List of GM transmissions

Last updated

General Motors is an innovator of automatic transmissions, introducing the Hydra-Matic in 1940. [1] This list includes some GM transmissions.

Contents

Automatic transmissions

Early models

The GM Hydra-Matic was a success and installed in the majority of GM models by 1950. Through the 1950s, all makers were working on their own automatic transmission, with four more developed inside GM alone. All of GM's early automatic transmissions were replaced by variants of the Turbo-Hydramatic by the 1970s.

Turbo-Hydramatic

The Turbo-Hydramatic was used by all GM divisions, and formed the basis for the company's modern Hydramatic line. The basic rear-wheel drive Turbo-Hydramatic spawned two front-wheel drive variants, the transverse Turbo-Hydramatic 125, and the longitudinal Turbo-Hydramatic 425. A third variant was the light-duty rear wheel drive Turbo-Hydramatic 180 used in many European models.

Heavy-duty rear wheel drive
Medium-duty rear wheel drive
Light-duty rear wheel drive
Transverse front wheel drive
Longitudinal front wheel drive

Electronic Hydra-Matics

The next-generation transmissions, introduced in the early 1990s, were the electronic Hydra-Matics based on the Turbo-Hydramatic design. Most early electronic transmissions use the "-E" designator to differentiate them from their non-electronic cousins, but this has been dropped on transmissions with no mechanical version like the new GM 6L80 transmission.

Today, GM uses a simple naming scheme for their transmissions, with the "Hydra-Matic" name used on most automatics across all divisions.

3/4/5/6L/T##-Elll
Number of forward gearsL=Longitudinal
T=Transverse
GVWR rating"E" for Electronic
"HD" for Heavy Duty
First-generation longitudinal (Rear Wheel drive)
First-generation transverse (Front Wheel drive)
Second-generation longitudinal (Rear Wheel drive)

*This transmission is part of a joint-venture between General Motors and Ford Motor Company to split development of two transmissions, a longitudinal 10-speed and transverse 9-speed. Ford led the design of the 10-speed transmission, as well as filing the design patents for said transmission. According to an official report by the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) the design of the 10-speed gearbox is essentially all Ford, while GM was responsible for designing the 9-speed 9T transverse automatic gearbox. As part of their joint-venture, Ford will let GM use the 10-speed transmission with rights to modify and manufacture it for their own applications. In-exchange for Ford's 10-speed transmission, General Motors will let Ford use its 9-speed transmission for front-wheel drive applications; Ford ultimately declined use of the 9T. [2] [3] [4]

Second-generation transverse (Front Wheel drive)

Hybrid and PHEV

Other automatics

Future

Manual transmissions

Longitudinal transmissions

Transverse Transmissions

See also

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Magna PT, known until 2018 as GETRAG, is the world's largest supplier of transmission systems for passenger cars and commercial vehicles. The company was founded on 1 May 1935, in Ludwigsburg, Germany, by Hermann Hagenmeyer; as the Getriebe und Zahnradfabrik Hermann Hagenmeyer GmbH & Cie KG.

Hydramatic

Hydramatic is an automatic transmission developed by both General Motors' Cadillac and Oldsmobile divisions. Introduced in 1939 for the 1940 model year vehicles, the Hydramatic was the first mass-produced fully-automatic transmission developed for passenger automobile use.

Turbo-Hydramatic or Turbo Hydra-Matic is the registered tradename for a family of automatic transmissions developed and produced by General Motors. These transmissions mate a three-element turbine torque converter to a Simpson planetary geartrain, providing three forward speeds plus reverse.

The Powerglide is a two-speed automatic transmission designed by General Motors. It was available primarily on Chevrolet from January 1950 through 1973, although some Pontiac models also used this automatic transmission after the fire at the Hydra-Matic factory in 1953. Powerglides were used extensively on Pontiacs produced for the Canadian market with Chevrolet powertrains. They were also used with Nova engines in the DJ-5A Jeeps produced 1968-1970 by Kaiser-Jeep and widely used as delivery vehicles by the United States Post Office. When introduced on upper-level Chevrolet models in 1950, the Powerglide represented the first automatic transmission offered in a low-priced automobile; in contrast, Ford did not offer their automatic transmission until 1951, while Plymouth car buyers had to wait until 1954. The transmission was simple and very durable, which satisfied customers.

DEXRON Trade name for a group of technical specifications for automatic transmission fluid

DEXRON is the trade name for a group of technical specifications of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) created by General Motors (GM). The name is a registered trademark of GM, which licenses the name and specifications to companies which manufacture the fluid and sell it under their own brand names. Not all Dexron fluids are licensed for reselling under another brand name. All licensed Dexron fluids must have a license number that begins with the letters B through J. If no license number or "Dexron Approved" logo is found on the container, the fluid may not be GM approved and the fluid cannot be guaranteed to meet GM specifications. GM, like many automobile manufacturers, uses transmissions sourced from other suppliers or transmission manufacturers around the world; these transmissions are not manufactured by GM. Many of these automatic transmissions use unique fluids that might not be shown on this page.

