Barringtonia acutangula

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Barringtonia acutangula
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A Barringtonia acutangula tree at Hoan Kiem Lake
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Lecythidaceae
Genus: Barringtonia
Species:
B. acutangula
Binomial name
Barringtonia acutangula
Synonyms [2]
  • Barringtonia rubraBaill. ex Laness. [Illegitimate]
  • Butonica acutangula (L.) Lam.
  • Caryophyllus acutangulus (L.) Stokes
  • Eugenia acutangula L.
  • Huttum acutangulum (L.) Britten
  • Michelia acutangula (L.) Kuntze
  • Stravadium acutangulum (L.) Sweet
  • Stravadium acutangulum (L.) Miers

Barringtonia acutangula is a species of Barringtonia native to coastal wetlands in southern Asia and northern Australasia, from Afghanistan east to the Philippines, Queensland and the Northern Territory. Common names include freshwater mangrove, itchytree and mango-pine. [3]

Contents

Description

This plant is a big tree that grows to about 8–15 m high. Its leaves are thick, smooth and oval in shape, about 8–12 cm long and 4–5 cm wide, with reddish petioles about 0.5–1.0 cm long. The plant has drooping raceme of up to 50 cm long, with numerous large, white flowers. Its fruit is oval-shaped and about 3 cm long, with 1 seed inside. [4]

Uses

Food

The young leaves of this plant are consumed as food, such as in Vietnam where they are eaten fresh with other vegetables, meat and shrimp. [4]

Medicinal

Research on this plant has reported a number of medicinal uses, including antitumor (seed extract), [5] antibiotic, [6] inhibition of growth of Helicobacter pylori, [7] antinociceptive activity [8] and antifungal activity. [9] [10]

The 1889 book 'The Useful Native Plants of Australia’ records that "In India an extract or juice is obtained from the leaves of this tree which, when mixed with oil, is used in native [sic.] practice for eruptions of the skin. The kernels powdered and prepared with sago and butter, are used in diarrhoea; mixed with milk they produce vomiting (Treasury of Botany). The root is bitter, and is said to be similar to Cinchona, but also cooling and aperient. (Drury)." [11]

Chemistry

Its bark contains potent opioid painkillers

Also 3,3'-dimethoxy ellagic acid, dihydromyticetin, gallic acid, bartogenic acid and stigmasterol, [12] triterpenoids, olean-18-en-3beta-O-E-coumaroyl ester and olean-18-en-3beta-O-Z-coumaroyl ester [13] 12, 20(29)-lupadien-3-o [14]

Oleanane-type isomeric triterpenoids:- racemosol A (1) [22alpha-acetoxy-3beta,15alpha,16alpha,21beta-tetrahydroxy-28-(2-methylbutyryl)olean-12-ene] and isoracemosol A (2) [21beta-acetoxy-3beta,15alpha,16alpha,28-tetrahydroxy-22alpha-(2-methylbutyryl)olean-12-ene]. [15]

Saponins,: [16] [17] barringtoside A, 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->3)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D- glucuronopyranosyl barringtogenol C; barringtoside B, 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->3)-]beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D- glucuronopyranosyl-21-O-tigloyl-28-O-isobutyryl barringtogenol C; barringtoside C, 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1-->3)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl(1-->2 )]-beta-D - glucuronopyranosyl barringtogenol C.

Photos

Related Research Articles

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References

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  2. "Barringtonia acutangula". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew . Retrieved 7 Mar 2016.
  3. "Barringtonia acutangula". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  4. 1 2 Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Van Ke, Nguyen (2007). Edible Wild Plants of Vietnam: The Bountiful Garden. Thailand: Orchid Press. p. 88. ISBN   978-9745240896.
  5. Samanta S.K.; Bhattacharya K.; Mandal C.; Pal B.C. (2010). "Identification and quantification of the active component quercetin 3-O-rutinoside from Barringtonia racemosa, targets mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in acute lymphoblastic leukemia". Journal of Asian Natural Products Research. 12 (8): 639–48. doi:10.1080/10286020.2010.489040. PMID   20706898. S2CID   41871403.
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  9. Vijaya Bharathi R.; Jerad Suresh A.; Thirumal M.; Sriram L.; Geetha Lakshmi S.; Kumudhaveni B. (2010). "Antibacterial and antifungal screening on various leaf extracts of Barringtonia acutangula". International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1 (4): 407–410.
  10. Sahoo S.; Panda P.K.; Behera P.S.; Mishra S.R.; Ellaiah P. (2008). "Antifungal activity of Barringtonia acutangula against selected human pathogenic fungi". Indian Drugs. 45 (1): 26–30.
  11. J. H. Maiden (1889). The useful native plants of Australia : Including Tasmania. Turner and Henderson, Sydney.
  12. Chemical constituents of mangrove plant Barringtonia racemosa]. [Chinese] Sun HY. Long LJ. Wu J. Zhong Yao Cai. 29(7):671-2, 2006 Jul.
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  14. Rahman MM, Polfreman D, MacGeachan J, Gray AI (2005). "Antimicrobial activities of Barringtonia acutangula". Phytotherapy Research. 19 (6): 543–5. doi:10.1002/ptr.1341. PMID   16114086. S2CID   30494225.
  15. Gowri PM, Radhakrishnan SV, Basha SJ, Sarma AV, Rao JM (2009). "Oleanane-type isomeric triterpenoids from Barringtonia racemosa". Journal of Natural Products. 72 (4): 791–5. doi:10.1021/np8007396. PMID   19388709.
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