 metres with a time of 6.34 seconds, [1] while Russian Irina Privalova holds the women's world record at 6.92.

In the past, it was common for athletes to compete in the 60 yards (54.86 m) race. This is not part of the lineage of the 60 metres, but is the predecessor of the 55 metres race. 60 metres is 65.6168 yards.

Area records

Updated 4 January 2019. [2] [3]

AreaMenWomen
Time (s)AthleteNationTime (s)AthleteNation
Africa 6.45  A Leonard Myles-Mills Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 6.97 Murielle Ahouré Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast
Asia 6.42 Su Bingtian Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 7.09 Susanthika Jayasinghe Flag of Sri Lanka.svg  Sri Lanka
Europe 6.42 Dwain Chambers Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 6.92 Irina Privalova Flag of Russia (1991-1993).svg  Russia
North, Central America
and Caribbean
6.34  A Christian Coleman Flag of the United States.svg  United States 6.95 Gail Devers
Marion Jones
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Oceania 6.52 Matthew Shirvington Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 7.30 Sally McLellan Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
South America 6.52 José Carlos Moreira Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 7.17 Rosângela Santos Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil

All-time top 25

Indoor results only

Men

Updated March 2021. [4]

RankTime (s)AthleteNationDatePlaceRef
16.34  A Christian Coleman Flag of the United States.svg  United States 18 February 2018 Albuquerque [5]
26.39 Maurice Greene Flag of the United States.svg  United States 3 February 1998 Madrid
3 March 2001 Atlanta
36.40  A Ronnie Baker Flag of the United States.svg  United States 18 February 2018 Albuquerque [6]
46.41 Andre Cason Flag of the United States.svg  United States 14 February 1992 Madrid
56.42 Dwain Chambers Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 7 March 2009 Turin
Su Bingtian Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 3 March 2018 Birmingham [7]
76.43 Tim Harden Flag of the United States.svg  United States 7 March 1999 Maebashi
86.44 Asafa Powell Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 18 March 2016 (round 1) Portland [8]
18 March 2016 (semifinal) Portland [9]
96.45 Bruny Surin Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 13 February 1993 Liévin
6.45  A Leonard Myles-Mills Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana 20 February 1999 Colorado Springs
Terrence Trammell Flag of the United States.svg  United States 17 February 2001 Pocatello
6.45 Justin Gatlin Flag of the United States.svg  United States 1 March 2003 Boston
Ronald Pognon Flag of France.svg  France 13 February 2005 Karlsruhe
6.45  A Trell Kimmons Flag of the United States.svg  United States 26 February 2012 Albuquerque
156.46 Jon Drummond Flag of the United States.svg  United States 1 February 1998 Stuttgart
6.46  A Marcus Brunson Flag of the United States.svg  United States 30 January 1999 Flagstaff
6.46 Jason Gardener Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 7 March 1999 Maebashi
Tim Montgomery Flag of the United States.svg  United States 11 March 2001 Lisbon
Leonard Scott Flag of the United States.svg  United States 26 February 2005 Liévin
206.47 Linford Christie Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 19 February 1995 Liévin
Shawn Crawford Flag of the United States.svg  United States 28 February 2004 Boston
Dwight Phillips Flag of the United States.svg  United States 24 February 2005 Madrid
Lerone Clarke Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 18 February 2012 Birmingham
James Dasaolu Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 15 February 2014 Birmingham [10]
Kim Collins Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis 17 February 2015 Łódź [11]
Trayvon Bromell Flag of the United States.svg  United States 18 March 2016 Portland [12]
Marcell Jacobs Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 6 March 2021 Toruń [13]

Note: The following athletes have had their performances annulled because of doping offense:

Time (s)AthleteNationDatePlaceRef
6.41 Ben Johnson Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 7 March 1987 Indianapolis [14]

Notes

Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 6.47 seconds:

Outdoor best performances

Sports and games.png This sports-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it .

+ = en route to 100m mark

RankTime (s)Wind (m/s)AthleteNationDatePlaceRef
16.31+ (calculated)+0.9 Usain Bolt Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 16 August 2009 Berlin [15]

Women

Updated March 2021. [16]

