Buick Skylark

Last updated
Buick Skylark
1972 Buick Skylark Front.jpg
1972 Buick Skylark
Overview
Manufacturer Buick (General Motors)
Model years 1953–1954
1961–1972
1975–1998
Layout
Chronology
Successor Buick Century (1973)
Buick Verano (2012)

The Buick Skylark is a passenger car produced by Buick. The model was made in six production runs, during 46 years, over which the car's design varied dramatically due to changing technology, tastes, and new standards implemented over the years. It was named for the species of bird called skylark .

Contents

1953–1954

Buick Roadmaster Skylark
1953–1954
Skylark-Wiki-Side-View-D.jpg
1953 Buick Roadmaster Skylark
Overview
Assembly Flint Wagon Works, Flint, Michigan, United States
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door convertible
Layout FR layout
Related Buick Roadmaster
Buick Super
Powertrain
Engine 322 cu in (5.3 L) Nailhead V8
Dimensions
Wheelbase 121.5 in (3,086 mm) [1]

Created to mark Buick's 50th anniversary, [2] the Roadmaster Skylark joined the Oldsmobile 98 Fiesta and Cadillac Series 62 Eldorado as top-of-the-line, limited-production specialty convertibles introduced in 1953 by General Motors to promote its design leadership. Of the three, the Skylark's run of 1,690 units proved the most successful, and an amazing sales feat considering the car's 1953 list price of slightly in excess of US$5,000 ($48,364 in 2020 dollars [3] ) was over 50% more than the well-equipped US$3,200 Roadmaster convertible on which it was based ($30,953 in 2020 dollars [3] ).

Production ran for two years. Based on the model 76R two-door Roadmaster convertible, the 1953 Skylark (designated model 76X) had identical dimensions (except height), almost identical appearance, shared its drive train, and had all its standard equipment, plus its few remaining options, including power windows, power brakes, full carpeting, and a "Selectronic" AM radio. [2] [4] Only A/C was not offered, unnecessary in either convertible. [2]

Importantly, the new Skylark featured Buick's new 322 in3 (5.3 L) Nailhead V8 in place of the automaker's longstanding straight 8, and a 12 volt electrical system, both division firsts. It debuted full-cutout wheel openings, a styling cue that spread to the main 1954 Buick line. Accenting its lowered, notched beltline was a new "Sweepspear" running almost the entire length of the vehicle, a styling cue that was to appear in various forms on many Buick models over the years.

The 1953 Skylark was handmade in many respects. Only stampings for the hood, trunk lid, and a portion of the convertible tub were shared with the Roadmaster and Super convertibles. All Skylark tubs were finished with various amounts of lead filler. The inner doors were made by cutting the 2-door Roadmaster's in two then welding the pieces back together at an angle to produce the rakish door dip. An overall more streamlined look was reinforced by cutting the windshield almost 3 inches (7.6 cm) shorter and lowering the side windows and convertible top frame proportionately. Seat frames and steering column were then dropped to provide proper headroom and driving position. Front legroom was 44.7 inches (114 cm). [2] Authentic wire wheels were produced by Kelsey-Hayes, chromed everywhere except the plated and painted "Skylark" center emblem. [1]

The Skylark returned in 1954 with radically restyled styling unique to the Buick line, [5] which included wheel cutouts that could be painted in a contrasting color to the body's. The trunk was sloped into a semi-barrel, and tail lights moved to large chromed fins projecting atop the rear fenders. [6]

Re-designated model 100, the car was based on the all-new shorter Century/Special series 40 chassis and not the larger series 60 Roadmaster/Super chassis, also all-new for 1954. Once again, all Skylarks were built as two-door convertibles and carried the same luxury equipment as before, but front leg room dropped 2.4 inches (6.1 cm). [2] While smaller and lighter, the Skylark received a performance boost by retaining the big Buicks' powertrain, an evolutionary improvement of 1953's with the highest output in the division's lineup.

The 1954 Skylark once again had unique sheet metal stampings for its elongated wheel cutouts and new semi-barrel trunk, though fabrication was done without hand labor. The hood ornament was unique, adopted the following year across the Buick product line.

Sales proved to be poor, reflecting the Skylark's continued high price coupled with a perceived step-down from the Roadmaster/Super series, slumping far enough to cause the model's cancellation at the end of the 1954 model year.

1961–1963

Buick Special Skylark
1961–1963
Buick Skylark 1961.jpg
1961 Buick Special Skylark
Overview
Assembly(main factory)
Flint, Michigan, United States
(branch assembly)
South Gate Assembly South Gate, California, United States
Wilmington, Delaware, United States
Atlanta, Georgia, United States
Kansas City, Kansas, United States
Framingham, Massachusetts, United States
Linden, New Jersey, United States
Body and chassis
Class Compact
Body style 2-door convertible
2-door hardtop
2-door coupe
4-door Station wagon
Layout FR layout
Platform Y-body
Related Pontiac Tempest
Oldsmobile F-85
Powertrain
Engine 198 cu in (3.2 L) V6
215 cu in (3.5 L) V8
Transmission 2-speed automatic
3-speed manual
4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 112 in (2,845 mm) [7]
Length193 in (4,900 mm) [7]
Width70.2 in (1,783 mm) [7]

In the fall of 1960, General Motors introduced a trio of new compact cars for the 1961 model year that shared the same chassis, engines, and basic sheet metal: the Buick Special, Pontiac Tempest, and Oldsmobile F-85. The Special's styling was strongly influenced by the new corporate look shared with the larger LeSabre, Invicta, and Electra also introduced in 1961.

In the middle of the 1961 model year the Buick Special Skylark made its debut. Effectively a luxury trim level, it was based on a two-door sedan (also referred to as a coupe), [8] it featured unique Skylark emblems, taillight housings, lower-body side moldings, turbine wheel covers, and a vinyl-covered roof. 1961 Skylarks featured three Ventiports on each fender. A plush all-vinyl interior was standard, with bucket seats available as an option. Instrumentation was minimal, consisting of only a speedometer and fuel gauge. [9]

The Skylark replaced the Special's standard aluminum block 215 cu in (3.5 L) two-barrel carburetor V8 with a higher compression ratio four-barrel version that boosted power from 155 hp (116 kW) at 4600 rpm to 185 hp (138 kW).

