GM Ecotec engine

Last updated

The GM Ecotec engine, also known by its codename L850, is a family of all-aluminium inline-four engines, displacing between 1.4 and 2.5 litres. While these engines were based on the GM Family II engine, the architecture was substantially re-engineered for the new Ecotec application produced since 2000. This engine family replaced the GM Family II engine, the GM 122 engine, the Saab H engine, and the Quad 4 engine. It is manufactured in multiple locations, to include Spring Hill Manufacturing, in Spring Hill, Tennessee while the engine block and cylinder heads are cast at Saginaw Metal Casting Operations in Saginaw, Michigan.

Contents

Generation I

Generation I
Overview
Production19942012
Layout
Displacement
  • 2.0 L (1,998 cc)
  • 2.2 L (2,198 cc)
Cylinder bore 86 mm (3.4 in)
Piston stroke
  • 86 mm (3.4 in)
  • 94.6 mm (3.72 in)
Compression ratio
  • 8.8:1
  • 9.5:1
  • 10.0:1
Combustion
Fuel system
Fuel type
Dimensions
Length665 mm (26.2 in)
Width642 mm (25.3 in)
Height655 mm (25.8 in)
Dry weight139–150 kg (306–331 lb) [1]

The 'Ecotec' name was adopted in 1994 for the new generation of Family II engines (2000 in North America) . The name was already used for the Opel GM Family II engine, Family 1 and Family 0 ranges. GM intended this new Ecotec to become its global 4-cylinder, and it has already fully replaced their OHV I4 line.

The Ecotec engine is a DOHC 4-valve design with a lost foam cast aluminum block and head (L850 for 86 mm bore applications, and L880 for 88 mm bore[ citation needed ]), designed for displacements from 1.8 to 2.4 L. Development began in 1994, by an international team of engineers and technicians from Opel's International Technical Development Center in Rüsselsheim, Germany, GM Powertrain in Pontiac, Michigan, and Saab in Södertälje, Sweden. [2] Much of the development work on this project was carried out by Lotus Engineering, Hethel, United Kingdom. The engine uses aluminum pistons and cast iron cylinder liners. Vibration is reduced with twin balance shafts.

The first engine in the Ecotec Gen I line-up was Ecotec 2.2 L61, introduced in May 1999.

The current Ecotec line is manufactured in Tonawanda, New York,. [2]

2.0

LK9

Saab B207 engine in a 2008 Saab 9-3 2.0T Gm ecotec LK9 saab93.jpg
Saab B207 engine in a 2008 Saab 9-3 2.0T

This engine is also known as B207 when used by Saab and Z20NET by Opel for use in the Vectra C and Signum.

LK9 is a turbocharged 2.0 L (1,998 cc) version of the L850 (86 mm bore) series Ecotec utilizing an all-new reinforced sand cast aluminum cylinder head and upgraded internal components. The engine features a five-bearing forged steel crankshaft, strengthened connecting rods, redesigned pistons, piston oil cooling jets, reprofiled camshafts and an integrated oil cooler. [3] The exhaust valves are liquid sodium-cooled. All vehicles using this engine feature Saab's Trionic 8 (T8) engine management system as well as a revised valve train. The timing chain and timing gears are also new, along with Saab's Direct Ignition system. The reinforcements, turbocharging, intercooling, internals, dual overhead camshaft, and such were developed by GM Powertrain Sweden (Saab Automobile Powertrain). It features an 86 mm (3.4 in) bore and stroke and a 9.5:1 compression ratio. Maximum power is 210 hp (160 kW) at 5300 rpm and 221 ft⋅lb (300 N⋅m) of torque at 2500 rpm. Maximum boost is 12.3 psi (0.85 bar).

ModelYearsPowerTorqueTurbochargerBoost Pressure
1.8t (B207E)20032006148 hp (110 kW) @ 5500 rpm177 ft⋅lb (240 N⋅m) @ 20003500 rpm
7.3 psi (0.50 bar)
1.8t (B207E)20062012148 hp (110 kW) @ 5500 rpm177 ft⋅lb (240 N⋅m) @ 20003500 rpm
  • Low-pressure
  • (MHI TD04-11TK)
7.3 psi (0.50 bar)
2.0t (B207L)20032006173 hp (129 kW) @ 5500 rpm195 ft⋅lb (265 N⋅m) @ 25004000 rpm
8.7 psi (0.60 bar)
2.0t (B207L)20062012173 hp (129 kW) @ 5500 rpm195 ft⋅lb (265 N⋅m) @ 25004000 rpm
  • Mid-pressure
  • (MHI TD04-11TK)
8.7 psi (0.60 bar)
2.0T (B207R)20032014207 hp (154.5 kW) @ 5300 rpm221 ft⋅lb (300 N⋅m) @ 25004000 rpm
  • High-pressure
  • (MHI TD04-14T)
12.3 psi (0.85 bar)

