St Mary the Virgin parish church
Formal gardens at Broughton Castle
|Area||3.94 km2 (1.52 sq mi)|
|Population||286 (2011 Census)|
|• Density||73/km2 (190/sq mi)|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||South East England|
Broughton is a village and civil parish in northern Oxfordshire, England, about 2 1⁄2 miles (4 km) southwest of Banbury.
Oxfordshire is a county in South East England. The ceremonial county borders Warwickshire to the north-west, Northamptonshire to the north-east, Buckinghamshire to the east, Berkshire to the south, Wiltshire to the south-west and Gloucestershire to the west.
Banbury is an historic market town on the River Cherwell in Oxfordshire, England. The town is situated 64 miles (103 km) northwest of London, 37 miles (60 km) southeast of Birmingham, 27 miles (43 km) south-by-southeast of Coventry and 22 miles (35 km) north-by-northwest of the county town of Oxford. It had a population of 46,853 at the 2011 census.
The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 286.
The Domesday Book of 1086 records the place-name as Brohtune and an episcopal register from 1224 records it as Broctona. The name is derived from Old English and in this case means tūn ("farm") on a brōc ("brook").
Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states:
Then, at the midwinter , was the king in Gloucester with his council .... After this had the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his council, about this land; how it was occupied, and by what sort of men. Then sent he his men over all England into each shire; commissioning them to find out "How many hundreds of hides were in the shire, what land the king himself had, and what stock upon the land; or, what dues he ought to have by the year from the shire."
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Before the Norman Conquest of 1066 Thorgautr Lagr held the manor of Broughton.By 1086 the parish of Broughton was part of the hundred of Bloxham, held by tenant-in-chief Berengarii de Todeni (Berengar de Tosny), eldest son of Robert de Todeni. Berengar's sister Albreda inherited Broughton, so her husband Robert de Insula was next to manage the profitable manor.
The Norman Conquest of England was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish, and French soldiers led by the Duke of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Manorialism was an organizing principle of rural economies which vested legal and economic power in a Lord of the Manor. He was supported economically from his own direct landholding in a manor, and from the obligatory contributions of a legally subject part of the peasant population under his jurisdiction and that of his manorial court. These obligations could be payable in several ways, in labor, in kind, or, on rare occasions, in coin.
A hundred is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region. It was formerly used in England, Wales, some parts of the United States, Denmark, Southern Schleswig, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, and Norway. It is still used in other places, including South Australia and the Northern Territory.
The Domesday Book records that in 1086 Broughton parish had two watermills. By 1444 there were at least three, one of which was a fulling mill. By 1685 there was a second fulling mill, and both mills supplied the local woollen industry. Fulling and cloth-dyeing remained local industries until early in the 20th century.
A watermill or water mill is a mill that uses hydropower. It is a structure that uses a water wheel or water turbine to drive a mechanical process such as milling (grinding), rolling, or hammering. Such processes are needed in the production of many material goods, including flour, lumber, paper, textiles, and many metal products. These watermills may comprise gristmills, sawmills, paper mills, textile mills, hammermills, trip hammering mills, rolling mills, wire drawing mills.
Fulling, also known as tucking or walking, was a step in woollen clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth to eliminate oils, dirt, and other impurities, and to make it thicker. The worker who does the job is a fuller, tucker, or walker, all of which have become common surnames. The Welsh word for a fulling mill is pandy, which appears in many place-names, for example Tonypandy.
Broughton Castle is a 14th- to 16th-century country house and the ancestral seat of the Lords Saye and Sele (the Fiennes family). It is a Scheduled Monumentand Grade I listed building.
Broughton Castle is a medieval fortified manor house in the village of Broughton which is about two miles south-west of Banbury, Oxfordshire, England on the B4035 road. It is the home of the Fiennes family, Barons Saye and Sele. The castle sits on an artificial island in pastureland and is surrounded by a wide moat. Across the small bridge lies the parish church of St Mary the Virgin, surrounded by its historic cemetery. A Grade II listed building, it opens to the public over the summer. Private tours can be arranged.
An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a town house. This allowed them to spend time in the country and in the city—hence, for these people, the term distinguished between town and country. However, the term also encompasses houses that were, and often still are, the full-time residence for the landed gentry that ruled rural Britain until the Reform Act 1832. Frequently, the formal business of the counties was transacted in these country houses.
Baron Saye and Sele is a title in the Peerage of England held by the Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes family. The title dates to 1447 but it was recreated in 1603. Confusion over the details of the 15th-century title has led to conflicting order for title holders; authorities such as Burke's Peerage and Debrett's Peerage do not agree on whether or not the 1447 creation is still extant.