1962 Buick Skylark hardtop Buick Skylark 1962 (6142537876).jpg
1962 Buick Skylark hardtop

For the 1962 model year, the Skylark became a model in its own right. It used the previous year's basic sheet metal but was available in two new body styles: a two-door convertible coupe (shared with the Special and Special Deluxe models) and a two-door (pillarless) hardtop unique to it. Tuning of the 215-cubic-inch V8 increased power to 190 hp (140 kW) at 4800 rpm. In 1962, the Skylark Special was also the first American car to use a V6 engine in volume production; it earned Motor Trend 's Car of the Year for 1962. [10] This 198 cid Fireball was engineered down from the 215 and used many of the same design parameters, but was cast in iron. Output was 135 hp (gross) at 4600 rpm and 205 lb⋅ft (278 N⋅m) at 2400 rpm. In their test that year, Road & Track was impressed with Buick's "practical" new V6, saying it "sounds and performs exactly like the aluminum V8 in most respects."

In 1963, the Special's body was restyled and minor changes made to the interior, particularly to the dash and instrument cluster. The 1963 Special was available as a two-door pillared hardtop coupe, a four dour sedan, a convertible, and a station wagon. Engine choices were a standard 198 cu in (3.2 l) V6 with a twin-barrel carburetor and an optional 215 cu in (3.5 l) V8 with 155 hp (116 kW) (two-barrel) or more powerful four-barrel (190 hp (140 kW) in 1962, 200 hp (150 kW) in 1963). [11] Transmission choices were a 'three on the tree' manual transmission, a floor shift Borg-Warner T-10 four-speed manual, or a two-speed Turbine Drive [11] automatic. The two speed "Dual Path Turbine Drive" automatic was a Buick design and shared no common parts with the better known Chevrolet Power-Glide transmission.

Two prototypes were made for 1962, each with a unique body. One a convertible and the other a hardtop. The prototypes came directly from Buick Engineering, both had been given two 4-barrel carburetors by the engineers thus increasing the prototype's horsepower a little more than 80 hp. They had features from the '61, '62, and the '63 production models. Some features, such as the two 4-barrel carburetors, were left out of the production-line Skylarks. The prototypes were also were two inches (51 mm) longer, and wider than the production models. Of the two prototypes, only the hardtop still exists and resides with its owner in Michigan. It is possible the convertible prototype still exists in the Sloan Museum collection.[ citation needed ]

1963 Buick Skylark convertible 1963 Buick Skylark Convertible, front right.jpg
1963 Buick Skylark convertible

The 1963 Skylarks used the same chassis and wheelbase as the previous 1961 and 1962 models, but adopted new sheet metal that featured boxier styling. Length was increased by five inches (130 mm) to 193 in (4,900 mm), and the 215-cubic-inch V8 generated 200 hp (150 kW) at 5,000 rpm. The 1963 Skylark was available as a two-door convertible coupe or a two-door (pillarless) hardtop coupe. The 1963 Special shared most sheet metal with the Skylark, but was available as a convertible, station wagon as well as two- and four-door sedans. Engine choices included a 198 cu in (3.2 L) V6 with two-barrel carburetor, the 215 cu in (3.5 L) V8 with two-barrel or a four-barrel carburetor. Transmission choices were a "three on the tree" manual transmission, a floor-shifted Borg-Warner T-10 four-speed manual, or a two-speed automatic. The two-speed "Dual Path Turbine Drive" automatic was a Buick design and shared no common parts with the Chevrolet Power-Glide transmission. Instrument panel padding and a cigarette lighter was standard. [12] [13]

First generation (1964–1967)

Buick Skylark
1964–1967
1964 Buick Skylark Convertible serie 4300 front.jpg
1964 Buick Skylark convertible
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door convertible
2-door hardtop
4-door hardtop
2-door coupe
4-door sedan
Layout FR layout
Platform A-body
Related Buick Gran Sport
Buick Special
Chevrolet Chevelle
Chevrolet Monte Carlo
Pontiac Le Mans
Pontiac GTO
Pontiac Grand Prix
Oldsmobile Cutlass
Oldsmobile 442
Powertrain
Engine 225 in3 (3.7 L) V6
250 in3 (4.1 L) Chevrolet I6
300 in3 (4.9 L) V8
340 in3 (5.6 L) V8
350 in3 (5.7 L) V8
401 in3 (6.6 L) V8
1964 Buick Skylark '64 Buick (Cruisin' At The Boardwalk '12).JPG
1964 Buick Skylark
1965 Buick Skylark sedan Buick Skylark Sedan (Auto classique Ste-Rose '11).JPG
1965 Buick Skylark sedan
1966 Buick Skylark Convertible Buick Skylark Convertible (1966) 01.jpg
1966 Buick Skylark Convertible

Beginning with the 1964 model year, the dressed-up compact Skylark trim level had enough sales to merit its own separate line. [8] Along with the lower-priced Special from which it was derived, the model would move to a new 115 in (2,921 mm) wheelbase intermediate-size chassis shared with the Oldsmobile F-85, Pontiac Tempest, and new Chevrolet Chevelle. Both Buicks had a length of 203.5 in (5,169 mm).

The standard 215-cubic-inch-displacement, aluminum-block V8 engine was discontinued, and the associated tooling eventually was sold to the British manufacturer, Rover. They produced the Rover V8 engine, manufacturing several additional versions for use in its sedans, Land Rover sport utility vehicles, and trucks until 2006.

In its place was a new 225-cubic-inch (3,690 cm3), all-cast-iron-block V6 with a Rochester 1-barrel carburetor that generated 155 hp (116 kW) at 4400 rpm. It was almost 30 cu. in. larger than a prior, unrelated 196 cubic inches (3,210 cm3) V6 introduced for the 1962 model year. The 225 was basically a Buick 300 CID V8 engine, less two cylinders. The basic V8 option was a 300-cubic-inch, with cast-iron-block, aluminum-heads, and a Rochester 2-barrel carburetor that generated 210 hp (160 kW) at 4600 rpm. A high performance version was offered with 11:1 compression and a 4-barrel carburetor, generating 250 hp (190 kW). A long-throw, 4-speed Hurst shifter was available. For the 1965 model, cast-iron blocks and heads were used for all engines.

