Baccalauréat

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The diploma given to all baccalaureat graduates. The diploma is issued by the recteur d'academie by delegation from the Minister of National Education. Bac diplome0001.jpg
The diploma given to all baccalauréat graduates. The diploma is issued by the recteur d'académie by delegation from the Minister of National Education.

The baccalauréat (French pronunciation:  [bakaloʁea] ), often known in France colloquially as bac, is an academic qualification that French students are required to take to graduate high school. Introduced by Napoleon I in 1808, it is the main diploma that is required to pursue university studies.

Contents

Similar university entrance qualifications exist elsewhere in Europe, variously known as baccalaureat in Germany and bachillerato in Italy, bachillerato in Spain, Mexico and South America as well as baccalaureus in the Netherlands and Sweden.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Italy republic in Southern Europe

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and surrounded by several islands. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely temperate seasonal climate. The country covers a total area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi), and land area of 294,140 km2 (113,570 sq mi), and shares open land borders with France, Slovenia, Austria, Switzerland and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

There is also the European Baccalaureate, which students take at the end of the European School education. It confirms a rounded secondary education and gives access to a wide range of university education. It differs from British A levels and Scottish Highers but is similar to a US two-year college diploma in that it is earned comprehensively and can be obtained in streams requiring a high level in a number of different subjects, depending on the stream.

The European Baccalaureate is a bilingual educational diploma, which certifies the completion of secondary studies in a European School or Accredited European School by the Board of Governors of the intergovernmental organisation, "The European Schools". The diploma is awarded for the successful achievement of coursework and concomitant examinations which require that students take a minimum of 10 courses as well as be fully proficient in two languages. Students may take up to 14 courses. It is officially recognised as an entry qualification for Higher Education in all the member states of the European Union (EU), as well as in a number of others. All participating countries are legally obligated to ensure EB diploma holders enjoy the same rights and benefits as other holders of secondary school-leaving certificates in their jurisdictions. The name ‘European Baccalaureate’ belongs solely to the European Schools, which, since their establishment, have had a monopoly over its use in all the official languages of the EU.

University Academic institution for further education

A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea separates Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom's 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi) were home to an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

The general streams are Sciences, Economics and Social Sciences, and Literature.

Overview

Much like British A levels or European Matura, the baccalauréat allows French and international students to obtain a standardised qualification, typically at the age of 18. It qualifies holders to work in certain areas, go on to tertiary education, or acquire some other professional qualification or training.

<i>Matura</i> name of final exam of high school in many countries

Matura or its translated terms is a Latin name for the secondary school exit exam or "maturity diploma" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine.

Tertiary education advanced level of education, usually for adults

Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education. The World Bank, for example, defines tertiary education as including universities as well as trade schools and colleges. Higher education is taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, while vocational education beyond secondary education is known as further education in the United Kingdom, or continuing education in the United States.

Although it is not legally required, the vast majority of students in their final year of secondary school take a final exam. Unlike some US high school diplomas, this exam is not for lycée completion but university entrance.

The word bac is also used to refer to one of the end-of-year exams that students must pass to get their baccalauréat diploma: le bac de philo, for example, is the philosophy exam, which all students must take, regardless of their field of study.

Within France, there are three main types of baccalauréat:


For entrance to regular universities within France, however, there are some restrictions as to the type of baccalauréat that can be presented. In some cases, it may be possible to enter a French university without the bac by taking a special exam, the diploma for entrance to higher education.

Though most students take the bac at the end of secondary school, it is also possible to enter as a candidat libre (literally, "free candidate") without affiliation to a school. Students who did not take the bac upon completion of secondary school (or did not manage to pass it) and would like to attend university, or feel that the bac would help them accomplish professional aspirations, may exercise that option. The exam is the same as the one administered to secondary-school students except that free candidates are tested in Physical Education, but students' Physical Education grade is calculated based on evaluation throughout the year.

Secondary school A building and/or organization where secondary education is provided

A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can also be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system.

Baccalauréat général streams

The students who sit for the baccalauréat général choose one of three streams (termed séries) in the penultimate lycée year. Each stream results in a specialization and carries different weights (coefficients) associated with each subject. Another terminology is sometimes used, which existed before 1994 and further divided the different séries. Until then, it was possible to sit for a bac C or D (which is now S), B (now ES), or A1, A2, A3 (now L). People who passed the baccalauréat before the reform still use that terminology in referring their diploma. In 2021, the S, ES, and L streams are to be replaced by a new, different system. However, until then, the current streams for the baccalauréat général are now as follows:

S
scientifique
(sciences)
ES
sciences économiques et sociales
(economics and social sciences)
L
littéraire
(literature)
The natural sciences stream requires a high level in mathematics, physics & chemistry, and biology & geology or, if available, engineering sciences.The bac ES requires a high level in economics and social courses of studies but also mathematics. Students must take an economics and social sciences exam.The bac L weighs French literature, philosophy, history & geography, and foreign languages heavily.