LSJ

Ecotec LSJ engine in a 2006 Saturn Ion Red Line 2006 Saturn Ion Red Line engine.jpg
Ecotec LSJ engine in a 2006 Saturn Ion Red Line

The LSJ is a supercharged version of the LK9 Ecotec 2.0 L (1,998 cc) with an Eaton M62 Roots-type supercharger and air-to-liquid intercooler. The LSJ shares many of its components with the LK9 such as: piston cooling jets, oil cooler, pistons, connecting rods, crankshaft, oil pan, sodium-filled exhaust valves and cylinder head. [4] It is rated at 205 hp (153 kW) at 5600 rpm and 200 ft⋅lb (271 N⋅m) at 4400 rpm with a compression ratio of 9.5:1 and a 6450 rpm redline. With the end of the Chevy Cobalt S/C SS and Saturn Ion Red Line, the LSJ was discontinued after 2007. In late 2005 Brammo Motorsports struck a deal with GM for the Supercharged 2.0 L Ecotec for their Ariel Atom. The engine came in various ratings from 205 hp (153 kW) to 300 hp (224 kW).

The LSJ was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2006.

This engine is used in:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorqueDyno chart
20042007 Saturn Ion Red Line 205 hp (153 kW) @ 5600 rpm200 ft⋅lb (271 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm link
20052007 Chevrolet Cobalt SS Supercharged Coupe 205 hp (153 kW) @ 5600 rpm200 ft⋅lb (271 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm link

2.2

L61

Ecotec L61 engine in a Chevrolet Classic (Malibu) Chevrolet classic engine.jpg
Ecotec L61 engine in a Chevrolet Classic (Malibu)
2003 Pontiac Sunfire Ecotec engine 2003 Pontiac Sunfire Ecotec.JPG
2003 Pontiac Sunfire Ecotec engine
Ecotec L61 installed in a 2003 Chevrolet Cavalier 2003CavalierL61Engine.jpg
Ecotec L61 installed in a 2003 Chevrolet Cavalier

This engine is also known as a Z22SE in other countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, and Europe.

The basic Family II architecture was substantially re-engineered in 2000 to become the Ecotec Gen I. Unlike its notably harsh predecessor, the engine was designed for smoothness. Dual in-block balance shafts were integral to the design, the power-steering pump was mounted directly to the cylinder head and driven by the intake camshaft, the water-pump housing was cast into the block, and the A/C compressor and alternator were mounted directly on the block without brackets. The oil filter housing was cast into the block with a removable cover and replaceable paper element. It did not use an EGR valve. The Ecotec line is manufactured in Tonawanda, New York and Kaiserslautern, Germany, and was also manufactured for Saturn in Spring Hill, Tennessee until Saturn's discontinuation. In North America this engine replaced both the Quad-4 and the GM 122 engines and first appeared in the 2000 Saturn L-Series. [2]

The L61 is a 2.2 L (2,198 cc) version with a lost-foam cast aluminum cylinder head and block; it features an 86 mm (3.4 in) bore and 94.6 mm (3.72 in) stroke [2] and either a 9.5:1 compression ratio or a 10.0:1. The engine is 665 mm (26.2 in) in length, 642 mm (25.3 in) in width, 655 mm (25.8 in) in height and approximately 139 kg (306 lb). [2]

The Ecotec 2.2, model L61 first appeared in the 2000 Saturn LS1; the L61-powered Saturn Ion also replaced the Saturn-powered Saturn S-Series.

There are a few variations to the standard L61. The 2003 Saturn L-Series has a high output version with higher (10:1) compression and more aggressive camshaft. The 20042008 Chevrolet Malibu uses a version with electronic throttle control and a special unitized exhaust manifold and catalytic converter. The Malibu and Saturn versions also use return-less fuel injection. The 2002 Saturn VUE was the first North American variant of the L61 to be equipped with electronic throttle control, whereas other applications did not arise until 2005 in the Saturn ION and Chevrolet Cobalt. For 2007, introduced an updated version of the L61 based on the Gen II design.