For the first time, a four-door sedan was offered in addition to the two-door convertible, two-door sedan, and hardtop coupe. Specials and Special Deluxes only came in pillared coupe versions. All Skylarks would have higher levels of exterior and interior trim than the Special and Special Deluxe from which they were derived. The sedan would come with cloth-and-vinyl seats standard, with an all-vinyl interior optional. All-vinyl bucket seats were standard on the convertible and optional on the hardtop coupe. The Skylark Coupe had a lower, more road-hugging profile than the other models. Buick's traditional VentiPorts were integrated into the front half rub strip that ran the entire length of the vehicle, with later versions appearing vertically stacked as on the Buick Wildcat.

Inspired in no small part by the sales success of the 1964 Pontiac Tempest, LeMans, and GTO, a Gran Sport option became available in mid 1965, offered as a coupe, hardtop or convertible. [14] The Gran Sport featured Buick's 401-cubic-inch-V8 with a Carter 4-barrel carburetor that produced 325 hp (242 kW) at 4400 rpm, [14] listed as 400-cubic-inch in sales literature to elude a General Motors limit of 400 cubic in intermediate-sized cars. Unique Gran Sport badging, a heavy-duty radiator, and dual exhaust were also added.

In the 1966 model year, the pillared four-door sedan was replaced by a four-door hardtop. The 1966 two-door Skylark was available with the optional 340 ci "Wildcat 375", engine which produced 260 hp (194 kW) and 365 lb⋅ft (495 N⋅m) torque with a 4-barrel Carter carb.

1967 Buick Skylark convertible '67 Buick Skylark Convertible (Auto classique Laval '10).jpg
1967 Buick Skylark convertible

The four-door sedan would rejoin the lineup for the 1967 model year, making a total of five Skylark body styles. The 225 cu. in. V6 was standard on the two-door sedan, the 300-cubic-inch V8 on all other models, but the four-door hardtop sedan, which came with a 340-cubic-inch-displacement V8 engine using a Rochester 2-barrel carburetor and producing 220 hp (160 kW) at 4400 rpm.

In 1967 Skylarks included the Federally-mandated safety equipment as other U.S. market passenger cars, including a dual-circuit hydraulic brake system, energy-absorbing steering column and wheel, 4-way hazard flashers, shoulder belt mounting points for outboard front passengers, softer interior surfaces, and recessed controls on the instrument panel.

The Gran Sport became the Gran Sport 400 to reflect its engine. A Gran Sport 340 was added, using the 340-cubic-inch V8, available only as a two-door hardtop coupe.

Second generation (1968–1972)

Buick Skylark
1968-1972
1968 Buick Skylark Custom Convertible, Brown, front left (Hershey 2019).jpg
1968 Buick Skylark Custom Convertible
Overview
Production1968–1972
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan
2-door coupe
2-door convertible
2-door hardtop
4-door hardtop
Layout FR layout
Platform A-body
Related Acadian Beaumont
Buick Special
Chevrolet Chevelle
Chevrolet Monte Carlo
Chevrolet Malibu
Chevrolet El Camino
GMC Sprint
Pontiac Tempest
Pontiac LeMans
Pontiac Grand Prix
Pontiac GTO
Oldsmobile F-85
Oldsmobile Cutlass
Oldsmobile Hurst/Olds
Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme
Buick GSX
Powertrain
Engine 250 cu in (4.1 L) Chevrolet I6
350 cu in (5.7 L) V8
400 cu in (6.6 L) V8
455 cu in (7.46 L) V8
Dimensions
Wheelbase 112 in (2,845 mm) 2-door coupe, hardtop and convertible
116 in (2,946 mm) 4-door sedan and station wagon [15]
Length201.9 in (5,128 mm) 2-door coupe, hardtop and convertible
205.9 in (5,230 mm) 4-door sedan
212.6 in (5,400 mm) station wagon
Width76.2 in (1,935 mm) 2-door coupe, hardtop and convertible
76.8 in (1,951 mm) 4-door sedan and station wagon
Curb weight 3,515 lb (1,594 kg)

The 1968 model year was one of significant change for the Buick Skylark. [16] Although still using the same basic chassis, all of GM's mid-sized cars adopted a policy of using two different length wheelbases. Two-door models used a shorter wheelbase of 112 in (2,845 mm), while four-door models used a longer wheelbase of 116 in (the Buick Sport Wagon and Oldsmobile Vista Cruiser used an even longer wheelbase of 121 in). All of GM's mid-sized cars received all-new sheet metal, incorporating a semi-fastback appearance, which was a revival of a streamlining on all GM products from 1942 until 1950 as demonstrated on the Buick Super Club Coupe (sedanette). More Federally mandated safety features improved occupant protection and accident avoidance, including side marker lights, shoulder belts (on all models built after January 1, 1968), and parking lights that illuminated with headlights.

The Buick Gran Sport, previously an option package available on the Skylark, became a separate series, starting with the 340 hp/440 lbs torque 400 c.i.d. V8 1968 GS 400, using the 2 door Skylark body and chassis. In a reshuffling of models in the lineup, the Special Deluxe replaced the previous Special. The Skylark nameplate was shuffled down a notch to replace the previous Special Deluxe. The previous Skylark was replaced by a new Skylark Custom.

The basic Skylark was available as a two-door hardtop coupe or a four-door sedan. The Skylark Custom came as a two-door convertible coupe, two-door hardtop coupe, four-door hardtop sedan, or four-door sedan.

1969 Buick Skylark coupe Buick Skylark Coupe.jpg
1969 Buick Skylark coupe
1969 Buick Skylark hardtop sedan 1969 Buick Skylark Sedan.jpg
1969 Buick Skylark hardtop sedan
1970 Buick Skylark Buick SKYLARK dutch licence registration AM-17-96 pic1.JPG
1970 Buick Skylark

The previous V6 was discontinued and the associated tooling was sold to Kaiser Industries, which used the V6 in its Jeep trucks and sport utility vehicles. The base engine in Buick Skylarks (and Buick Special sedans) became a 250-cubic-inch 250 cu in (4.1 L) Chevrolet I6, that produced 155 hp (116 kW) at 4200 rpm using a single-barrel Rochester carburetor.