Roto Hydramatic was an automatic transmission built by General Motors and used on some Oldsmobile, Pontiac and Holden models from 1961–1965. It was based on the earlier, four-speed Hydramatic, but was more compact, providing only three forward speeds plus a small 8" fluid coupling with a stator inside of the fluid coupling. Oldsmobile, one of the users of this transmission, called the fluid couplings stator the "Accel-A-Rotor." The lightweight, aluminum-cased transmission was sometimes nicknamed the "Slim Jim." HydraMatic Division calls the Roto a four range, three gear HydraMatic. It counts the stator multiplication at 3.50:1 as a first gear, and when road speed and the two coupling halves speed match, it counts the same gear with fluid now passing straight through the stator as 2nd gear at 2.93 to one. Second gear has a ratio of 1.56 and because the fluid coupling is drained for this gear ratio making the front clutch apply makes this a rare automatic that is in FULL mechanical lock-up in second gear. Fourth range the coupling fills releasing the front clutch makes a ratio of 1 to 1. This transmission, like single and dual range, and dual coupling hydramatics also have the feature of split torque in the transmission whereby in fourth or high gear only 40-to 50% depending on transmission, 40% in Roto's case, but because of the design the coupling is only required to carry 40% of the engine torque. The rest is (60%) is in full mechanical connection making these hydramatics the most efficient automatic until the wide spread use of the lock-up torque converter.

Turbo-Hydramatic 125

The Turbo-Hydramatic 125 was the first in a line of automatic transmissions from General Motors designed for transverse engine application. Introduced in 1980, the line evolved into today's 4T40/45/65/80 line.

The TREMEC TR-4050 is a 5-speed manual transmission for longitudinal engine rear wheel drive trucks. It includes one overdrive gear and a light-weight aluminum housing. It is manufactured by Transmission Technologies Corporation. New 4wd TR-4050 units are currently available through Silver Sport Transmissions in Rockford, TN.

Getrag 282 transmission

The Getrag 282 transmission was a 5-speed manual transaxle designed by Getrag for Chevrolet. It is sometimes referred to as the Muncie 282 or the Muncie Getrag 282, as the transmission was manufactured by the Muncie, Indiana manual transmission plant. It has been used in various front-wheel drive transverse engine applications including the Chevrolet Cavalier, Pontiac Sunbird, Pontiac Grand Am, Chevrolet Beretta and the Oldsmobile Achieva. It was also used in the mid-engined rear-wheel drive Pontiac Fiero. In its later years, the Getrag 282 was manufactured by New Venture Gear and renamed the NVG T550.

Vehicles made by American Motors Corporation (AMC) and Jeep incorporated a variety of transmissions and transfer case systems. This article covers transmissions used in the following vehicle models and years:

The Hydra-Matic 6T40 and similar 6T45, 6T50 and 6T30 are transversely-mounted six speed automatic transmissions produced by General Motors. The 6T40, referred to in GM inner circles as the GF6, made its debut in the 2008 Chevrolet Malibu, available with the 2.4 L LE5Ecotec engine making 164 horsepower (122 kW), and has since also been made available on the Chevrolet Cruze, Daewoo Tosca and Buick LaCrosse. It features clutch-to-clutch shifting, eliminating the bands used on older transmission designs. GM chose an "on-axis" design as opposed to folding the gearset behind the engine and transferring power through the use of a chain, as is used in most other GM front wheel drive transaxles. Ford Motor Company also produces their own variant, called the 6F35. The Buick Encore uses the 6F35 mated to the 1.4 turbo.

This transmission is part of a joint-venture between Ford Motor Company and General Motors to design and engineer two transmissions, a longitudinal 10-speed transmission and a transverse 9-speed trans-axle. Each company will manufacture its own unique version of the transmissions in their own factories. The 10-speed transmission was designed by Ford, while GM designed the 9-speed transmission which is used in transverse applications.

MERCON

MERCON is the trade name for a group of technical specifications of automatic transmission fluid created by Ford. The name is a registered trademark of Ford, which licenses the name and specifications to companies which manufacture the fluid and sell it under their own brand names. Not all Mercon fluids are licensed for reselling under another brand name. All licensed Mercon fluids must have a license number on the container. If no license number is found, the fluid may not be Ford approved and the fluid cannot be guaranteed to meet Ford specifications. Ford, like many automobile manufacturers, uses transmissions sourced from other suppliers or transmission manufacturers around the world; these transmissions are not manufactured by Ford. Many of these automatic transmissions use unique fluids that might not be shown on this page.

References

  1. "Hydra-Matic History: The First Automatic Transmission". Ate Up With Motor. 2010-05-29. Retrieved 2014-01-15.
  2. "Exclusive: An Inside Look At Ford's New 10 Speed Transmission". http://www.thetruthaboutcars.com/ . Retrieved 2015-03-16.External link in |publisher= (help)
  3. Brooke, Lindsay. "Ford and GM finally consummate 9- and 10-speed joint development". articles.sae. SAE International. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
  4. "Ford passes on GM's 9-speed automatic transmission" . Retrieved 2018-11-12.
  5. Panait, Mircea. "GM Hydra-Matic 9T50 Transmission Confirmed for Chevrolet Cruze, Malibu, Equinox". autoevolution. Retrieved 2016-12-07.
  6. "GM Service Insights, pg 23" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-01-09. Retrieved 2019-07-16.
  7. "GM Service Insights, pg 23" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-01-09. Retrieved 2019-07-16.