Barringtonia acutangula

Last updated

Barringtonia acutangula
Loc vung.jpg
A Barringtonia acutangula tree at Hoan Kiem Lake
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Lecythidaceae
Genus: Barringtonia
B. acutangula
Binomial name
Barringtonia acutangula
Synonyms [2]
  • Barringtonia rubraBaill. ex Laness. [Illegitimate]
  • Butonica acutangula (L.) Lam.
  • Caryophyllus acutangulus (L.) Stokes
  • Eugenia acutangula L.
  • Huttum acutangulum (L.) Britten
  • Michelia acutangula (L.) Kuntze
  • Stravadium acutangulum (L.) Sweet
  • Stravadium acutangulum (L.) Miers

Barringtonia acutangula is a species of Barringtonia native to coastal wetlands in southern Asia and northern Australasia, from Afghanistan east to the Philippines, Queensland and the Northern Territory. Common names include freshwater mangrove, itchytree and mango-pine. [3]



This plant is a big tree that grows to about 8–15 m high. Its leaves are thick, smooth and oval in shape, about 8–12 cm long and 4–5 cm wide, with reddish petioles about 0.5–1.0 cm long. The plant has drooping raceme of up to 50 cm long, with numerous large, white flowers. Its fruit is oval-shaped and about 3 cm long, with 1 seed inside. [4]



The young leaves of this plant are consumed as food, such as in Vietnam where they are eaten fresh with other vegetables, meat and shrimp. [4]


Research on this plant has reported a number of medicinal uses, including antitumor (seed extract), [5] antibiotic, [6] inhibition of growth of Helicobacter pylori, [7] antinociceptive activity [8] and antifungal activity. [9] [10]

The 1889 book 'The Useful Native Plants of Australia’ records that "In India an extract or juice is obtained from the leaves of this tree which, when mixed with oil, is used in native [sic.] practice for eruptions of the skin. The kernels powdered and prepared with sago and butter, are used in diarrhoea; mixed with milk they produce vomiting (Treasury of Botany). The root is bitter, and is said to be similar to Cinchona, but also cooling and aperient. (Drury)." [11]


Its bark contains potent opioid painkillers

Also 3,3'-dimethoxy ellagic acid, dihydromyticetin, gallic acid, bartogenic acid and stigmasterol, [12] triterpenoids, olean-18-en-3beta-O-E-coumaroyl ester and olean-18-en-3beta-O-Z-coumaroyl ester [13] 12, 20(29)-lupadien-3-o [14]

Oleanane-type isomeric triterpenoids:- racemosol A (1) [22alpha-acetoxy-3beta,15alpha,16alpha,21beta-tetrahydroxy-28-(2-methylbutyryl)olean-12-ene] and isoracemosol A (2) [21beta-acetoxy-3beta,15alpha,16alpha,28-tetrahydroxy-22alpha-(2-methylbutyryl)olean-12-ene]. [15]

Saponins,: [16] [17] barringtoside A, 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->3)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D- glucuronopyranosyl barringtogenol C; barringtoside B, 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->3)-]beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D- glucuronopyranosyl-21-O-tigloyl-28-O-isobutyryl barringtogenol C; barringtoside C, 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1-->3)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-->2 )]-beta-D - glucuronopyranosyl barringtogenol C.


Related Research Articles

<i>Calendula</i> Genus of flowering plants in the daisy family Asteraceae

Calendula is a genus of about 15–20 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants in the daisy family Asteraceae that are often known as marigolds. They are native to southwestern Asia, western Europe, Macaronesia, and the Mediterranean..

<i>Actaea racemosa</i> Species of plant

Actaea racemosa, the black cohosh, black bugbane, black snakeroot, or fairy candle, is a species of flowering plant of the family Ranunculaceae. It is native to eastern North America from the extreme south of Ontario to central Georgia, and west to Missouri and Arkansas. It grows in a variety of woodland habitats, and is often found in small woodland openings. The roots and rhizomes were used in traditional medicine by Native Americans. Its extracts are manufactured as herbal medicines or dietary supplements. Thereof, most of the dietary supplements containing black cohosh are not well-studied or recommended for safe and effective use in treating menopause symptoms or any disease. In contrast, some herbal medicinal products containing black cohosh extract hold a marketing authorization in several states of the European Union are well-studied and recommended for safe and effective use for the relief of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and profuse sweating attacks. Such differentiation between the product types seems to be important.