RankTime (s)AthleteNationDatePlaceRef
16.92 Irina Privalova Flag of Russia (1991-1993).svg  Russia 11 February 1993 Madrid
9 February 1995 Madrid
26.95 Gail Devers Flag of the United States.svg  United States 12 March 1993 Toronto
Marion Jones Flag of the United States.svg  United States 7 March 1998 Maebashi
46.96 Merlene Ottey Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 14 February 1992 Madrid
Ekaterini Thanou Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 7 March 1999 Maebashi
66.97 LaVerne Jones-Ferrette Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg  United States Virgin Islands 6 February 2010 Stuttgart
Murielle Ahouré Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast 2 March 2018 Birmingham [17]
86.98 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 9 March 2014 Sopot [18]
Elaine Thompson Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 18 February 2017 Birmingham [19]
107.00 Nelli Cooman Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 23 February 1986 Madrid
Veronica Campbell-Brown Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 14 March 2010 Doha
Dafne Schippers Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 13 February 2016 Berlin [20]
Barbara Pierre Flag of the United States.svg  United States 12 March 2016 Portland [21]
147.01 Savatheda Fynes Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas 7 March 1999 Maebashi
Me'Lisa Barber Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10 March 2006 Moscow
Lauryn Williams Flag of the United States.svg  United States 10 March 2006 Moscow
177.02 Gwen Torrence Flag of the United States.svg  United States 2 February 1996 New York City
Christy Opara-Thompson Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 12 February 1997 Ghent
Chioma Ajunwa Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria 22 February 1998 Liévin
Philomena Mensah Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 7 March 1999 Maebashi
7.02  A Carmelita Jeter Flag of the United States.svg  United States 28 February 2010 Albuquerque
7.02 Tianna Madison Flag of the United States.svg  United States 11 February 2012 Fayetteville
7.02  A Javianne Oliver Flag of the United States.svg  United States 18 February 2018 Albuquerque [22]
7.02 Marie-Josée Ta Lou Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast 20 February 2019 Düsseldorf [23]
257.03 Anelia Nuneva Flag of Bulgaria (1971 - 1990).svg  Bulgaria 22 February 1987 Liévin
Mujinga Kambundji Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 17 February 2018 Magglingen [24]
Ajla Del Ponte Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 7 March 2021 Toruń [25]

Note: The following athletes have had their performances annulled because of doping offense:

Time (s)AthleteNationDatePlaceRef
7.03 Inger Miller Flag of the United States.svg  United States 7 March 1999 Maebashi [26]

Notes

Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 6.99 seconds:

Outdoor best performances

+ = en route to 100m mark

RankTime (s)Wind (m/s)AthleteNationDatePlaceRef
16.81+ (calculated)+0.1 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 29 September 2019 Doha [27]
26.85+ (calculated)−0.1 Marion Jones Flag of the United States.svg  United States 22 August 1999 Seville
36.87+ (calculated)0.0 Florence Griffith-Joyner Flag of the United States.svg  United States 16 July 1988 Indianapolis [28]
47.02+1.7 Elaine Thompson Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica 28 January 2017 Kingston [29]

Olympic medalists

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1900 Paris
details
US flag 45 stars.svg  Alvin Kraenzlein  (USA)US flag 45 stars.svg  Walter Tewksbury  (USA)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Stan Rowley  (AUS)
1904 St. Louis
details
US flag 45 stars.svg  Archie Hahn  (USA)US flag 45 stars.svg  William Hogenson  (USA)US flag 45 stars.svg  Fay Moulton  (USA)

World Indoor Championships medalists

Men

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1985 Paris a
details
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Ben Johnson  (CAN)Flag of the United States.svg  Sam Graddy  (USA)Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Ronald Desruelles  (BEL)
1987 Indianapolis
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Lee McRae  (USA)bFlag of the United States.svg  Mark Witherspoon  (USA)Flag of Italy.svg  Pierfrancesco Pavoni  (ITA)
1989 Budapest
details
Flag of Cuba.svg  Andrés Simón  (CUB)Flag of Ghana.svg  John Myles-Mills  (GHA)Flag of Italy.svg  Pierfrancesco Pavoni  (ITA)
1991 Seville
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Andre Cason  (USA)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Linford Christie  (GBR)Flag of Nigeria.svg  Chidi Imo  (NGR)
1993 Toronto
details
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Bruny Surin  (CAN)Flag of Namibia.svg  Frankie Fredericks  (NAM)Flag of Qatar.svg  Talal Mansour  (QAT)
1995 Barcelona
details
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Bruny Surin  (CAN)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Darren Braithwaite  (GBR)Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Robert Esmie  (CAN)
1997 Paris
details
Flag of Greece.svg  Haralabos Papadias  (GRE)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Michael Green  (JAM)Flag of Nigeria.svg  Davidson Ezinwa  (NGR)
1999 Maebashi
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Maurice Greene  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Tim Harden  (USA)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Jason Gardener  (GBR)
2001 Lisbon
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Tim Harden  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Tim Montgomery  (USA)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Mark Lewis-Francis  (GBR)
2003 Birmingham
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Justin Gatlin  (USA)Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Kim Collins  (SKN)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Jason Gardener  (GBR)
2004 Budapest
details
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Jason Gardener  (GBR)Flag of the United States.svg  Shawn Crawford  (USA)Flag of Greece.svg  Georgios Theodoridis  (GRE)
2006 Moscow
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Leonard Scott  (USA)Flag of Russia.svg  Andrey Epishin  (RUS)Flag of the United States.svg  Terrence Trammell  (USA)
2008 Valencia
details
Flag of Nigeria.svg  Olusoji Fasuba  (NGR)Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Kim Collins  (SKN)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Dwain Chambers  (GBR)
none awarded
2010 Doha
details
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Dwain Chambers  (GBR)Flag of the United States.svg  Mike Rodgers  (USA)Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Daniel Bailey  (ATG)
2012 Istanbul
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Justin Gatlin  (USA)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Nesta Carter  (JAM)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Dwain Chambers  (GBR)
2014 Sopot
details
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Richard Kilty  (GBR)Flag of the United States.svg  Marvin Bracy  (USA)Flag of Qatar.svg  Femi Ogunode  (QAT)
2016 Portland
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Trayvon Bromell  (USA)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Asafa Powell  (JAM)Flag of Barbados.svg  Ramon Gittens  (BAR)
2018 Birmingham
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Christian Coleman  (USA)Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Su Bingtian  (CHN)Flag of the United States.svg  Ronnie Baker  (USA)