The supercharger and inlet manifold from the 2.0 Ecotec LSJ engine can be purchased as an official kit from GM and along with modified software in the ECM, can create a 2.2 supercharged version of this engine.

The L61 was used in the following cars:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorqueCompression ratioDyno chart
2002 Chevrolet Cavalier 140 hp (104 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm10.0:1
20032005150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm link
20052006 Chevrolet Cobalt 145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm155 ft⋅lb (210 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm10.0:1 link
2006 Chevrolet HHR 143 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm10.0:1
2004 Chevrolet Malibu 145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm155 ft⋅lb (210 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm10.0:1
20052006144 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm link
20022004 Oldsmobile Alero 140 hp (104 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm10.0:1
2002 Pontiac Grand Am 140 hp (104 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm10.0:1
20032005150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm link
2002 Pontiac Sunfire 140 hp (104 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm10.0:1
20032005150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm link
20052006 Pontiac Pursuit/G5 145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm155 ft⋅lb (210 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm10.0:1
2000 Saturn L-Series 137 hp (102 kW) @ 5800 rpm135 ft⋅lb (183 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm9.5:1
20012003135 hp (101 kW) @ 5200 rpm142 ft⋅lb (193 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
2004140 hp (104 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm
20032006 Saturn Ion 140 hp (104 kW) @ 5800 rpm145 ft⋅lb (197 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm10.0:1 link
20022005 Saturn Vue 143 hp (107 kW) @ 5400 rpm152 ft⋅lb (206 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm10.0:1 link
2006143 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm
2007144 hp (107 kW) @ 5600 rpm
20012005 Opel Speedster / Vauxhall VX220 [2] 147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm
20002003 Opel / Vauxhall Astra [2] 147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm
20012002 Opel / Vauxhall Vectra [2] 147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm
20002003 Opel / Vauxhall Zafira [2] 147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm
20012006 Holden Astra (TS) 147 hp (110 kW) @ 5800 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm

This engine also powered the Japanese-market Subaru Traviq, a badge-engineered Opel Zafira A. [5]

Following the GM-Fiat agreement, the 2.2 L engine is also used in

Z22YH

A direct injection version of the 2.2 L (2,198 cc) Ecotec features 153 hp (114 kW) of power at 5600 rpm and 162 lb⋅ft (220 N⋅m) of torque at 3800 rpm with a compression ratio of 12.0:1, and has been available in:

L42

The Ecotec 2.2, model L42 is the CNG version of the Ecotec 2.2. It delivers 129 hp (96 kW) and 129 ft⋅lb (175 N⋅m). Applications:

Generation II

Generation II
Overview
Production2006present
Layout
Displacement
  • 2.0 L (1,998 cc)
  • 2.2 L (2,198 cc)
  • 2.4 L (2,384 cc)
Cylinder bore
  • 86 mm (3.4 in)
  • 88 mm (3.5 in)
Piston stroke
  • 86 mm (3.4 in)
  • 94.6 mm (3.72 in)
  • 98 mm (3.9 in)
Compression ratio
  • 9.2:1
  • 10.0:1
  • 10.4:1
  • 11.2:1
  • 11.4:1
Combustion
Fuel system
Fuel type

2.0 LNF (Z20NHH Opel)

Ecotec LNF in a Pontiac Solstice Car show 013.jpg
Ecotec LNF in a Pontiac Solstice

A turbocharged direct injected (redubbed Spark Ignition Direct Injection) Ecotec was introduced in the 2007 Pontiac Solstice GXP and Saturn Sky Red Line. In these applications, the engine is mounted longitudinally. Displacement is 2.0 L (1,998 cc) with a square 86 mm (3.4 in) bore and stroke. Compression is 9.2:1 and maximum boost is 20 psi (1.4 bar), delivering 260 hp (190 kW) at 5300 rpm and 260 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) of torque from 2500 to 5250 rpm. Engine redline is at 6300 rpm and premium fuel is recommended. The sodium filled exhaust valves were based on technology developed for the Corvette V8 powertrains. The sodium fuses and becomes a liquid at idle, which improves conductivity and draws heat away from the valve face and valve guide towards the stem to be cooled by the engine oil circulating in this area. The camshaft-driven direct injection systems pressurizes the fuel to 450 psi (31 bar) at idle, and up to 2,250 psi (155 bar) at wide-open throttle. The "Gen II" block is similar to the 2.4 L and also features VVT technology. The Gen II block was developed using data from racing programs and computer simulations. The bore walls and bulkheads were strengthened with a weight increase of 2.5 lb (1.1 kg). The coolant jackets were expanded to improve heat transfer, resulting in a coolant capacity increase of 0.5 liters.