Optional on the Skylark and standard on the Skylark Custom was a new 350-cubic-inch V8 derived from the 340, using a two-barrel Rochester carburetor that produced 230 hp (170 kW) at 4400 rpm. The Buick Special name was dropped after the 1969 model year. A locking steering column with a new, rectangular ignition key became standard on all 1969 GM cars (except Corvair), one year ahead of the Federal requirement.

For 1970, the mid-sized Buicks once again received new sheet metal and the Buick Skylark name was moved down another notch, replacing the previous entry-level Buick Special. It was available in two- and four-door sedans with the 250-cubic-inch inline-six as standard and the optional 350-cubic-inch V8 (260 horsepower at 4600 rpm). Two-door models shared their roofline with the 1970 Chevelle, distinct from that of the shared Pontiac LeMans and Oldsmobile Cutlass. The two-door sedan was unique to Buick, sharing its roofline as the hardtop but having a thick "B" pillar, with Buick's traditional "Sweepspear" feature appearing as a crease running the length of the vehicle. Chevrolet did not offer a pillared coupe for the Chevelle from 1970 to 1972; all two-doors were hardtops.

Replacing the previous Buick Skylark was the Buick Skylark 350, available as a two-door hardtop coupe or four-door sedan with the 350-cubic-inch V8 as standard equipment. This 350-cubic-inch engine was a different design than the Chevy's 350 CID engine (4.000 in × 3.48 in) the Buick design had a longer stroke and smaller bore (3.80 X 3.85 in) allowing for lower-end torque, deep-skirt block construction, higher nickel-content cast iron, 3.0 in (76 mm) crank main journals, and 6.5 in (165 mm) connecting rods, the distributor was located in front of the engine (typical of Buick), the oil pump was external and mounted in the front of the engine, the rocker arm assembly had all rocker arms mounted on a single rod and were not adjustable. The Skylark Custom continued to be available, also using the 350-cubic-inch V8 as standard equipment and still available as a two-door convertible coupe, two-door hardtop coupe, four-door hardtop sedan, and four-door sedan. Buick Gran Sport models continued to be available as a separate series. The Buick Sport Wagon name was now used on a conventional four-door station wagon that no longer featured a raised roof with glass panels over the cargo area, or a longer wheelbase, as in the past. It now used the same 116 in (2,946 mm) wheelbase as the Buick Skylark four-door sedan and the now-discontinued Buick Special four-door Station Wagon. It became, in effect, a Buick Skylark four-door station wagon in all respects but the name.

1971 Buick Skylark Custom convertible 1971 Buick Skylark Custom Convertible in Blue, front left.jpg
1971 Buick Skylark Custom convertible

For the 1971 model year, the base Skylark was available only with the inline-6, now only putting out 145 hp (108 kW) due to emission control devices, but in a two-door hardtop coupe body-style (in addition to the previous two- and four-door sedans). The Skylark 350 had a V8 engine that put out only 230 hp (170 kW). It was now available as a two-door sedan in addition to the previous two-door hardtop coupe and four-door sedan.

1972 Buick Skylark Custom 4-door Hardtop Sedan 1972 Buick Skylark Custom 4-door Hardtop Sedan, front right.jpg
1972 Buick Skylark Custom 4-door Hardtop Sedan

1972 was the last model year for the mid-sized Buick Skylark. During this model year many pollution controls were added to the engines, Compression was lowered, engines had to accept leaded and unleaded gas, and spark timing was retarded (no vacuum advance in lower gears) while driving in lower gears to reduce emissions. For 1972, the base Buick Skylark used the 350-cubic-inch V8 with the 2-barrel Rochester carburetor (now putting out 145 horsepower) as standard equipment. A new federally mandated system to calculate power was put into effect that year, and the actual engine performance was probably comparable but slightly lower because of pollution controls in the 1972 model year to the 230 hp (172 kW) that was listed for the previous year. The Skylark 350 now used a version of the same V8 engine as the base Skylark, but with a 4-barrel Rochester carburetor that generated 180 hp (134 kW).

Skylark Customs were available with the same 350-cubic-inch V8 engines available in the basic Skylark and the Skylark 350. The Custom had an upgraded interior and dash with some extra chrome. Convertibles only came in the Skylark Customs and the Skylark 350s.

For the 1973 model year, the Buick Gran Sports, Skylarks, and Sport Wagons would all be replaced by the new mid-sized Buick Century. Since Centurys were available with Gran Sport trim, the Gran Sport name was once again reduced to being an option package.

Engines

Third generation (1975–1979)

1975–1979
1977 Buick Skylark S 2-door coupe, front left.jpg
1977 Buick Skylark S 2-door coupe
Overview
Also called
AssemblyVan Nuys, California
Tarrytown, NY
Willow Run, MI
Oshawa, Ontario
Tehran, Iran (1976–87) [17]
Body and chassis
Class Compact
Body style 2-door coupe
2-door hatchback
4-door sedan
Layout FR layout
Platform X-body
Related
Powertrain
Engine 231 in3 (3.8 L) V6
260 in3 (4.3 L) V8
301 in3 (5.0 L) V8
305 in3 (5.0 L) V8
350 in3 (5.7 L) V8
350 in3 (5.7 L) V8

In the middle of the 1973 model year, Buick returned to the compact market with the Buick Apollo, using General Motors’ X-body platform, based on the Chevrolet Nova. When the car was extensively restyled for the 1975 model year, the two-door hatchback sedan (coupe) and two-door sedan (coupe) were rechristened “Skylark”, while the four-door sedan remained "Apollo". As this generation Skylark was "downsized", the next larger coupe and sedan to take the market position that the Skylark formerly occupied was the Buick Regal and Buick Century, which were introduced in 1973.

1976 Buick Skylark 2-door 1976 Buick Skylark (32122105040).jpg
1976 Buick Skylark 2-door
1976 Buick Skylark sedan 1976 Buick Skylark (8732498256).jpg
1976 Buick Skylark sedan
1977 Buick Skylark S/R sedan Buick Skylark 1977 SR Sedan 305 .jpg
1977 Buick Skylark S/R sedan

Two-door hatchback and two-door sedan models were available as the base Skylark or as the more upscale, European-inspired Skylark S/R ("Sports/Rallye"). Four-door sedans were available as the base Apollo or the more upscale Apollo S/R. In addition, there was a very plain, lower-priced Skylark "S" available only as a two-door sedan with minimal interior and exterior trim. "VentiPorts" reappeared integrated into the front half of the rub strip that ran the length of the vehicle, a design element which had disappeared from Skylarks in 1968.