a The event was known as the World Indoor Games in 1985.
b Ben Johnson of Canada originally won the gold medal, but he was disqualified in 1989 after admitting to steroid use between 1981 and 1988.

Medal table

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)97218
2Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  (GBR)33410
3Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada  (CAN)3014
4Flag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria  (NGR)1023
5Flag of Greece.svg  Greece  (GRE)1012
6Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba  (CUB)1001
7Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica  (JAM)0303
8Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis  (SKN)0202
9Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  (CHN)0101
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana  (GHA)0101
Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia  (NAM)0101
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia  (RUS)0101
13Flag of Italy.svg  Italy  (ITA)0022
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar  (QAT)0022
15Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda  (ATG)0011
Flag of Barbados.svg  Barbados  (BAR)0011
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium  (BEL)0011
Totals (17 nations)18191754

Women

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1985 Paris a
details
Flag of East Germany.svg  Silke Gladisch  (GDR)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Heather Oakes  (GBR)Flag of France.svg  Christelle Bulteau  (FRA)
1987 Indianapolis
details
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Nelli Fiere-Cooman  (NED)Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Anelia Nuneva  (BUL)bFlag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Angela Bailey  (CAN)
1989 Budapest
details
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Nelli Fiere-Cooman  (NED)Flag of the United States.svg  Gwen Torrence  (USA)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Merlene Ottey  (JAM)
1991 Seville
details
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Irina Sergeyeva  (URS)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Merlene Ottey  (JAM)Flag of Cuba.svg  Liliana Allen  (CUB)
1993 Toronto
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Gail Devers  (USA)Flag of Russia.svg  Irina Privalova  (RUS)Flag of Ukraine.svg  Zhanna Tarnopolskaya  (UKR)
1995 Barcelona
details
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Merlene Ottey  (JAM)Flag of Germany.svg  Melanie Paschke  (GER)Flag of the United States.svg  Carlette Guidry  (USA)
1997 Paris
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Gail Devers  (USA)Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Chandra Sturrup  (BAH)Flag of France.svg  Frederique Bangue  (FRA)
1999 Maebashi
details
Flag of Greece.svg  Ekaterini Thanou  (GRE)Flag of the United States.svg  Gail Devers  (USA)Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Philomena Mensah  (CAN)
2001 Lisbon
details
Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Chandra Sturrup  (BAH)Flag of the United States.svg  Angela Williams  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Chryste Gaines  (USA)
2003 Birmingham
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Angela Williams  (USA)cFlag of the United States.svg  Torri Edwards  (USA)Flag of Slovenia.svg  Merlene Ottey  (SLO)
2004 Budapest
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Gail Devers  (USA)Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Kim Gevaert  (BEL)Flag of Belarus.svg  Yulia Nestsiarenka  (BLR)
2006 Moscow
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Me'Lisa Barber  (USA)Flag of the United States.svg  Lauryn Williams  (USA)Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Kim Gevaert  (BEL)
2008 Valencia
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Angela Williams  (USA)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Jeanette Kwakye  (GBR)Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  Tahesia Harrigan  (IVB)
2010 Doha
details
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Veronica Campbell-Brown  (JAM)Flag of the United States.svg  Carmelita Jeter  (USA)Flag of Gabon.svg  Ruddy Zang Milama  (GAB)
2012 Istanbul
details
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Veronica Campbell-Brown  (JAM)Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Murielle Ahouré  (CIV)Flag of the United States.svg  Tianna Madison  (USA)
2014 Sopot
details
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce  (JAM)Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Murielle Ahouré  (CIV)Flag of the United States.svg  Tianna Bartoletta  (USA)
2016 Portland
details
Flag of the United States.svg  Barbara Pierre  (USA)Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Dafne Schippers  (NED)Flag of Jamaica.svg  Elaine Thompson  (JAM)
2018 Birmingham
details
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Murielle Ahouré  (CIV)Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Marie-Josée Ta Lou  (CIV)Flag of Switzerland.svg  Mujinga Kambundji  (SUI)