The baccalauréat permits students to choose to sit for exams in over forty world languages or French regional languages (such as Alsatian, Breton, Catalan or Norman).

Content

Série scientifique (S)

The S stream prepares students for work in scientific fields such as medicine, engineering and the natural sciences. Natural sciences students must specialise in either Mathematics, Physics & Chemistry, Computer science or Earth & Life Sciences.

SubjectsWeightFormat of examDuration
Anticipated subjectsa
French Language2Written4 hours
French Language2Oral30 minutes
Travaux personnels encadrés (TPE)2cOral and WrittenStudents must choose a science-related subject. They need to sum it up into a file (generally around 30 pages) and present it to several professors who will then assign them an individual rating out of 20. Five minutes are allotted for each pupil. This exam is generally prepared by groups of 3 students but they can go up to 4. They also have to write a 2-page essay about how they participated in the project. The grade is the sum of the documents they gave, their oral presentation and, students who have presented practical experiences to illustrate their point are often valued.
Terminale subjects
History & Geography3Written3 hours
Mathematics7 or 9Written4 hours
Physics & Chemistry6 or 8Written and Laboratory3 ½ hours plus 1 hour
Earth & Life Sciences


Engineering Sciences


Biology-Ecology
6 or 8


4 + 5


5 + 2
Written and Laboratory


Written and Laboratory


Written and Laboratory
3 ½ hours plus 1 hour

8 hours ( 1 hour for electronic, 1 hour for mechanic, 4 hours for practical works and 2 hours for TPE or PPE)

3 ½ hours plus 1 ½ hour
First Foreign Language (LV1)3Written3 hours
Second Foreign Language (LV2) or Regional Language (LVR)2Written2 hours
Philosophy3Written4 hours
Physical Education2Year-end Average
Specializations
Mathematics or Physics & Chemistry or Earth & Life Sciences or Computer science2bOral or Laboratory (except for Mathematics)1 hour (20 minutes for Computer science)
Supplementary Physical Education2Year-end Average
Optional Subjectsd
Foreign Language2c or 3cOral or Written (depending on the language)20 minutes or 2 hours
Regional LanguageOral20 minutes
LatinOral15 minutes
Ancient GreekOral15 minutes
Physical EducationYear-end Average or Examination
ArtsOral30–40 minutes
Langue Vivante Européenne (European Foreign Language) : Advanced language + another class (such as History or Biology) in that language1° (+ Special mention on the diploma)Oral40 minutes
aExam at the end of première. French is replaced by Philosophy in terminale.

bAdded to general subject above, except for computer science.
cOnly points above 10 out of 20 (50%) are taken into consideration. Multiplied by two for first subject (except Latin & Greek, where the multiplier is 3) and by one for the second subject.
dTwo-subject maximum.

Série économique et sociale (ES)

Students of the Baccalauréat économique et social prepare for careers in the social sciences, in Philosophy (and other human sciences) in management and business administration, and in economics. The subject Economics & Social Sciences is the most heavily weighed and is only offered in this stream. History & Geography and Mathematics are also important subjects in ES.

SubjectsWeightFormat of examDuration
Anticipated subjectsa
French Language2Written4 hours
French Language2Oral20 minutes
Sciences (Physics, Chemistry and Biology)

(Same school curricula as L stream)

2Written1 ½ hours
Travaux personnels encadrés (TPE)2cOral and WrittenResearch all year long + a report + an oral of about 30 minutes
Terminale subjects
History & Geography

(Same school curricula as L stream)

5Written4 hours
Mathematics5 or 7fWritten3 hours
Economics & Social Sciences7 or 9fWritten4 hoursb
First Foreign Language (LV1)3Written + Oral3 hours + 10 minutes
Second Foreign Language (LV2) or Regional Language (LVR)2Written + Oral2 hours + 10 minutes
Philosophy4Written4 hours
Physical Education2Year-end Average
Specializations
Detailed Economy (Health economy, Demography, Competition policy, Monopoly, Finance' Financial regulation) or Applied Mathematics or Social sciences & Politics (Democracy, Political participation, Policy in European Union) g2cWritten1 hour
Supplementary Physical Education2Year-end Average
Optional Subjectse
Foreign Language2dOral or Written (depending on the language)20 minutes or 2 hours
Regional LanguageOral20 minutes
LatinOral15 minutes
Ancient GreekOral15 minutes
Physical EducationYear-end Average or Examination
ArtsOral30–40 minutes
aExams at the end of première. French is replaced by Philosophy in terminale.