<i>Bacopa monnieri</i> Species of aquatic plant

Bacopa monnieri is a perennial, creeping herb native to the wetlands of southern and Eastern India, Australia, Europe, Africa, Asia, and North and South America. It is known by the common names water hyssop, waterhyssop, brahmi, thyme-leafed gratiola, herb of grace, and Indian pennywort.

<i>Stellaria media</i> Species of flowering plant (chickweed)

Stellaria media, chickweed, is an annual and perennial flowering plant in the family Caryophyllaceae. It is native to Eurasia and naturalized throughout the world. This species is used as a cooling herbal remedy, and grown as a vegetable crop and ground cover for both human and poultry consumption. It is sometimes called common chickweed to distinguish it from other plants called chickweed. Other common names include chickenwort, craches, maruns, and winterweed. The plant germinates in autumn or late winter, then forms large mats of foliage.

<i>Calendula officinalis</i> Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae

Calendula officinalis, the pot marigold, common marigold, ruddles, Mary's gold or Scotch marigold, is a flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae. It is probably native to southern Europe, though its long history of cultivation makes its precise origin unknown, and it may possibly be of garden origin. It is also widely naturalised farther north in Europe and elsewhere in warm temperate regions of the world.

Triterpene Class of chemical compounds

Triterpenes are a class of chemical compounds composed of three terpene units with the molecular formula C30H48; they may also be thought of as consisting of six isoprene units. Animals, plants and fungi all produce triterpenes, including squalene, the precursor to all steroids.

<i>Barringtonia</i> Genus of flowering plants

Barringtonia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lecythidaceae first described as a genus with this name in 1775. It is native to Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and various islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The genus name commemorates Daines Barrington.

Ginsenoside Class of steroids

Ginsenosides or panaxosides are a class of natural product steroid glycosides and triterpene saponins. Compounds in this family are found almost exclusively in the plant genus Panax (ginseng), which has a long history of use in traditional medicine that has led to the study of pharmacological effects of ginseng compounds. As a class, ginsenosides exhibit a large variety of subtle and difficult-to-characterize biological effects when studied in isolation.

<i>Tridax procumbens</i> Species of flowering plant

Tridax procumbens, commonly known as coatbuttons or tridax daisy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Asteraceae. It is best known as a widespread weed and pest plant. It is native to the tropical Americas, but it has been introduced to tropical, subtropical, and mild temperate regions worldwide. It is listed as a noxious weed in the United States and has pest status in nine states.

Sterol 14-demethylase Class of enzymes

In enzymology, a sterol 14-demethylase (EC is an enzyme of the Cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily. It is any member of the CYP51 family. It catalyzes a chemical reaction such as:

Oleanolic acid Pentacyclic chemical compound in plant leaves and fruit

Oleanolic acid or oleanic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid related to betulinic acid. It is widely distributed in food and plants where it exists as a free acid or as an aglycone of triterpenoid saponins.

Polyscias fruticosa Species of shrub

Polyscias fruticosa, or Ming aralia, is a perennial plant, dicot evergreen shrub or dwarf tree native to India. The plant grows fairly slowly but can reach up to 1 to 2 meters in height. The leaves are of a dark green pigment, glossy in texture, and are tripinnate and appear divided. Individual leaves vary from narrowly ovate to lanceolate and are about 10 cm long.

Hederagenin Chemical compound

Hederagenin is a triterpenoid which is a chemical constituent of the Hedera helix plant.

Momordin is one of several saponins derived from oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid. These chemical compounds are found in some plants of the genus Momordica, which includes the bitter melon and the balsam apple, as well as in other Asian herbal medicine plants such as Kochia scoparia and Ampelopsis radix.

<i>Clerodendrum infortunatum</i> Species of flowering plant

Clerodendrum infortunatum, known as bhat or hill glory bower, is a perennial shrub belonging to the family Lamiaceae, also sometimes classified under Verbenaceae. It is the type species among ~150 species of Clerodendrum. It is one of the most well-known natural health remedies in traditional practices and siddha medicine.

<i>Combretum molle</i> Species of tree

Combretum molle, the velvet bushwillow, is a plant species in the genus Combretum found in West-, East- and South Africa.

(N-acetylneuraminyl)-galactosylglucosylceramide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase is an enzyme with systematic name UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:1-O-(O- - -O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl- -beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-ceramide 4-beta-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction

Taraxerol Chemical compound

Taraxerol is a naturally-occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid. It exists in various higher plants, including Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae), Alnus glutinosa (Betulaceae), Litsea dealbata (Lauraceae), Skimmia spp. (Rutaceae), Dorstenia spp. (Moraceae), Maytenus spp. (Celastraceae), and Alchornea latifolia (Euphobiaceae). Taraxerol was named "alnulin" when it was first isolated in 1923 from the bark of the grey alder by Zellner and Röglsperger. It also had the name "skimmiol" when Takeda and Yosiki isolated it from Skimmia (Rutaceae). A large number of medicinal plants are known to have this compound in their leaves, roots or seed oil.