a The event was known as the World Indoor Games in 1985.
b Angella Issajenko of Canada originally won the silver medal, but she was disqualified in 1989 after admitting to steroid use between 1982 and 1988.
c Zhanna Block originally won the gold medal, but she was disqualified after her results from November 2002 onwards were deleted in 2011 for long-term drug use.

Medal table

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)76417
2Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica  (JAM)4127
3Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands  (NED)2103
4Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Ivory Coast  (CIV)1304
5Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas  (BAH)1102
6Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany  (GDR)1001
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece  (GRE)1001
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union  (URS)1001
9Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  (GBR)0202
10Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium  (BEL)0112
11Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria  (BUL)0101
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany  (GER)0101
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia  (RUS)0101
14Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada  (CAN)0022
Flag of France.svg  France  (FRA)0022
16Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus  (BLR)0011
Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  British Virgin Islands  (IVB)0011
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba  (CUB)0011
Flag of Gabon.svg  Gabon  (GAB)0011
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia  (SLO)0011
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland  (SWI)0011
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine  (UKR)0011
Totals (22 nations)18181854

Season's bests

See also

Notes and references

  1. Jon Hendershott (18 February 2018). "Coleman breaks world indoor 60m record at US Indoor Championships in Albuquerque". IAAF. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  2. "Men's indoor 60 metres | Records". iaaf.org. IAAF . Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  3. "Women's indoor 60 metres | Records". iaaf.org. IAAF . Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  4. "All time Top Lists Senior Indoor 60 Metres Men". World Athletics . Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  5. Jon Hendershott (18 February 2018). "Coleman breaks world indoor 60m record at US Indoor Championships in Albuquerque". IAAF. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  6. Jon Hendershott (18 February 2018). "Coleman breaks world indoor 60m record at US Indoor Championships in Albuquerque". IAAF. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  7. "Men's 60m Results" (PDF). IAAF. 3 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  8. "60m Round 1 Results" (PDF). IAAF. 18 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  9. "60m Semifinal Results" (PDF). IAAF. 18 March 2016. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  10. "60 Metres Results". IAAF. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  11. "60 Metres Results". IAAF. 22 February 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  12. "60m Results" (PDF). IAAF. 18 March 2016. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  13. "European Athletics Indoor Championships – 60m Men – Final – Results" (PDF). European Athletic Association. 6 March 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  14. Janofsky, Michael (6 September 1989). "Rule That Will Strip Johnson of His World Records Is Approved". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  15. "Biomechanical Analysis 100 Metres" (PDF). IAAF. 16 August 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  16. "Toplists - All time Top lists - Senior Indoor 60 Metres Women". World Athletics . Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  17. "Women's 60m Results" (PDF). IAAF. 2 March 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  18. "60m Results Summary" (PDF). IAAF. 9 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  19. "60m Results" (PDF). British Athletics. 18 February 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
  20. "Dafne Schippers: Profile". IAAF.org. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  21. "60m Dash Results". flashresults.com. 12 March 2016. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  22. Jon Hendershott (18 February 2018). "Coleman breaks world indoor 60m record at US Indoor Championships in Albuquerque". IAAF. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  23. Ramsak, Bob (20 February 2019). "Ta Lou dashes 7.02, J. Ingebrigtsen defeats Tefera in Dusseldorf". iaaf.org. IAAF . Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  24. "60m Results". la-bern.ch. 17 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  25. "European Athletics Indoor Championships – 60m Women – Final – Results" (PDF). European Athletic Association. 7 March 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  26. "Caffeine Costs Miller a Medal". Los Angeles Times. 16 October 2001. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  27. Lindstrom, Sieg (October 2019). "World Champs Women's 100 — Let's Hear It For Motherhood". Track & Field News. Archived from the original on 1 June 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  28. Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Glad, Bill; International Amateur Athletic Federation; International Athletic Foundation (1990), Scientific research project at the games of the XXIVth Olympiad - Seoul 1988. Final report, Biomechanical analyses of the jumping events, time analyses of the sprint and hurdle events, IAAF, retrieved 16 May 2020
  29. Brian Eder (29 January 2017). "Elaine Thompson sprints 7.02 in Kingston". runblogrun.com. Retrieved 30 January 2017.

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