Broughton, Oxfordshire

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Broughton
Broughton StMaryV south wide.jpg
St Mary the Virgin parish church
Broughton castle garden.jpg
Formal gardens at Broughton Castle
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Broughton
Location within Oxfordshire
Area3.94 km2 (1.52 sq mi)
Population286 (2011 Census)
  Density 73/km2 (190/sq mi)
OS grid reference SP4238
Civil parish
  • Broughton
District
Shire county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town Banbury
Postcode district OX15
Dialling code 01295
Police Thames Valley
Fire Oxfordshire
Ambulance South Central
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Oxfordshire
52°02′31″N1°23′17″W / 52.042°N 1.388°W / 52.042; -1.388 Coordinates: 52°02′31″N1°23′17″W / 52.042°N 1.388°W / 52.042; -1.388

Broughton is a village and civil parish in northern Oxfordshire, England, about 2 12 miles (4 km) southwest of Banbury.

Oxfordshire County of England

Oxfordshire is a county in South East England. The ceremonial county borders Warwickshire to the north-west, Northamptonshire to the north-east, Buckinghamshire to the east, Berkshire to the south, Wiltshire to the south-west and Gloucestershire to the west.

Banbury market town and civil parish on the River Cherwell in Oxfordshire, England

Banbury is an historic market town on the River Cherwell in Oxfordshire, England. The town is situated 64 miles (103 km) northwest of London, 37 miles (60 km) southeast of Birmingham, 27 miles (43 km) south-by-southeast of Coventry and 22 miles (35 km) north-by-northwest of the county town of Oxford. It had a population of 46,853 at the 2011 census.

Contents

The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 286. [1]

Manor

The Domesday Book of 1086 records the place-name as Brohtune and an episcopal register from 1224 records it as Broctona. The name is derived from Old English and in this case means tūn ("farm") on a brōc ("brook"). [2]

Domesday Book 11th-century survey of landholding in England as well as the surviving manuscripts of the survey

Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states:

Then, at the midwinter [1085], was the king in Gloucester with his council .... After this had the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his council, about this land; how it was occupied, and by what sort of men. Then sent he his men over all England into each shire; commissioning them to find out "How many hundreds of hides were in the shire, what land the king himself had, and what stock upon the land; or, what dues he ought to have by the year from the shire."

Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.

A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.

Before the Norman Conquest of 1066 Thorgautr Lagr held the manor of Broughton. [3] By 1086 the parish of Broughton was part of the hundred of Bloxham, held by tenant-in-chief Berengarii de Todeni (Berengar de Tosny), [3] eldest son of Robert de Todeni. Berengar's sister Albreda inherited Broughton, so her husband Robert de Insula was next to manage the profitable manor. [4]

Norman conquest of England 11th-century invasion and conquest of England by Normans

The Norman Conquest of England was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish, and French soldiers led by the Duke of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

Manorialism economic, political and judicial institution during the Middle Age in Europe, governed by a lord owning a land domain that he partly concesses to vassals

Manorialism was an organizing principle of rural economies which vested legal and economic power in a Lord of the Manor. He was supported economically from his own direct landholding in a manor, and from the obligatory contributions of a legally subject part of the peasant population under his jurisdiction and that of his manorial court. These obligations could be payable in several ways, in labor, in kind, or, on rare occasions, in coin.

A hundred is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region. It was formerly used in England, Wales, some parts of the United States, Denmark, Southern Schleswig, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, and Norway. It is still used in other places, including South Australia and the Northern Territory.

The Domesday Book records that in 1086 Broughton parish had two watermills. By 1444 there were at least three, one of which was a fulling mill. By 1685 there was a second fulling mill, and both mills supplied the local woollen industry. Fulling and cloth-dyeing remained local industries until early in the 20th century. [5]

Watermill structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process

A watermill or water mill is a mill that uses hydropower. It is a structure that uses a water wheel or water turbine to drive a mechanical process such as milling (grinding), rolling, or hammering. Such processes are needed in the production of many material goods, including flour, lumber, paper, textiles, and many metal products. These watermills may comprise gristmills, sawmills, paper mills, textile mills, hammermills, trip hammering mills, rolling mills, wire drawing mills.