In December 2008, GM released a Turbo Upgrade Kit for the LNF engine which increases horsepower to 290 hp (220 kW) and torque to up to 340 ft⋅lb (460 N⋅m), depending on the model. The kit retails for $650 and includes remapped engine calibration and upgraded MAP sensors. The kit is covered by the cars' existing GM warranties. [6]

This was the final Stage 2 performance tune the Ecotec family, to date. With the demise of the GM Performance Division, performance tunes like this have been relegated to the aftermarket sector. This despite newer engines being more durable, and tuned to lower horsepower levels in numerous sport-car applications.

Unique LNF features [7] include:

This engine is used in:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
20072010 Opel GT 260 hp (194 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm
20072010 Pontiac Solstice GXP 260 hp (194 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm
20072010 Saturn Sky Red Line 260 hp (194 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm
20082010 Chevrolet HHR SS 260 hp (194 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm
20082010 Chevrolet Cobalt SS 260 hp (194 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm
2009 Elfin T5 264 hp (197 kW) @ 5300 rpm259 ft⋅lb (351 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm
2012 Fisker Karma 260 hp (194 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm

2.0 LDK (A20NHT Opel)

An updated variant of the LNF (also with 9.2:1 compression ratio) was released in 2008, meeting the Euro 5 emission standard. This engine is also known as A20NHT by GM Powertrain Europe.

Unique LDK features include:

This engine is used in:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
20092017 Opel Insignia / Vauxhall Insignia217 hp (162 kW) @ 5300 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 2500 rpm
20092010 Buick Regal Turbo 217 hp (162 kW) @ 5300 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 2500 rpm
20102013 Buick Regal GS (China Market)217 hp (162 kW) @ 5300 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 2500 rpm
20092010 Buick Regal Turbo (Hirsch Performance)257 hp (192 kW) @ 5400 rpm295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 30004000 rpm
20102013 Buick Regal GS (Hirsch Performance)257 hp (192 kW) @ 5400 rpm295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 30004000 rpm
20102012 Saab 9-5 217 hp (162 kW) @ 5300 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 2500 rpm
2011, 2013 Saab 9-3 (NEVS)217 hp (162 kW) @ 5300 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 2500 rpm
20112013 Cadillac SLS (China)259 hp (193 kW) @ 5300 rpm266 ft⋅lb (360 N⋅m) @ 20005000 rpm
20112017 Opel Insignia / Vauxhall Insignia 4x4247 hp (184 kW) @ 5300 rpm295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 24003600 rpm
20122017 Opel Astra J OPC / Vauxhall Astra J VXR 276 hp (206 kW) @ 5500 rpm295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 25004500 rpm
20142017 Buick Regal GS (China Market)251 hp (187 kW) @ 5300 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 20005000 rpm
20142017 Buick Regal GS (Hirsch Performance)275 hp (205 kW) @ 5400 rpm302 ft⋅lb (410 N⋅m) @ 30004000 rpm
2017present Opel Astra K TCR 345 hp (257 kW) @ 6300 rpm310 ft⋅lb (420 N⋅m) @ 25004600 rpm

LHU (A20NFT Opel)

LHU adds E85 flex-fuel capability to the LDK. This engine is also known as A20NFT by GM Powertrain Europe. Maximum engine speed is listed at 6350 rpm.

Unique LHU features include:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorqueDyno Chart
20112013 Buick Regal Turbo 220 hp (164 kW) @ 5300 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm
20112012 Saab 9-5 Turbo4 220 hp (164 kW) @ 5300 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm
20112013 Buick Regal GS 270 hp (201 kW) [8] 295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 2400 rpm
20132016 Buick Verano Turbo [9] 250 hp (186 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm link

Note: The A20NFT engine in Opel Astra K TCR car had swapped the original direct fuel injection into multi-point fuel injection.

2.2

L61

In 2007, the L61 received a multitude of changes, that originated from the LE5. It switched to the higher-strength Gen II block and received a revised cylinder head (enlarged exhaust ports) and camshaft design (increased exhaust valve duration). The engine also switched from wasted spark ignition to individual coil-on-plug ignition; this forced the cam cover to be redesigned. It was also switched to an E37 engine controller with new crank and cam sensors (replacing timing sensor previously found in ignition cassette). These changes increase horsepower slightly and allow the engine to meet PZEV standards. [10] Compression ratio is 10.0:1.

