Bertram Glacier

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Bertram Glacier ( 70°50′S67°28′W / 70.833°S 67.467°W / -70.833; -67.467 Coordinates: 70°50′S67°28′W / 70.833°S 67.467°W / -70.833; -67.467 ) is a glacier, 15 nautical miles (28 km) long and 18 nautical miles (33 km) wide at its mouth, which flows west from the Dyer Plateau of Palmer Land into George VI Sound between Wade Point and Gurney Point.

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.

Glacier Persistent body of ice that is moving under its own weight

A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water.

Dyer Plateau

Dyer Plateau is a broad ice-covered upland of north-central Palmer Land, bounded to the north by Fleming Glacier and Bingham Glacier, and to the south by the Gutenko Mountains. It is buttressed by Goettel Escarpment.

It was discovered and first surveyed in 1936 by A. Stephenson, W.L.S. Fleming [1] and Colin Bertram of the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under John Rymill, and named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee in 1954 for Bertram, a biologist of the BGLE, 1934–37, and a member of the discovery party, who in 1949 became Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge. [2]

Colin Bertram British zoologist

Dr George Colin Lawder Bertram, generally known as Colin Bertram, was a British zoologist.

John Rymill Australian explorer

John Riddoch Rymill was an Australian polar explorer, who had the rare second clasp added to his Polar Medal.

The UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee is a United Kingdom government committee, part of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, responsible for recommending names of geographical locations within the British Antarctic Territory (BAT) and the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI). Such names are formally approved by the Commissioners of the BAT and SGSSI respectively, and published in the BAT Gazetteer and the SGSSI Gazetteer maintained by the Committee. The BAT names are also published in the international Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica maintained by SCAR.

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Birley Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Birley Glacier is a glacier, at least 10 nautical miles (19 km) long, flowing west into the eastern extremity of Barilari Bay north of Vardun Point, on the west coast of Graham Land. First seen and roughly surveyed in 1909 by the French Antarctic Expedition under Jean-Baptiste Charcot, it was re-surveyed in 1935–36 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under John Rymill, and later named for Kenneth P. Birley, who contributed toward the cost of the BGLE, 1934–37.

Cadman Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Cadman Glacier is a glacier, 1.5 nautical miles (3 km) wide at its mouth and about 7 nautical miles (13 km) long, flowing northwestward into the head of the southern arm of Beascochea Bay south of Plas Point on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Otlet Glacier is a glacier 9 nautical miles (17 km) long, flowing along the south side of Fontaine Heights to the west coast of Graham Land. Roughly charted by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under Rymill, 1934-37. More accurately mapped by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS) from photos taken by Hunting Aerosurveys Ltd. in 1956-57. Named by the United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC) for Paul Otlet (1868–1944), Belgian documentalist, co-founder of the Institut International de Bibliographie at Brussels, 1895, and of the Universal Decimal Classification. He was a pioneer of the rational organization of polar information by an international classification scheme.

Comrie Glacier is a glacier 13 nautical miles (24 km) long, flowing west to enter the head of Bigo Bay on the west coast of Graham Land. It was first sighted and roughly surveyed by the French Antarctic Expedition in 1909. It was resurveyed in 1935–36 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE), and later named for Leslie J. Comrie, founder and first Director of the Scientific Computing Service Ltd, London, who, as Superintendent of HM Nautical Almanac Office in 1934, greatly assisted the BGLE, 1934–37, by providing advance copies of The Nautical Almanac up to 1937.

Naess Glacier is a small glacier, which is separated from Chapman Glacier to the north by a rocky ridge, flowing from the west coast of Palmer Land into George VI Sound. First surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under Rymill. Named by the United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC) in 1954 for Erling D. Naess, Mgr. of the Vestfold Whaling Co., who was of great assistance to the BGLE, 1934-37.

Wade Point is a rocky mass fronting on George VI Sound, rising to 915 m and marking the west extremity of the rock ridge separating Millet and Bertram Glaciers on the west coast of Palmer Land. First surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under Rymill. Named in 1954 by the members of the expedition for Muriel H. Wade, who was secretary to the BGLE.

Weir Glacier

Weir Glacier is a glacier 8 nautical miles (15 km) long, flowing north into the south part of Barilari Bay between Prestoy Point and Byaga Point, on the west coast of Graham Land. First sighted and roughly charted in 1909 by the French Antarctic Expedition under Charcot. It was surveyed in 1935-36 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under Rymill and later named for William D. Weir, 1st Viscount Weir of Eastwood, and his son, the Hon. James K. Weir, who contributed toward the cost of the BGLE, 1934-37.

Mount Courtauld is a rounded, mainly ice-covered mountain, 2,105 metres (6,900 ft) high, standing 9 nautical miles (17 km) east of George VI Sound and the rocky ridge marking the north side of the mouth of Naess Glacier, on the west coast of Palmer Land. It was first surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under John Rymill, and named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee in 1954 for Augustine Courtauld, a British Arctic explorer who was of assistance during the organization of the BGLE, 1934–37.

Creswick Peaks

The Creswick Peaks, in Antarctica, form an impressive mountain massif with several peaks, the highest at 1,465 metres (4,800 ft), standing at the northeast side of Moore Point between Naess Glacier and Meiklejohn Glacier, and 3 nautical miles (6 km) inland from George VI Sound on the west coast of Palmer Land.