Fulling textile finishing process for woollen or worsted cloth that uses controlled shrinkage to produce a thicker, more compact fabric

Fulling, also known as tucking or walking, was a step in woollen clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth to eliminate oils, dirt, and other impurities, and to make it thicker. The worker who does the job is a fuller, tucker, or walker, all of which have become common surnames. The Welsh word for a fulling mill is pandy, which appears in many place-names, for example Tonypandy.

Broughton Castle is a 14th- to 16th-century country house and the ancestral seat of the Lords Saye and Sele (the Fiennes family). It is a Scheduled Monument [6] and Grade I listed building. [7]

Broughton Castle medieval manor house in Oxfordshire, England

Broughton Castle is a medieval fortified manor house in the village of Broughton which is about two miles south-west of Banbury, Oxfordshire, England on the B4035 road. It is the home of the Fiennes family, Barons Saye and Sele. The castle sits on an artificial island in pastureland and is surrounded by a wide moat. Across the small bridge lies the parish church of St Mary the Virgin, surrounded by its historic cemetery. A Grade II listed building, it opens to the public over the summer. Private tours can be arranged.

English country house larger mansion estate in England, UK

An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a town house. This allowed them to spend time in the country and in the city—hence, for these people, the term distinguished between town and country. However, the term also encompasses houses that were, and often still are, the full-time residence for the landed gentry that ruled rural Britain until the Reform Act 1832. Frequently, the formal business of the counties was transacted in these country houses.

Baron Saye and Sele

Baron Saye and Sele is a title in the Peerage of England held by the Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes family. The title dates to 1447 but it was recreated in 1603. Confusion over the details of the 15th-century title has led to conflicting order for title holders; authorities such as Burke's Peerage and Debrett's Peerage do not agree on whether or not the 1447 creation is still extant.

In the 17th century Broughton's agriculture was mostly pasture for cattle and sheep, which has given to the parish such field names as Dairy Ground, Grazing Ground and New Close Pasture. Improved crop rotation in the agricultural revolution increased arable farming in the parish, with crops being diversified in the 18th century to include clover, flax, hops, sainfoin and woad. Some of these crops have given place names to the parish such as Sandfine Wood, Sandfine Road and Woadmill Farm. Woad was still grown in 1827, when it was used locally for dyeing wool. [5]

Broughton has a pair of Gothic Revival almshouses that were built in 1859. [8] [9]

Parish church

The Church of England parish church of St Mary the Virgin is in the grounds of Broughton Castle. The church was built about 1300 in a style that is transitional from Early English to Decorated Gothic. [10] Clerestories were added to the south aisle late in the 14th century and to the nave in the 15th century. The church was restored in 1877–80 under the direction of George Gilbert Scott. It is a Grade I listed building. [11]

Broughton Rectory was rebuilt in 1694. [8] It was altered three times in the 19th century: firstly by Richard Pace of Lechlade in 1808, and then with extensions by SP Cockerell in 1820 and HJ Underwood in 1842. [8] [12]

Amenities

Broughton has a pub, the Saye and Sele Arms. [13]

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References

  1. "Broughton Parish". Local Area Report. nomis. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  2. Ekwall 1960, Broughton.
  3. 1 2 "Broughton". Open Domesday. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  4. Keats-Rohan, Katharine SB (July 1998). "Belvoir: The Heirs of Robert and Berengar de Tosny" (PDF). Prosopon Newsletter (9). Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  5. 1 2 Lobel & Crossley 1969 , pp. 85–102
  6. Historic England. "Broughton Castle: fortified house and moat (1020968)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  7. Historic England. "Broughton Castle and attached walls  (Grade I) (1248742)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  8. 1 2 3 Sherwood & Pevsner 1974 , p. 498.
  9. Historic England. "Pair of almshouses linked by low wall  (Grade II) (1248764)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  10. Sherwood & Pevsner 1974, pp. 490–492.
  11. Historic England. "Church of St Mary the Virgin  (Grade I) (1248778)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  12. Historic England. "The Rectory  (Grade II) (1248776)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  13. Saye and Sele Arms

Sources

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Broughton, Oxfordshire at Wikimedia Commons