The L61 was used in the following cars:

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
20072008 Chevrolet Cobalt 148 hp (110 kW) @ 5600 rpm152 ft⋅lb (206 N⋅m) @ 4200 rpm
2007 Chevrolet HHR 149 hp (111 kW) @ 5600 rpm152 ft⋅lb (206 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm
2008152 ft⋅lb (206 N⋅m) @ 4200 rpm
20072008 Chevrolet Malibu 145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm152 ft⋅lb (206 N⋅m) @ 4200 rpm
20072008 Pontiac Pursuit/G5 148 hp (110 kW) @ 5600 rpm152 ft⋅lb (206 N⋅m) @ 4200 rpm
2007 Saturn Ion 145 hp (108 kW) @ 5600 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4200 rpm

LAP

The LAP is a 2.2 L (2,198 cc) version of the Ecotec, based on the Gen II block with cylinder head improvements, new camshaft design, E37 engine control module, 58X crankshaft reluctor ring, dual variable valve timing, digital crank and cam sensors, individual coil-on-plug ignition, vented starter solenoid, new MAP sensor, new intake manifold seals, new oil filter element, a 32-bit computer, and improved emissions performance.

Bore and stroke are 86 mm (3.4 in) and 94.6 mm (3.72 in), the same as the 2.2 L L61. Compression ratio is 10.0:1. Major features that set it apart from the 2.2 L L61 are variable-valve-timing and other cylinder head improvements from the 2.4 L LE5.

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
20092010 Chevrolet Cobalt 155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm
2009 Pontiac G5 155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm

LE8

The LE8 is an E85 compatible 2.2 L (2,198 cc) version of the LAP Ecotec. [11] Bore and stroke remain the same 86 mm (3.4 in) and 94.6 mm (3.72 in). Compression ratio is 10.0:1 and the engine can run on both regular unleaded gasoline or E85.

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
20092011 Chevrolet HHR 155 hp (116 kW) @ 6100 rpm (gasoline)150 ft⋅lb (203 N⋅m) @ 4800 rpm (gasoline)
160 hp (119 kW) @ 6000 rpm (E85)158 ft⋅lb (214 N⋅m) @ 4600 rpm (E85)

2.4

LE5

Ecotec LE5 engine in a 2006 Pontiac Solstice 2006 Pontiac Solstice Ecotec LE5 engine.jpg
Ecotec LE5 engine in a 2006 Pontiac Solstice

The LE5 is a larger 2.4 L (2,384 cc) version of the Ecotec. Both the 88 mm (3.5 in) bore and 98 mm (3.9 in) stroke are larger, and Variable Valve Timing on the intake and exhaust improve low-end torque. Compression is 10.4:1. Power is 164177 hp (123132 kW) and torque is 159170 lb·ft (215230 N·m). The engine uses a reinforced "Gen II" block. Connecting Rods are GKN Forged. C70 Powered Metal from July 2007 on.

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
20062008 Buick Lacrosse (China)168 hp (125 kW) @ 6400 rpm166 ft⋅lb (225 N⋅m) @ 4800 rpm
20062007 Chevrolet Cobalt SS 173 hp (129 kW) @ 6200 rpm163 ft⋅lb (221 N⋅m) @ 4800 rpm
2008 Chevrolet Cobalt Sport 171 hp (128 kW) @ 6200 rpm167 ft⋅lb (226 N⋅m) @ 4800 rpm
20062008 Chevrolet HHR 175 hp (130 kW)165 ft⋅lb (224 N⋅m)
20062008 Pontiac G5/Pursuit171 hp (128 kW) @ 5800 rpm167 ft⋅lb (226 N⋅m) @ 4500 rpm
20062009 Pontiac G6 169 hp (126 kW) @ 6300 rpm162 ft⋅lb (220 N⋅m) @ 4500 rpm
20062009 Pontiac Solstice 173 hp (129 kW) @ 5800 rpm164 ft⋅lb (222 N⋅m) @ 4500 rpm
20062009 Saturn Sky 177 hp (132 kW) @ 5800 rpm173 ft⋅lb (235 N⋅m) @ 4800 rpm
2006 Saturn Ion 170 hp (127 kW) @ 6200 rpm162 ft⋅lb (220 N⋅m) @ 4800 rpm
2007 Saturn Ion 175 hp (130 kW) @ 6500 rpm164 ft⋅lb (222 N⋅m) @ 4800 rpm
20082009 Saturn Aura 169 hp (126 kW)160 ft⋅lb (217 N⋅m)
20082012 Chevrolet Malibu 169 hp (126 kW)160 ft⋅lb (217 N⋅m)
20082009 Saturn Vue 169 hp (126 kW) @ 6200 rpm161 ft⋅lb (218 N⋅m) @ 5100 rpm