Mount Dixey is a mountain, 1,250 metres (4,100 ft) high, standing at the south side of Riley Glacier and 3 nautical miles (6 km) northeast of Carse Point, on the west coast of Palmer Land. It was first photographed from the air on November 23, 1935 by Lincoln Ellsworth, and mapped from these photographs by W.L.G. Joerg. It was first surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under John Rymill, and was named in 1954 by members of the expedition for Neville Dixey, Chairman of Lloyd's of London in 1934, who raised a special fund at Lloyd's as a contribution towards the cost of the BGLE, 1934–37.

Gurney Point is a small rocky mass overlooking George VI Sound, rising to 610 metres (2,000 ft) and marking the western extremity of the rock ridge separating Bertram Glacier and Ryder Glacier on the west coast of Palmer Land, Antarctica. The point was first seen and photographed from the air on November 23, 1935, by Lincoln Ellsworth, and was mapped from these photographs by W.L.G. Joerg. It was surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under John Rymill, and was named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee in 1954 for Norman A. Gurney, a member of the BGLE, 1934–37.

Mount Pitman

Mount Pitman is a mountain with two mainly ice-covered, dome-shaped summits, the higher and northern rising to 1,830 m, standing 9 nautical miles (17 km) inland from George VI Sound, between Riley and Chapman Glaciers on the west coast of Palmer Land. First surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under Rymill. Named by the United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC) in 1954 for E.L. Pitman, an airplane carpenter of Byfleet, Surrey, who made the sledges used by the BGLE, 1934–37, introducing important new elements into the design of the Nansen-type sledge.

Perutz Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Perutz Glacier is a glacier, 10 nautical miles (18 km) long and 2 nautical miles (3.7 km) wide, which flows west-northwest from Hemimont Plateau into Bourgeois Fjord, close east of Thomson Head, on the west coast of Graham Land, Antarctica. The mouth of the glacier was first surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under Rymill. The entire glacier was surveyed in 1946-47 and 1948-49 by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS), and named by them for Max F. Perutz of the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, who has made important studies on the mechanism of glacier flow.

Mount Flower is a mountain with two summits, the highest at 1,465 metres (4,800 ft), standing 6.5 nautical miles (12 km) inland from Carse Point and George VI Sound, on the west coast of Palmer Land, Antarctica. This mountain lies partially within the margin of the area first photographed from the air on November 23, 1935 by Lincoln Ellsworth, and its northern extremity was mapped from these photographs by W.L.G. Joerg. It was first surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under John Rymill, and was named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee in 1954 for Geoffrey C. Flower, an instructor in survey at the Royal Geographical Society, 1933–40, who helped with the organization and working out of the surveys made by the BGLE, 1934–37.

Millett Glacier is a heavily crevassed glacier in Antarctica, 13 nautical miles (24 km) long and 7 nautical miles (13 km) wide, flowing west from the Dyer Plateau of Palmer Land to George VI Sound, immediately north of Wade Point. In its lower reaches the north side of this glacier merges with Meiklejohn Glacier. Millett Glacier was first surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under John Rymill, and was named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee in 1954 for Hugh M. Millett, chief engineer of the Penola during the BGLE.

Meiklejohn Glacier is a glacier, 12 nautical miles (22 km) long and 4 nautical miles (7 km) wide, flowing southwest from the Dyer Plateau of Palmer Land, Antarctica, to George VI Sound, immediately south of Moore Point. In its lower reaches the south side of this glacier merges with Millett Glacier. It was first surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under John Rymill, and was named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee in 1954 for Ian F. Meiklejohn, a radio operator of the BGLE.

Ryder Glacier is a gently sloping glacier, 13 nautical miles (24 km) long and wide, flowing west from the Dyer Plateau of Palmer Land into George VI Sound to the south of Gurney Point. First surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under Rymill. Named by the United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC) in 1954 for Captain Robert E.D. Ryder, Royal Navy, who as Lieutenant, was commander of the Penola during the BGLE, 1934-37.

Relay Hills is a group of low, ice-covered hills, mainly conical in shape, between Mount Edgell and Kinnear Mountains in western Antarctic Peninsula. First roughly surveyed from the ground by British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE), 1936-37. Photographed from the air by Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition (RARE), November 1947. Resurveyed by Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS), November 1958. The name, applied by the United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC), arose because both the BGLE and the FIDS sledging parties had to relay their loads through this area to the head of Prospect Glacier.

Riley Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Riley Glacier is a heavily crevassed glacier, 14 nautical miles (26 km) long and 17 nautical miles (31 km) wide, flowing westward from the west side of Palmer Land into George VI Sound between the Traverse Mountains and Mount Dixey. First sighted and surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under Rymill. Resurveyed in 1949 by the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS) and named for Quintin T.P.M. Riley, assistant meteorologist of the BGLE, 1934-37. The glacier sits at 70° 06' 00.0" S latitude and 67° 55' 00.0" W longitude.

Chapman Glacier is a glacier 11 miles (18 km) long and 10 miles (16 km) wide in its central part, narrowing to 3 miles (5 km) at its mouth, flowing west from the Dyer Plateau of Palmer Land to George VI Sound immediately south of Carse Point. It was first surveyed in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under John Rymill, and named by the UK Antarctic Place-names Committee in 1954 for Frederick S. Chapman, British mountaineer and Arctic explorer, who in 1934 brought 64 dogs from West Greenland to England for the use of the BGLE, 1934–37.

References

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Bertram Glacier" (content from the Geographic Names Information System ).

United States Geological Survey scientific agency of the United States government

The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility.

Geographic Names Information System geographical database

The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its territories. It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) to promote the standardization of feature names.