The standard engine for the Buick Skylarks was Buick's own 231-cubic-inch (3.8 L) V6 engine with a 2-barrel carburetor creating 110 hp (82 kW) at 4000 rpm. Buick purchased back the tooling for the engine from American Motors, which acquired them when the company purchased the Kaiser Jeep division from Kaiser Industries. The Apollo used Chevrolet's 250-cubic-inch (4.1 L) inline 6-cylinder engine. Optional engines included the Oldsmobile 260-cubic-inch (4.3 L) V8 with a two-barrel carburetor producing 110 hp (82 kW) at 4,000 rpm, and the Buick 350-cubic-inch (5.7 L) V8 with either a 2- or 4-barrel carburetor. In 1976, the 5.7 L V8 engines produced 140 hp (100 kW) at 3,200 rpm with the 2-barrel carburetor, and 155 hp (116 kW) at 3,400 rpm with the 4-barrel carburetor.

Beginning with the 1976 model year, the four-door sedans used the Skylark and Skylark S/R names instead of the previous Apollo badge, and came with the 3.8 L V6 engine as standard. The 260-cubic-inch (4.3 L) V8 was discontinued after the 1976 model year. For the 1977 model year, it was replaced by a pair of V8 engines. The grille was also modified lightly for 1977, without the horizontal division and with a somewhat heavier appearance. [18]

Available as an option in 1977 was a 301-cubic-inch (4.9 L) V8 with a 2-barrel carburetor, which produced 135 hp (101 kW) at 4000 rpm (supplied by Pontiac). Also available was a 305-cubic-inch (5.0 L) V8 with a 2-barrel carburetor, which produced 145 hp (108 kW) at 3800 rpm (supplied by Chevrolet). The Buick-built 5.7 L V8 was still available, but only with the 4-barrel carburetor.

Beginning with the 1978 model year, Chevrolet's 5.7 L (350-cubic-inch) V8 with a four-barrel carburetor, which produced 170 hp (130 kW) at 3,800 rpm, also was available. Also in that year, the Skylark Custom replaced the Skylark S/R as the most luxurious variant. The 1978s also received some very light cosmetic changes to the corner lights and grille. [19]

The 1979 model year saw the discontinuance of the Skylark Custom two-door hatchback coupe (the base V6 produced 10 hp (7.5 kW) more than 1978's version). The 1979 model year was short because, midway through it, the all-new 1980 models were introduced early.

Buick Skylarks in Iran

Buick Skylarks were assembled in Iran (four-door sedans only) from 1977 to 1981 and again from 1986 to 1988 under the brand name of "Buick Iran". The first generations were known as B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, from 1977 until 1981, and the second and last generation was known as the B2 and B3 from 1986 until 1988. The later models were made after GM released the kits and parts to Iran following the GM's debt to Iran General Motors. These cars were equipped with a 5.7L engine (SB 350 Chevrolet, L engine, 4BBL), and were fully equipped (power door locks, power window, power steering, automatic transmission, a/c, vinyl top). The Cadillac Seville and Chevrolet Nova were manufactured in Iran during the same period. A total of 40,000 GM cars were produced between 1977 and 1987 in Iran. These models were basically the same as those built in the U.S. from 1975 to 1979 (Islamic Revolution).

GM Iran changed its name to Pars Khodro (meaning "Pars Automobile" in Iranian; 'Pars' being the ancient, original name of Persia) after 1979. The production continued from 1979 to 1987 on a part-time basis. Since the spare parts and the assembly-line equipment were not used between 1979 and 1986.

GM ceased the production of all vehicles in Iran in 1987.

Engines

Fourth generation (1980–1985)

1980–1985
1980 Buick Skylark (9502307665).jpg
1980 Buick Skylark
Overview
Production1979–1985
AssemblyUnited States: North Tarrytown, New York (North Tarrytown Assembly)
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (Oklahoma City Assembly)
Mexico: Ramos Arizpe (Ramos Arizpe Assembly)
Body and chassis
Class Compact
Body style 2-door coupe
4-door sedan
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive
Platform X-body
Related Chevrolet Citation
Pontiac Phoenix
Oldsmobile Omega
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission

The 1980–1985 Skylark was Buick's badge engineered "Malaise era" version of GM's new X-body architecture, shared with the Chevrolet Citation, Pontiac Phoenix, and Oldsmobile Omega and would bear some resemblance to the larger G-body mid-size cars. GM's X-body would also become the basis for GM's A-body mid-size cars that would be introduced as 1982 models. The new Skylark was introduced in the spring of 1979 as an early 1980 model featuring front-wheel drive, MacPherson strut front suspension and transversely mounted engine. The new optional 60 degree 2.8 L V6 engine was developed specifically for the X-cars. This platform became the basis for nearly all following GM front-wheel drive vehicles, but like the other X-body cars was plagued by numerous reports of a tendency to lock the rear wheels upon braking, causing it to lose control and crash.

The Skylark was available in two- or four-door sedan bodystyles, and in base, Sport, or Limited trims. The standard 2.5 L Iron Duke 4 used a 2-barrel Rochester carburetor and produced 90 hp (67 kW) at 4000 rpm. The optional 2.8 L V6 also used a 2-barrel Rochester carburetor and produced 115 hp (86 kW) at 4800 rpm. A four-speed manual overdrive transaxle was standard with a three-speed automatic transaxle as an option.

1983-1984 Buick Skylark Custom, rear view 1983-1984 Buick Skylark Custom 4dr.jpg
1983–1984 Buick Skylark Custom, rear view

For the 1982 model year, the base 2.5 L engine received fuel injection. The optional 2.8 L V6 was joined by a more powerful high-output version that produced 135 hp (101 kW) at 5400 rpm. Also for the 1982 model year, the Skylark received a mild facelift in the form of a new grille (the front parking lamps moved from outside the headlights to inside). In model year 1983, the base Skylark became the Skylark Custom. The Sport model was replaced by the T-Type, which was available only as a two-door coupe and came with the high-output version of the 2.8 L V6 engine as standard equipment.