The LE5 is also used in the following overseas models:

The LE5 or a close variant is also used in the Polaris Slingshot (announced July 27, 2014), coupled with a 5-speed manual transmission and a final belt drive. The Slingshot is a three-wheeled side-by-side street vehicle, classed as a motorcycle. [12]

LAT

The LAT is the designation used for the 2.4 L LE5 when used in GM's BAS mild hybrid vehicles.

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
20072009 Saturn Aura Green Line Hybrid 164 hp (122 kW) @ 6400 rpm159 ft⋅lb (216 N⋅m) @ 5000 rpm
2007 Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid 170 hp (127 kW) @ 6600 rpm162 ft⋅lb (220 N⋅m) @ 4200 rpm
2008 Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid 172 hp (128 kW) @ 6500 rpm167 ft⋅lb (226 N⋅m) @ 4500 rpm
2008-2009 Buick Lacrosse hybrid(China only)164 hp (122 kW) @ 6400 rpm166 ft⋅lb (225 N⋅m) @ 4800 rpm
20082009 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid 164 hp (122 kW) @ 6400 rpm159 ft⋅lb (216 N⋅m) @ 5000 rpm

LE9

The LE9 is an E85 compatible version of the 2.4 L (2,384 cc)LE5 Ecotec. Bore and stroke are 88 mm (3.5 in) and 98 mm (3.9 in) and has a compression ratio of 10.4:1, the same as the LE5.

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
20092011 Chevrolet HHR 172 hp (128 kW) @ 5800 rpm (gasoline)167 ft⋅lb (226 N⋅m) @ 4500 rpm (gasoline)
176 hp (131 kW) @ 5800 rpm (E85)170 ft⋅lb (230 N⋅m) @ 5000 rpm (E85)
20102012 Chevrolet Malibu (fleet only)175 hp (130 kW) @ 5800 rpm (E85)170 ft⋅lb (230 N⋅m) @ 5000 rpm (E85)
2014-2019 Polaris Slingshot 173 hp (129 kW) @ 6200 rpm166 ft⋅lb (225 N⋅m) @ 4700 rpm

LAF

The LAF is a direct injected 2.4 L. It uses technology based on GM's other four-cylinder direct injection applications, but with unique features designed for its specific application. This includes an 11.2:1 compression ratio that helps build power, slightly dished pistons that increase combustion efficiency and injectors with an application-specific flow rate. [13] [14]

Year(s)ModelPowerTorque
20102011182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm (gasoline)172 ft⋅lb (233 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm (gasoline)
20102011 Buick LaCrosse 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 ft⋅lb (233 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm
2011 Buick Regal 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 ft⋅lb (233 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm
20112014 Chevrolet Orlando 174 hp (130 kW) @ 6700 rpm171 ft⋅lb (232 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm
2011 Chevrolet Captiva 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 ft⋅lb (233 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm

LEA

The LEA is an E85 compatible variant of the LAF. Bore, stroke, and compression ratio all remain the same. Maximum engine speed is listed at 7000 rpm.

Year(s)ModelPowerTorqueDyno Chart
20122013, 20152017 Buick Regal 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 ft⋅lb (233 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm link
20122017 Buick Verano [15] 180 hp (134 kW) @ 6700 rpm171 ft⋅lb (232 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm link
20122017 Chevrolet Captiva Sport 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 ft⋅lb (233 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm link
20122017182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 ft⋅lb (233 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm

LUK

The LUK is similar to the LAF, but adds the eAssist mild-hybrid system. Maximum engine speed is listed at 7000 rpm.