Gordonia ceylanica is a species of plant in the family Theaceae. It is endemic to Sri Lanka.

<i>Phytolacca acinosa</i>

Phytolacca acinosa, the Indian pokeweed, is a species of flowering plant in the family Phytolaccaceae. It is native to temperate eastern Asia; the Himalayas, most of China, Vietnam to Japan, and has been widely introduced to Europe. The species was originally described by William Roxburgh in 1814.


  1. Barstow, M. (2019). "Barringtonia acutangula". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2019: e.T61533369A61533372. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T61533369A61533372.en . Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. "Barringtonia acutangula". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved 7 Mar 2016.
  3. "Barringtonia acutangula". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  4. 1 2 Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Van Ke, Nguyen (2007). Edible Wild Plants of Vietnam: The Bountiful Garden. Thailand: Orchid Press. p. 88. ISBN   978-9745240896.
  5. Samanta S.K.; Bhattacharya K.; Mandal C.; Pal B.C. (2010). "Identification and quantification of the active component quercetin 3-O-rutinoside from Barringtonia racemosa, targets mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in acute lymphoblastic leukemia". Journal of Asian Natural Products Research. 12 (8): 639–48. doi:10.1080/10286020.2010.489040. PMID   20706898. S2CID   41871403.
  6. Rahman MM; Polfreman D.; MacGeachan J.; Gray AI (2005). "Antimicrobial activities of Barringtonia acutangula". Phytotherapy Research. 19 (6): 543–5. doi:10.1002/ptr.1341. PMID   16114086. S2CID   30494225.
  7. Bhamarapravati S; Pendland SL; Mahady GB (2003). "Extracts of spice and food plants from Thai traditional medicine inhibit the growth of the human carcinogen Helicobacter pylori". In Vivo. 17 (6): 541–4. PMID   14758718.
  8. Deraniyagala SA; Ratnasooriya WD; Goonasekara CL (2003). "Antinociceptive effect and toxicological study of the aqueous bark extract of Barringtonia racemosa on rats". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 86 (1): 21–6. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(03)00015-1. PMID   12686437.
  9. Vijaya Bharathi R.; Jerad Suresh A.; Thirumal M.; Sriram L.; Geetha Lakshmi S.; Kumudhaveni B. (2010). "Antibacterial and antifungal screening on various leaf extracts of Barringtonia acutangula". International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1 (4): 407–410.
  10. Sahoo S.; Panda P.K.; Behera P.S.; Mishra S.R.; Ellaiah P. (2008). "Antifungal activity of Barringtonia acutangula against selected human pathogenic fungi". Indian Drugs. 45 (1): 26–30.
  11. J. H. Maiden (1889). The useful native plants of Australia : Including Tasmania. Turner and Henderson, Sydney.
  12. Chemical constituents of mangrove plant Barringtonia racemosa]. [Chinese] Sun HY. Long LJ. Wu J. Zhong Yao Cai. 29(7):671-2, 2006 Jul.
  13. Yang Y, Deng Z, Proksch P, Lin W (2006). "Two new 18-en-oleane derivatives from marine mangrove plant, Barringtonia racemosa". Pharmazie. 61 (4): 365–6. PMID   16649558.
  14. Rahman MM, Polfreman D, MacGeachan J, Gray AI (2005). "Antimicrobial activities of Barringtonia acutangula". Phytotherapy Research. 19 (6): 543–5. doi:10.1002/ptr.1341. PMID   16114086. S2CID   30494225.
  15. Gowri PM, Radhakrishnan SV, Basha SJ, Sarma AV, Rao JM (2009). "Oleanane-type isomeric triterpenoids from Barringtonia racemosa". Journal of Natural Products. 72 (4): 791–5. doi:10.1021/np8007396. PMID   19388709.
  16. Pal BC. Chaudhuri T. Yoshikawa K. Arihara S 1994 Saponins from Barringtonia acutangula. Phytochemistry 35(5):1315-8,
  17. Mills C.; Carroll A.R.; Quinn R.J. (2005). "Acutangulosides A-F, monodesmosidic saponins from the bark of Barringtonia acutangula". Journal of Natural Products. 68 (3): 311–318. doi:10.1021/np049741u. PMID   15787427.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Barringtonia acutangula at Wikimedia Commons