In 1985, the last year of production, the X-body Skylark was available only as a four-door sedan in Custom or Limited trim, as the two-door coupe was replaced by Buick's new Somerset Regal coupe, built on GM's new N-body platform, shared with Pontiac's revived Grand Am and the new Oldsmobile Calais. For 1985 the grille was again redesigned, as was the rear. The taillights were wider and the license plate was moved down to the bumper, while a "Buick" plate appeared where the taillights had been. [20]

Engines

Fifth generation (1985–1991)

1985–1991
1986-1991 Buick Skylark.jpg
1986–1991 Buick Skylark
Overview
Also calledBuick Somerset
Model years 1985–1991
AssemblyUnited States: Lansing, Michigan (Lansing Car Assembly)
Body and chassis
Class Compact
Body style
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive
Platform N-body
Related
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 103.4 in (2,626 mm)
Length180.0 in (4,572 mm)
Width
  • 66.6 in (1,692 mm) (1986–88)
  • 66.7 in (1,694 mm) (1989–1991)
Height52.2 in (1,326 mm)

For the 1985 model year, the two-door Skylark coupe was replaced by the Somerset Regal, built on the Oldsmobile-developed N-body platform. The "Somerset" name had previously been used as a trim package on the Regal. This generation of compact Buicks featured a more upscale and aerodynamic design than its predecessor, incorporating the long-hood/short-deck look popular at the time. The Pontiac-produced Iron Duke engine continued from the Skylark, but an Isuzu-sourced five-speed manual transmission replaced the four-speed as standard equipment. A new 3.0 L (181 cu in) multi-port fuel-injected Buick V6, generating 125 hp (93 kW) at 4900 rpm, replaced the Chevrolet-designed 2.8 L V6 and was paired only with a three-speed automatic transmission. The Somerset featured an all-digital instrument cluster.

For 1986, the Skylark sedan was shifted to the N platform and redesigned to match its coupe stablemate, which dropped the "Regal" suffix from its same. It remained available in either Custom or Limited trim levels, and gained the powertrain options from the Somerset but retained conventional analog gauges.

Beginning with the 1987 model year, the four-door Skylark was available as a sporty T-Type model. In mid-model year, 1987 Skylark models had door-mounted automatic seat belts.

Buick Somerset coupe Buick-Somerset.jpg
Buick Somerset coupe

For 1988 models, the Somerset name was dropped and Buick's two-door N-body compact would share the Skylark nameplate with its four-door counterparts. A new engine option for 1988 models was the fuel-injected, Oldsmobile-designed 2.3 L DOHC Quad-4 4-cylinder engine that produced 150 hp (110 kW) at 5200 rpm. An S/E package for Custom models replaced the previous T-Type trim. On 1989 models, a fuel-injected 3.3 L V6 (160 hp at 5200 rpm) replaced the previous 3.0 L V6, which was also Buick-built. A new LE package become available on four-door sedans that featured a vinyl roof that covered part of the rear side windows. The three-speed automatic transaxle became standard for 1989. For 1990, a new base Skylark was added, moving the Custom model up to replace the Limited. The S/E package was replaced by a new Gran Sport two-door sedan, reviving a name that had not been connected with the Skylark for many years. The LE ("Luxury Edition") sedan would become a full-fledged model.

The 1991 Skylark was a continuation of the 1990 lineup, with virtually no change made to the outward appearance of the car. There were minor mechanical changes made to the Skylark's optional 3.3 L V6 power plant, including a one piece rear main bearing seal to replace the rope type previously used, and a redesigned camshaft flange.

Engines

Sixth generation (1992–1998)

1992–1998
1996-1998 Buick Skylark.jpg
1996-1998 Skylark, facelift version
Overview
Model years 1992-1998
AssemblyUnited States: Lansing, Michigan (Lansing Car Assembly)
Body and chassis
Class Compact
Body style
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive
Platform N-body
Related
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 103.4 in (2,626 mm)
Length
  • 189.1 in (4,803 mm) (1992–95)
  • 188.4 in (4,785 mm) (1996–97 coupe)
  • 188.5 in (4,788 mm) (1996–98 sedan)
Width
  • 67.5 in (1,714 mm) (1992–93)
  • 68.7 in (1,745 mm) (1994–95)
  • 68.2 in (1,732 mm) (1996–98)
Height
  • 53.2 in (1,351 mm) (1992–93)
  • 53.3 in (1,354 mm) (1994–95)
  • 53.5 in (1,359 mm) (1996–98)

Radical new wedge-shaped styling appeared in 1992, with a sharply pointed grille reminiscent of 1930s Buick Special. The Skylark's new aerodynamic body had a low 0.319 coefficient of drag, compared to 0.374 for the previous version. The pointed grille appearance was revived during the mid-1960s on all Buick products.

Skylark sedan, pre-facelift design 1992-1995 Buick Skylark sedan -- 03-03-2010.jpg
Skylark sedan, pre-facelift design

It was initially offered in two- and four-door body styles and in base and Gran Sport versions. The base engine was the 2.3 L Quad OHC, which produced 120 hp (89 kW) at 5200 rpm. The optional 3.3 L V6 (standard on the GS) produced 160 hp (119 kW) at 5200 rpm. All Skylarks came with the three-speed automatic transaxle.

For the 1993 model year, the base model was replaced by Custom and Limited trims. For 1994, a new 3.1 L V6 (160 hp (120 kW) at 5200 rpm) replaced the previous 3.3 L V6 as standard on the GS and optional on the others. The Limited coupe was dropped for 1994, but returned for 1995.

Mechanical changes for the 1995 model year included the upgrading of the standard 2.3 L Quad 4 engine from a SOHC design to a DOHC design, increasing power to 150 hp (112 kW) at 6000 rpm. The three-speed automatic transaxle continued to be standard with the base four-cylinder engine, but a new four-speed automatic (electronically controlled 4T60-E) was optional with the 4-cylinder engine and standard with the V6.