Year(s)ModelPowerTorqueDyno Chart
20122016 Buick LaCrosse 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 ft⋅lb (233 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm link
20122017 Buick Regal 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 ft⋅lb (233 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm link
20132014 Chevrolet Malibu ECO182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 ft⋅lb (233 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm
2014 Chevrolet Impala 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm172 ft⋅lb (233 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm link

Generation III

Generation III
Overview
Production2013present
Layout
Displacement
  • 2.0 L (1,998 cc)
  • 2.5 L (2,457 cc)
Cylinder bore
  • 86 mm (3.4 in)
  • 88 mm (3.5 in)
Piston stroke
  • 86 mm (3.4 in)
  • 100.8 mm (3.97 in)
Compression ratio
  • 9.5:1
  • 11.3:1
Combustion
Fuel system Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI)
Fuel type Gasoline

2.0

LTG

A 2.0 L (1,998 cc) turbocharged direct injection version of the gen III Ecotec was available in the 2013 Cadillac ATS and Chevrolet Malibu. This engine is also available in the Cadillac XTS and Cadillac XT5 in the Chinese market. Bore and stroke are both 86.0 mm (3.39 in), and compression is 9.5:1. The engine uses a twin-scroll turbocharger with electronically controlled wastegate/bypass valve, air-to-air intercooler, stainless steel dual-scroll (14, 23) exhaust manifold designed to withstand 980 °C (1,800 °F) turbine temperature, and a rotacast aluminum alloy (A356T6) cylinder head with sodium-filled exhaust valves. [16] Maximum engine speed is listed at 7000 rpm.

Year(s)ModelPowerTorqueDyno Chart
20132014 Cadillac ATS 272 hp (203 kW) @ 5500 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 17005500 rpm link
20152019295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 30004600 rpm
20142016 Cadillac ATS 25T (China) 230 hp (172 kW) @ 5500 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 20004000 rpm
20142019 Cadillac ATS 28T (China) 279 hp (208 kW) @ 5500 rpm295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 29004600 rpm
2013 Chevrolet Malibu 259 hp (193 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 17005500 rpm
20142015295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 5200 rpm link
2016present250 hp (186 kW) @ 5300 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 20005000 rpm
2013present Opel Insignia 247 hp (184 kW) @ 4500 rpm295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 20004500 rpm
20142017 Buick Regal 259 hp (193 kW) @ 5300 rpm
  • 295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 30004000 rpm
  • (25004000 rpm for GS)
2018present250 hp (186 kW) @ 5400 rpm
  • 260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 20005200 rpm
  • 295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 30004000 rpm for AWD
2014present Cadillac CTS 268 hp (200 kW) @ 5600 rpm295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 30004500 rpm link
20162018 Buick Envision 252 hp (188 kW) @ 5500 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm
2019present295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm
20162018 Cadillac CT6 265 hp (198 kW) @ 5500 rpm295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 30004000 rpm
2016present Chevrolet Camaro 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5600 rpm295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 30004500 rpm
2017present Buick GL8 260 hp (194 kW) @ 5500 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 2000-5000 rpm
20182020 Chevrolet Equinox 252 hp (188 kW) @ 5500 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 25004500 rpm
2018present Chevrolet Traverse 257 hp (192 kW) @ 5500 rpm295 ft⋅lb (400 N⋅m) @ 3000 rpm
2018present GMC Terrain 252 hp (188 kW) @ 5500 rpm260 ft⋅lb (353 N⋅m) @ 25004500 rpm
20182020 Holden Commodore 256 hp (191 kW) @ 5500 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 30004000 rpm

LSY

A successor to the LTG debuted in the 2019 Cadillac XT4 and the 2019 Cadillac CT6. The LSY adds Active Fuel Management and a start-stop system, putting more priority to fuel economy than performance. Peak output is lower than the LTG, but is achieved at lower rpm for both power and torque. Bore is 83.0 mm (3.27 in), and stroke is 92.3 mm (3.63 in). [17]

Year(s)ModelPowerTorqueDyno Chart
2019 Cadillac CT6 237 hp (177 kW) @ 5000 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 15004000 rpm
2019present Cadillac XT4 237 hp (177 kW) @ 5000 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 15004000 rpm
2019present Chevrolet Malibu XL 241 hp (180 kW) @ 5000 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 15004000 rpm
2020present Buick GL8 Land Business Edition (Chinese market)237 hp (177 kW) @ 5000 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 15004000 rpm
2020present Buick GL8 ES (Chinese market)237 hp (177 kW) @ 5000 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 15004000 rpm
2020present Buick Lacrosse (Chinese market)233 hp (174 kW) @ 5000 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 15004000 rpm
2020present Buick Regal GS (Chinese market)237 hp (177 kW) @ 5000 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 15004000 rpm
2020present Cadillac CT5 237 hp (177 kW) @ 5000 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 15004000 rpm
2020present Cadillac XT5 237 hp (177 kW) @ 5000 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 15004000 rpm
2020present Cadillac XT6 237 hp (177 kW) @ 5000 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 15004000 rpm
2020present Chevrolet Blazer 230 hp (172 kW) @ 5000 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 15004000 rpm
2020present GMC Acadia 230 hp (172 kW) @ 5000 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 15004000 rpm
2021present Buick Envision 230 hp (172 kW) @ 5000 rpm258 ft⋅lb (350 N⋅m) @ 15004000 rpm

2.5

LCV

First appearing in the 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and 2013 Cadillac ATS, the 2.5 L Gen III block has been reworked to reduce engine noise and vibrations, while improving fuel economy and low-end torque. [16] [18] [19] LCV is scheduled to replace the direct-injected 2.4 L throughout North American GM products within a year. [20] Engine production started in April 2012 at GM's Tonawanda Engine plant.