bThe exam is 5-hours long for students in this specialization. An additional topic with a duration of 1 hour is distributed at the beginning of the test to all students who choose this specialization.
cAdded to general subject above.
dOnly points above 10 out of 20 (50%) are taken into consideration. Multiplied by two for first subject (except Latin & Greek, where the multiplier is three) and by one for the second subject.
eTwo-subject maximum.

fThe highest coefficient is applied to students who choose this specialization.

gThe test of specialty economy is included in the compulsory economy test, it is the same thing for mathematics. The test of English specialty is not included in the compulsory English test.

Série littéraire (L)

Students in the L stream prepare for careers in the humanities such as education, linguistics, literature, law, history (and the other social sciences) and public service. They also have interests in the arts. The most important subjects in the literary stream are Philosophy and French language and literature and other languages, usually English, German and Spanish.

SubjectsWeightFormat of examDuration
Anticipated subjectsa
French Language & Literature3Written4 hours
French Language & Literature2Oral20 minutes
Sciences (Physics, Chemistry and Biology)

(Same school curricula as ES stream)

2Written1 ½ hours
Travaux personnels encadrés (TPE; Supervised Personal Work)2cOralten minutes for each pupil (TPE is an exam generally prepared by groups of 3 pupils)
Terminale subjects
Philosophy7Written4 hours
Literature4Written2 hours
History & Geography

(Same school curricula as ES stream)

4Written4 hours
First Foreign Language (LV1)4Written3 hours
Second Foreign Language (LV2) or Regional Language (LVR)4Written3 hours
Physical Education2Year-end Average
Foreign literature in foreign language (LV1 or LV2) ("LELE")1Oral10 minutes
Specializations
Detailed "LV1" or "LV2"+4Oral20 minutes
Third Foreign Language (Chinese, Italian, ...)4Oral20 minutes
Law and major issues of the contemporary world (DGEMC, or "droit")4Oral20 minutes
Latin or Ancient Greek4Written3 hours
Mathematics3Written3 hours
Arts & Crafts or Cinema & Audiovisual Studies or Art History or Music or Theatre & Dramatic Expression or Dance6Written and Oral3 ½ hours and ½-hour
Supplementary Physical Education2Year-end Average
Optional Subjectsc
Foreign Language2bOral or Written (depending on the language)20 minutes or 2 hours
Regional LanguageOral20 minutes
LatinOral15 minutes
Ancient GreekOral15 minutes
Physical EducationYear-end Average or Examination
Arts (Can be fine art or Cinema Audiovisual studies)Oral30–40 minutes
aExams at the end of première. French is replaced by Philosophy and Literature in terminale.

bOnly points above 10 out of 20 (50%) are taken into consideration. Multiplied by two for first subject (except Latin and Greek, where the multiplier is three) and by one for the second subject.
cTwo-subject maximum.

Baccalauréat technologique

Format

The majority of the baccalauréat examination takes place in a week in June. For lycée students, that is the end of the last year, terminale.

Most examinations are given in essay-form. The student is given a substantial block of time (depending on the exam, that is from two to five hours) to complete a multiple-page, well-argued paper. The number of pages varies from exam to exam but is usually substantial considering all answers have to be written down, explained and justified. Mathematics and science exams are problem sets but some science questions also require an essay-type answer. Foreign-language exams often have a short translation section, as well. In the S stream, the Mathematics and the Earth & Life Sciences examinations may occasionally contain some multiple-choice questions (choix multiples), but this is rare and when it occurs, it does not constitute the majority of the exam.

All students also have to work on a scientific research project (travaux personnels encadrés, or TPE). Those are generally conducted in groups of 2, 3 or 4 and focus on a subject determined by the students, under the supervision of a faculty member.

When taken in mainland France, the baccalauréat material is the same for all students in a given stream. The secrecy surrounding the material is very tight, and the envelopes containing the exams are unsealed by a high-ranking school officer (usually a principal or vice-principal) in front of the examinees only a few minutes prior to the start of the examination. The procedure is the same for each subject, in each stream. Students usually have an identification number and an assigned seat. The number is written on all exam material and the name is hidden by folding and sealing the upper right-hand corner of the examination sheet(s). That way, anonymity is respected. The correcting staff is usually a member of the teaching staff in the same district or, at a larger scale, in the same académie. To avoid conflicts of interests, a teacher who has lectured to a student or group of students cannot grade that exam. Also, to ensure greater objectivity on the part of the examiners, the test is anonymous. The grader sees only an exam paper with a serial number, with all personally identifying material stripped away and forbidden from appearing, thus curbing any favoritism based upon sex, religion, national origin, or ethnicity.