1997 rear view 1997 Buick Skylark Limited (29781494480).jpg
1997 rear view

Skylark received a facelift for the 1996 model year in the form of a more conventional-looking grille. The previous 2.3 L I4 was replaced by a new 2.4 L DOHC I4 that produced 150 hp (112 kW) at 6000 rpm. The previous three-speed automatic transaxle was discontinued and the four-speed automatic became standard on all Skylarks. An on-board diagnostic system (OBD II) was standard. Buick offered an "Olympic Gold" edition of the 1996 Skylark to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Olympic Games. It featured gold USA/5-ring badging on the fenders, gold "Skylark" badges, gold-accented wheel covers, and gold accent trim.

There were only minor changes to the lineup for the 1997 model year, which was the last year that it would be available to the public in showrooms. A single-model 1998 Skylark sedan was produced for fleet-only sales, mostly to auto rental companies. Most of these 1998 models, the last year that Buick used the Skylark name, were eventually resold to the general public as used cars. After the Skylark's discontinuation, Buick did not produce another compact car until 2012 Buick Verano.

Production ended on December 4, 1997.[ citation needed ]

The Skylark production line in Lansing was retooled to build the 2000–2003 Chevrolet Malibu.

Engines

YearsEngine
1992–19942.3 L Oldsmobile L40 I4
19952.3 L Oldsmobile LD2 I4
1996–19982.4 L Oldsmobile LD9 I4
1992–19933.3 L Buick LG7 V6
1994–19983.1 L Chevrolet L82 V6

General sources

Related Research Articles

Chevrolet Chevelle Mid-sized automobile

The Chevrolet Chevelle is a mid-sized automobile that was produced by Chevrolet in three generations for the 1964 through 1978 model years. Part of the General Motors (GM) A-body platform, the Chevelle was one of Chevrolet's most successful nameplates. Body styles included coupes, sedans, convertibles, and station wagons. The "Super Sport" versions were produced through the 1973 model year, and Lagunas from 1973 through 1976.

Chevrolet Bel Air American full-size automobile

The Chevrolet Bel Air was a full-size car produced by Chevrolet for the 1950–1975 model years. Initially, only the two-door hardtops in the Chevrolet model range were designated with the Bel Air name from 1950 to 1952. With the 1953 model year, the Bel Air name was changed from a designation for a unique body shape to a premium level of trim applied across a number of body styles. The Bel Air continued with various other trim level designations, and it went from a mid-level trim car to a budget fleet sedan when U.S. production ceased in 1975. Production continued in Canada, for its home market only, through the 1981 model year.

Oldsmobile Cutlass American car model

The Oldsmobile Cutlass was a range of automobiles produced by General Motors' Oldsmobile division between 1961 and 1999. At its introduction, the Cutlass was Oldsmobile's entry-level model; it began as a unibody compact car, but saw its greatest success as a body-on-frame intermediate. The Cutlass was named after the type of sword, which was common during the Age of Sail.

Buick Electra Motor vehicle

The Buick Electra is a full-size luxury car manufactured and marketed by Buick from 1959 to 1990 over six generations — having been named after heiress and sculptor Electra Waggoner Biggs by her brother-in-law Harlow H. Curtice, former president of Buick and later president of General Motors. The Electra was offered in coupe, convertible, sedan, and station wagon body styles over the course of its production — with rear-wheel drive (1959-1984) or front-wheel drive. For its entire production run, it utilized some form of GM's C platform. The Electra was superseded by the Buick Park Avenue in 1991.

Oldsmobile 88 American full-size car built by Oldsmobile

The Oldsmobile 88 is a full-size car that was sold and produced by Oldsmobile from 1949 until 1999. From 1950 to 1974, the 88 was the division's most profitable line, particularly the entry level models such as the 88 and Dynamic 88. The 88 series was also an image leader for Oldsmobile, particularly in the early years (1949–51), when it was one of the best performing automobiles, thanks to its relatively small size, light weight, and advanced overhead-valve high-compression V8 engine. This engine, originally designed for the larger C-bodied and more luxurious 98 series, also replaced the straight-8 on the smaller B-bodied 78. With the large, high performance V8, the Oldsmobile 88 is considered by some to be the first muscle car, although this title is disputed.

Pontiac Catalina Motor vehicle

The Pontiac Catalina is a full-size automobile produced by Pontiac from 1950 to 1981. Initially, the name was a trim line on hardtop body styles, first appearing in the 1950 Chieftain Eight and DeLuxe Eight lines. In 1959, it became a separate model as the "entry-level" full-size Pontiac.

Buick Special Motor vehicle

The Buick Special was an automobile produced by Buick. It was usually Buick's lowest-priced model, starting out as a full-size car in 1936 and returning in 1938 as a mid-size. The Special was built for several decades and was offered as a coupe, sedan and later as a station wagon. When GM modernized their entry level products in the 1960s, the Special introduced the modern Buick V6 that became the core engine for GM for several decades and lives on in current upgraded V6 products.

Pontiac Tempest Automobile manufactured by Pontiac

The Pontiac Tempest is an automobile that was produced by Pontiac from 1960 to 1970, and again from 1987 to 1991.

Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme Motor vehicle

The Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme is a mid-size car produced by Oldsmobile between 1966 and 1997. It was positioned as a premium offering at the top of the Cutlass range. It began as a trim package, developed its own roofline, and rose during the mid-1970s to become not only the most popular Oldsmobile but the highest selling model in its class.

Buick Century Line of upscale performance cars

Buick Century is the model name that was used by Buick for a line of upscale full-size cars from 1936 to 1942 and 1954 to 1958, as well as from 1973 to 2005 for mid-size cars.

Oldsmobile Starfire Motor vehicle

The Oldsmobile Starfire is an automobile nameplate used by Oldsmobile, produced in three non-contiguous generations beginning in 1954. The Starfire nameplate made its debut with the 1954–1956 Ninety-Eight series convertibles. For 1957 only, all Ninety-Eight series models were named "Starfire 98".

Pontiac LeMans Motor vehicle

The Pontiac LeMans is a model name that was applied to subcompact- and intermediate-sized automobiles marketed by Pontiac from 1961 to 1981 model years. Originally a trim upgrade based on the Tempest, it became a separate model. In 1964 the Tempest was available with an optional GTO package that later became a separate model, the Pontiac GTO, muscle car. 1970 introduced the GT-37 package.