The new combustion system developed with GM's proprietary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis software features a higher compression ratio which helps improve fuel efficiency and has improved knock resistance. The engine features dual overhead camshafts with continuously variable valve timing and increased-authority cam phasing (increased phase rotation angle), a high-pressure returnless direct-injection fuel system with camshaft-driven fuel pump delivering 750 psi (52 bar) at idle and 2,250 psi (155 bar) at full load, higher-flowing intake and exhaust ports in the cylinder head, electronic throttle control and pistons with jet-spray oil cooling. The engine redline is 7000 rpm.

The balance shafts are relocated from the cylinder block to oil pan module. The two-piece steel-aluminum oil pan features in-pan integrated oil-pump assembly driven by the balance shaft with a shorter inverted-tooth chain. Other improvements include inverted-tooth chain driving the camshaft, forged steel crankshaft, cast aluminum bedplate with main bearing cap inserts made of iron, high-pressure fuel rail with rubber-isolated assembly, acoustically shielded plastic cover for the intake manifold, and structurally enhanced aluminum camshaft cover and front cover. These improvements helped reduce noise intensity by 40% compared to the 2.4 L engine and change the noise signature into a higher frequency above 2,000 Hz. The engine also uses a variable-displacement oil pump and an actively controlled thermostat. Direct injection reduces emissions by 25%, while continuous cam phasing eliminates the need for an EGR system. Maximum engine speed is listed at 7000 rpm.

Displacement for the 2.5 L engine is 2,457 cc with an 88.0 mm (3.46 in) bore and 100.8 mm (3.97 in) stroke. Compression ratio is 11.3:1.

Year(s)ModelPowerTorqueDyno Chart
20132016 [21] Cadillac ATS 202 hp (150.69 kW) @ 6300 rpm191 ft⋅lb (259 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm link
2013 Chevrolet Malibu 197 hp (146.96 kW) @ 6300 rpm191 ft⋅lb (259 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
2015present Chevrolet Colorado 200 hp (149 kW) @ 6300 rpm191 ft⋅lb (259 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm link
GMC Canyon link
2016Chevrolet Malibu Limited196 hp (146 kW) @ 6300 rpm186 ft⋅lb (252 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm [22]
20172020 Buick Envision 197 hp (147 kW) @ 6300 rpm192 ft⋅lb (260 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
2017 Buick GL8 197 hp (147 kW) @ 6300 rpm186 ft⋅lb (252 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
2017present GMC Acadia 194 hp (145 kW) @ 6300 rpm190 ft⋅lb (258 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
2019present Chevrolet Blazer 193 hp (144 kW) @ 6300 rpm188 ft⋅lb (255 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm

LKW

Same as the LCV but features Intake Valve Lift Control (IVLC) system provides two-stage variable valve lift in addition to continuous variable timing. Continuously commanded by engine control unit, the valve rocker arm switches between high-lift and low-lift profiles on the camshaft, actuated by an oil control valve through a two-feed stationary hydraulic lash adjuster, allowing for either 4.0 or 10.5 mm lift. [23] It also features a start-stop system. Maximum engine speed is listed at 7000 rpm.

Year(s)ModelPowerTorqueDyno Chart
20142019 Chevrolet Impala 196–197 hp (146–147 kW) @ 6300 rpm186–191 ft⋅lb (252–259 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm link
20142015 Chevrolet Malibu 196 hp (146 kW) @ 6300 rpm186 ft⋅lb (252 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm link

HCCI

At Tech Show Torino 2008, GM Powertrain Europe announced the ignition-less HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) mode of the direct injection version of 2.2 L engine. [24] HCCI version is equipped with two-step adjustable valve lift with variable cam phasing and advanced ECU with cylinder pressure sensors, uses lean burn cycle similar to that of a diesel engine, and is claimed to further reduce fuel consumption by 15%. [25]

See also

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