Unlike the English GCSEs, Scottish Standard Grades or the American SAT, the French baccalauréat is not a completely-standardised test. Since most answers, even for biology questions, are given in essay form, the grades may vary from grader to grader, especially in subjects like philosophy and French literature.

Students generally take the French language and literature exam at the end of première since that subject is not taught in terminale, where it is replaced with a philosophy course. It also has an oral examination component, along with the written part. The oral exam covers works studied throughout première.

Weight system

Each baccalauréat stream has its own set of subjects that each carry a different weight (coefficient). That allows some subjects to be more important than others. For example, in the ES stream, Economics & Social Science carry more weight than the Natural Sciences and so the former is more important than the latter. Students usually study more for exams that carry heavier weights since the grade that they obtain in these exams have a bigger impact on their mean grade. Whether or not one passes the bac and/or receives eventual honours are determined in the calculation of that mean.

Option Internationale du Baccalauréat

The general baccalauréat offers several additional variants. The best-known subset is the "option internationale du baccalauréat" (OIB). Sometimes confusingly translated as the "French international baccalaureat", it is, however, unrelated to the International Baccalaureate (IB).

The OIB adds further subjects to the French national exam. Students choose one of the L, ES or S streams. It differs, as students take a two-year syllabus in literature, history, and geography in a foreign language. That syllabus and the way that it is examined is modelled on the national exam of the target nation. For instance, the British Section (administered by the University of Cambridge) models the programmes on A-levels in English, History, and Geography. It is therefore necessary to be fully bilingual to complete this qualification. To date there are 15 different sections supporting 14 different languages. The list is as follows: American, Arabic, British, (mainland) Chinese, Danish, Dutch, German, Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Swedish. [1]

At the end of terminale, OIB students have extra exams in Literature and History/Geography. Those exams have a high weight in the final mark of the baccalaureate and do not give extra points to OIB students. Overall, these students work much more (up to an additional 10 hours per week of classes, with a significant amount of required reading and homework attached as well) than the other general baccalauréat students, and many of them tend to go to foreign universities. University admissions tutors often consider reducing the entrance requirements for students taking the OIB compared with those taking the standard French baccalaureate to reflect the additional demands of the OIB. [2]

Since the students that attend these schools make up a fairly-small demographic, they tend to be spread over a far larger area than would traditionally be expected of a normal lycée or secondary school. As a consequence, many of these students must commute long distances, with one-hour trips each way being fairly common. The long commutes to the longer days and the increased workload that come with the OIB make the system be highly demanding of students, and many students cannot handle the workload and so transfer to schools teaching the standard French baccalaureate. Thus, many consider the OIB qualification to be highly challenging and a sign of not only academic prowess but also one of tenacity and hard work.[ citation needed ]

Different languages

To test their foreign or regional language students can choose among these different languages (not at all schools): English, German, Arabic, Armenian, Cambodian, Chinese, Danish, Spanish, Finnish, Modern Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Dutch, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Turkish, Vietnamese; regional languages: Basque, Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Auvergnat, Gascon, Languedoc, Limousin, Niçard, Provençal, Vivaro-Alpine, regional languages of Alsace regional languages of Moselle), Tahitian, Albanian, Amharic, Melanesian languages, Bambara, Berber, Bulgarian, Cambodian, Korean, Croatian, Hausa, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Malaysian, Laotian, Lithuanian, Macedonian, Malagasy, Persian, Fulani, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Swedish, Swahili, Tamil, Czech. [3]

Passing and honours

The pass mark is 10 out of 20. The 2014 success rate for the baccalauréat in mainland France was 87.9%. [4]

For the baccalauréat, three levels of honours are given [5] :

Excellent candidates who score over 18 can be awarded by the jury the unofficial and extremely-rare félicitations du jury (highest honours with praise), which is mentioned by hand on the official baccalauréat document [5] .

Honours are prestigious but not crucial, as admissions to the classes préparatoires (preparatory classes), which prepare students for the grande école examinations, are decided months before the examination.

French educators seldom use the entire grading scale. The same applies when marking the baccalauréat. Therefore, students are very unlikely to get a 20 out of 20 or more (it is actually possible to get more than 20 because of options). It is also very rare to see scores lower than 5.