In the 17th century Broughton's agriculture was mostly pasture for cattle and sheep, which has given to the parish such field names as Dairy Ground, Grazing Ground and New Close Pasture. Improved crop rotation in the agricultural revolution increased arable farming in the parish, with crops being diversified in the 18th century to include clover, flax, hops, sainfoin and woad. Some of these crops have given place names to the parish such as Sandfine Wood, Sandfine Road and Woadmill Farm. Woad was still grown in 1827, when it was used locally for dyeing wool.
Broughton has a pair of Gothic Revival almshouses that were built in 1859.
The Church of England parish church of St Mary the Virgin is in the grounds of Broughton Castle. The church was built about 1300 in a style that is transitional from Early English to Decorated Gothic.Clerestories were added to the south aisle late in the 14th century and to the nave in the 15th century. The church was restored in 1877–80 under the direction of George Gilbert Scott. It is a Grade I listed building.
Broughton Rectory was rebuilt in 1694.It was altered three times in the 19th century: firstly by Richard Pace of Lechlade in 1808, and then with extensions by SP Cockerell in 1820 and HJ Underwood in 1842.
Broughton has a pub, the Saye and Sele Arms.
Bloxham is a village and civil parish in northern Oxfordshire on the edge of the Cotswolds, about 3 miles (5 km) southwest of Banbury. It is on the edge of a valley and overlooked by Hobb Hill. The village is on the A361 road. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 3,374.
Adwell is a village and civil parish about 3 miles (5 km) south of Thame in South Oxfordshire. The parish covers 443 acres (179 ha),
Bampton, also called Bampton-in-the-Bush, is a settlement and civil parish in the Thames Valley about 4 1⁄2 miles (7 km) southwest of Witney in Oxfordshire. The parish includes the hamlet of Weald. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 2,564.
Bletchingdon is a village and civil parish 2 miles (3 km) north of Kidlington and 6 miles (10 km) southwest of Bicester in Oxfordshire, England. Bletchingdon parish includes the hamlet of Enslow just over 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the village. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 910.
Bucknell is a village and civil parish 2 1⁄2 miles (4 km) northwest of Bicester in Oxfordshire, England. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 260.
Mollington is a village and civil parish about 4 miles (6.4 km) north of Banbury in Oxfordshire, England. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 479.
Wroxton is a village and civil parish in the north of Oxfordshire about 3 miles (5 km) west of Banbury. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 546.
Water Eaton is a hamlet in the civil parish of Gosford and Water Eaton, between Oxford and Kidlington in Oxfordshire.
Wardington is a village and civil parish in Oxfordshire, about 4 miles (6.4 km) northeast of Banbury. The village consists of two parts: Wardington and Upper Wardington. The village is on a stream that rises in Upper Wardington and flows north to join the River Cherwell.
Britwell Salome is a village and civil parish in South Oxfordshire, England centred 4 1⁄2 miles (7 km) northeast of Wallingford. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 204.
Stadhampton is a village and civil parish about 5 miles (8 km) north of Wallingford, in South Oxfordshire, England. Stadhampton village is on the A329 road and close to the River Thame.
Middleton Stoney is a village and civil parish about 2 1⁄2 miles (4 km) west of Bicester, Oxfordshire. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 331.
Shenington is a village about 5 miles (8 km) west of Banbury. It was an exclave of Gloucestershire until the Counties Act 1844 transferred it to Oxfordshire. Shenington is on Oxfordshire's boundary with Warwickshire.
Balscote or Balscott is a village in the civil parish of Wroxton, Oxfordshire, about 4 miles (6.4 km) west of Banbury.
Brightwell Baldwin is a village and civil parish in Oxfordshire, about 4 1⁄2 miles (7 km) northeast of Wallingford. It was historically in the Hundred of Ewelme and is now in the District of South Oxfordshire. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 208.
Drayton is a village and civil parish in the valley of the Sor Brook in Oxfordshire, about 2 miles (3 km) northwest of Banbury. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 242.
Wigginton is a village and civil parish about 6 miles (10 km) southwest of Banbury in Oxfordshire. The village is beside the River Swere, which forms the southern boundary of the parish.
Epwell is a village and civil parish in the north of Oxfordshire about 6 miles (10 km) west of Banbury. The 2011 Census recorded the parish population's as 285.
Alkerton is a village about 5 miles (8 km) west of Banbury in Oxfordshire, on the county boundary with Warwickshire.
Hardwick is a village in the civil parish of Hardwick with Tusmore about 4.5 miles (7 km) north of Bicester in Oxfordshire.