Buick Centurion Motor vehicle

The Buick Centurion is a full-size car built from the 1971 through 1973 model years. Replacing the Wildcat as the sporty iteration of Buick's three full-size car lines, it slotted between the LeSabre and Electra in the lineup. The Centurion name was inspired by a Buick concept car, the name coming from that of an officer in the Roman Army. The car's emblem was not the traditional Buick tri-shield, but a side profile of a centurion.

Buick V8 engine Motor vehicle engine

The Buick V8 is a family of V8 engines produced by the Buick division of General Motors between 1953 and 1981. The first version replaced the Buick straight-eight. Displacements vary from 215 cu in (3.5 L) to 455 cu in (7.5 L) for its last big block in 1976. All are naturally aspirated OHV pushrod engines, except for an optional turbocharged version of the short-lived 215 used in the 1962-63 Oldsmobile Cutlass.

Buick Roadmaster Automobile

The Buick Roadmaster is an automobile that was built by Buick from 1936 to 1958, and again from 1991 to 1996. Roadmasters produced between 1936 and 1958 were built on Buick's longest non-limousine wheelbase and shared their basic structure with the entry-level Cadillac Series 65, the Buick Limited, and after 1940, the Oldsmobile 98. Between 1946 and 1957 the Roadmaster served as Buick's flagship.

Buick Gran Sport

The Gran Sport name has been used on several high-performance cars built by Buick since 1965. In the GM brands hierarchy, Buick was surpassed in luxury and comfort appointments only by Cadillac, which did not produce performance models. As a result, the Buick GS series were the most opulently equipped GM sport models of their era. The Gran Sport performance enhancements on all Buick products during this era sought to affirm Buick's tradition of producing powerful and comfortable products going back to the 1930s when all Buicks of the time were upgraded to the Buick Fireball Straight Eight, then installed the 278 cu in (4.6 L) Roadmaster engine in the shortest model Special and introduced the Century, known as "the banker's hot rod" with a three speed syncromesh manual transmission. The Gran Sport sought to identify cars that were fun to drive with a luxury approach.

Buick LeSabre American full-size car

The Buick LeSabre was a full-size car made by General Motors from 1959 to 2005. Prior to 1959, this position had been retained by the full-size Buick Special model (1936–58). The "LeSabre", which is French for "the sabre" was Buicks mid-level full-size sedan above the Special but below the Electra during the 1960s then remained in its market position when the Electra was replaced with the Park Avenue. The LeSabre was available as a 2-door convertible, sedan or hardtop, a 4-door sedan or hardtop and station wagon throughout it production.

Plymouth Fury Motor vehicle

The Plymouth Fury is a model of automobile which was produced by Plymouth from 1955 to 1989. It was introduced for the 1956 model year as a sub-series of the Plymouth Belvedere, becoming a separate series one level above the contemporary Belvedere for 1959. The Fury was a full-size car from 1959 to 1961, then a mid-size car from 1962 to 1964, again a full-size car from 1965 to 1974, and again a mid-size car from 1975 to 1978. From 1975 to 1977 the Fury was sold alongside the full-size Plymouth Gran Fury. In 1978, the B-body Fury was the largest Plymouth, and by 1979, there was no large Plymouth. This was rectified in 1980 with the R-body Gran Fury, followed by the M-body Fury in 1982. Production of the last V8, RWD Plymouth Fury ended at Kenosha, WI, on December 23, 1988. Unlike its sibling brand, Dodge, Plymouth would not live to see the resurgence of the large, V8/RWD sedan. The last Plymouth rolled off the Belvedere assembly line in 2001.

Buick Wildcat Motor vehicle

The Buick Wildcat was a full-sized automobile that was produced by Buick from 1962 to 1970. It took its name from a fiberglass-bodied 1953 concept car.

Mercury Meteor American car

The Mercury Meteor is an automobile that was produced by Mercury from 1961 to 1963. For 1961, the name was applied to low-end full-sized vehicles; for 1962 and 1963, the name was applied to Mercury's mid-sized sedans, in a marketing attempt to appeal to the excitement surrounding the Space Race, before being discontinued. Introduced while Mercury as a marque was in flux, and never a solid marketplace performer in consumer sales, the Meteor remains more a side note than a well known Mercury product.

References

  1. 1 2 "Directory Index: Buick/1953_Buick/1953_Buick_Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Flory Jr., J. "Kelly" (2008). American Cars, 1946–1959 Every Model Every Year. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN   978-0-7864-3229-5.
  3. 1 2 1634 to 1699: Harris, P. (1996). "Inflation and Deflation in Early America, 1634–1860: Patterns of Change in the British American Economy". Social Science History . 20 (4): 469–505. JSTOR   1171338. 1700-1799: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How much is that in real money?: a historical price index for use as a deflator of money values in the economy of the United States (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1800–present: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–" . Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  4. OldCarBrochures.com
  5. "Buick Skylark A (1954)". Motorbase. Archived from the original on 2009-05-26. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
  6. "File: 1954 Buick 2/1954 Buick (2)-06-07". Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-11-26.
  7. 1 2 3 "Directory Index: Buick/1963_Buick/1963_Buick_Trim_Size". Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
  8. 1 2 Hemmings.com 1964–1965 Buick Skylark - Retrieved on 07/01/2013
  9. "Directory Index: Buick/1963_Buick/1963_Buick_Full_Line_Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
  10. Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1960-1972 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2004), p. 142.
  11. 1 2 Flory (2004), pp. 143 & 205.
  12. OldCarBrochures.com
  13. Hagerty.com History of the 1961–1963 Buick Skylark - Retrieved on 07/22/2013
  14. 1 2 Hagerty.com History of the 1964–1967 Buick Skylark - Retrieved on 07/22/2013
  15. GM Heritage Center. MY1969 Oldsmobile Cutlass Owner's Manual. Retrieved 2013-01-27.
  16. Hagerty.com History of the 1968–1972 Buick Skylark - Retrieved on 07/22/2013
  17. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-03-06. Retrieved 2014-03-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. Gunnell (2004), p. 176
  19. Gunnell (2004), p. 181
  20. Gunnell (2004), p. 224