Grade inflation has become a concern. Between 2005 and 2016, the proportion of students who received an honour in the general baccalaureate doubled. [6]

European section

A European section is an option in French high schools to teach a subject through a European language other than French. It also gives pupils the opportunity of having more hours in the language studied. It is also an opportunity to learn more about the culture of the country of which the language is being spoken. For example, learning History in Spanish the history of Spain and that of Central and South America would be emphasized. Teachers present their lessons in English, German, Italian or Spanish.

At the end, students can receive a "European section" mention on their baccalaureat. To have that mention, they need to get at least 12/20 on their language examination and at least 10/20 at an additional oral examination on the subject in the language.

For example, those who choose History in Spanish as an additional subject would take their Spanish examination like the rest of their classmates, who do not have History in Spanish, and get at least 12/20. They then have to pass an oral examination on history in Spanish and get at least 10/20.

Supplemental examination

A student who averages between 8 and 10 is permitted to sit for the épreuve de rattrapage (also called the second groupe), a supplemental oral examination is given in two subjects of the student's choice. A student who does well enough in those examinations to raise the overall weighted grade to a 10 gets the baccalauréat. A student who does poorly in the orals and receives below a 10 may choose to repeat the final year of lycée (terminale).

Students may not redo the entire examination in September; the September examinations may be taken only by those who have not been able to take the June examinations for serious reasons (such as illness).

In the United States

There are a small number of schools which prepare students for the baccalauréat in the United States. Otherwise, it is possible to prepare for the baccalauréat with the National Centre for Distance Education, a French public institution under the oversight of the department of education dedicated to providing distance learning material. It can, of course, be taken only after completion of the necessary coursework, which is entirely in French. Upon receiving the baccalauréat, students wishing to pursue postsecondary studies in the US generally will submit their lycée/high school transcripts to a college or university office of undergraduate admissions. If it is decided that the coursework, along with American standardized test scores, application essays, and letters of recommendation, merits admission, students holding the baccalauréat will be admitted to the undergraduate program to which they have applied.

See also

Note

  1. The formula was taken from the Lycée Claudel website, a French lycée in Ottawa, Canada and might only be accurate for Canadian—and even Ontarian—percentage grades. In Ontario, an 80% grade is an "A" on the American Scale and the student is awarded an Ontario Scholar Diploma. A 90% grade is an A+ on the American Scale is considered a grade with honours and automatically qualifies the student for government-funded scholarships and bursaries. The formula should be used for comparison only.

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The Lycée Français de San Francisco (LFSF), previously known as the Lycée Français La Pérouse, is a private school in the San Francisco Bay Area. It welcomes students from preschool through middle, and High School grades. It has a primary campus and a secondary campus in San Francisco and a primary campus in Sausalito in Marin County.

A high school diploma is a North American academic school leaving qualification awarded upon high school graduation. The high school diploma is typically studied for over the course of three to four years, from grade 9 to grade 12. The diploma is typically awarded by the school in accordance with the requirements of the local state or provincial government. Requirements for earning the diploma vary by jurisdiction, and there may be different requirements for different streams or levels of high school graduation. Typically they include a combination of selected coursework meeting specified criteria for a particular stream and acceptable passing grades earned on the state exit examination.

Lycée Français de Sofia Victor Hugo is a French international school in the Maxi Complex in Vitosha, Sofia, Bulgaria. It is the largest foreign school in Bulgaria, hosting over 800 students from many nationalities. It follows the French National Curriculum of study and has students from nursery school (maternelle) up to twelfth grade (terminale). The student to teacher ratio is approximately 7:1.

Lycée International de Londres Winston Churchill

Lycée International de Londres Winston Churchill is a French international school that was opened in 2015 in Wembley Park, Wembley, north-west London, United Kingdom. It welcomes students from Year 1 to Year 13 (Terminale) and prepares them for the French Baccalauréat diploma in the three general tracks of S, ES and L, and following the new reform of 2019, the new options of the baccalauréat diploma. The school also offers the British international option.

References

  1. "les sections Internationales au lycée" Education.gouv.fr Retrieved 2013-07-04
  2. "OIB: The Option Internationale du Baccalauréat Explained". The Good Schools Guide. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  3. "Bulletin officiel n°30 du 24 juillet 2003 - M.J.E.N.R". Education.gouv.fr. Retrieved 2012-10-04.
  4. "NI du bac.vp" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-04.
  5. 1 2 "Les mentions au BAC". Admis-Examen (in French). Retrieved 2017-12-26.
  6. "What is the bac?". Euronews. 5 July 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017.

Further reading