GM Family 1 engine

Last updated
Family 1
Overview
Manufacturer General Motors
Also called
  • E-TEC
  • Family I
  • Small-block
Production1982–present [1]
Layout
Configuration
Block material Cast iron
Head material Aluminium
Combustion
Fuel type
Oil system Wet sump
Cooling system Water-cooled
Chronology
Predecessor
Successor

The Family 1 is a straight-four piston engine that was developed by Opel, a former subsidiary of General Motors and now a subsidiary of PSA Group, to replace the Opel cam-in-head engines for use on mid-range cars from Opel/Vauxhall. Originally produced at the Aspern engine plant, production was moved to the Szentgotthard engine plant in Hungary [2] with the introduction of the DOHC version. GM do Brasil at São José dos Campos, [3] GMDAT at Bupyeong and GM North America at Toluca also build these engines.

Contents

The Family 1 engines are inline-four cylinder engines with belt-driven single or double overhead camshafts in an aluminum cylinder head with a cast iron engine block. GM do Brasil versions were also capable of running on ethanol. These engines are sometimes referred to as "Small-block" engines by enthusiasts; in contrast to the larger Family II engines which are sometimes referred to as the "Big-block" engines.

GM do Brasil specializes in SOHC, petrol-powered and FlexPower (powered with ethanol and/or petrol, mixed in any percentage) engines. GM Brasil also made 16-valve versions of the 1.0 engine. The 1.0 L 16v was available in the Corsa line-up from 1999 to 2001.

SOHC

SOHC
Opel Astra F Caravan 1993 07.jpg
Overview
Production1982–present
Layout
Displacement
  • 999 cc (61.0 cu in)
  • 1,195 cc (72.9 cu in)
  • 1,297 cc (79.1 cu in)
  • 1,389 cc (84.8 cu in)
  • 1,598 cc (97.5 cu in)
  • 1,796 cc (109.6 cu in)
Cylinder bore
  • 71.1 mm (2.80 in)
  • 72.0 mm (2.83 in)
  • 75.0 mm (2.95 in)
  • 77.6 mm (3.06 in)
  • 77.8 mm (3.06 in)
  • 79.0 mm (3.11 in)
  • 80.5 mm (3.17 in)
Piston stroke
  • 62.9 mm (2.48 in)
  • 73.4 mm (2.89 in)
  • 81.5 mm (3.21 in)
  • 88.2 mm (3.47 in)
Valvetrain Single overhead cam
Compression ratio
  • 8.6:1
  • 9.5:1
  • 9.8:1
Combustion
Fuel system
Fuel type

1.0

The 999 cc (61.0 cu in) version has a 71.1 mm (2.80 in) bore and a 62.9 mm (2.48 in) stroke.

EnginePowerTorqueCompression RatioFuel DeliveryEngine ManagementApplications
X10YFH58–60 kW (78–80 bhp) at 6400 rpm93–96 N⋅m (69–71 lb⋅ft) at 5200 rpm12.6:1 Multi-point fuel injection

1.2

The 1,195 cubic centimetres (72.9 cu in) version was used in the Opel Corsa. [4]

Engine [4] PowerTorqueCompression RatioFuel DeliveryEngine ManagementApplications
12NV52 hp (39 kW) at 5800 rpm86 N⋅m (63 lb⋅ft) at 2600 rpm Carburetor Opel Corsa A
12ST54 hp (40 kW) at 5600 rpm90 N⋅m (66 lb⋅ft) at 2200 rpm Carburetor Opel Corsa A
A12ST50 hp (37 kW) at 5600 rpm88 N⋅m (65 lb⋅ft) at 2200 rpm Carburetor Opel Corsa A
C12NZ45 hp (34 kW) at 5000 rpm88 N⋅m (65 lb⋅ft) at 2400 rpm Opel Corsa A
S12ST54 hp (40 kW) at 5600 rpm90 N⋅m (66 lb⋅ft) at 2200 rpm Carburetor Opel Corsa A

1.3

The 1,297 cc (79.1 cu in) version has a 75.0 mm (2.95 in) bore and a 73.4 mm (2.89 in) stroke.

Engine [4] PowerTorqueCompression RatioFuel DeliveryEngine ManagementApplications
13N60 hp (45 kW) at 5800 rpm94–96 N⋅m (69–71 lb⋅ft) at 3800 rpm
13Nb60 hp (45 kW) at 5800 rpm96 N⋅m (71 lb⋅ft) at 3200 rpm Opel Corsa A
13S68–75 hp (51–56 kW) at 5800 rpm96–101 N⋅m (71–74 lb⋅ft) at 3800–4600 rpm
13SB70 hp (52 kW) at 5800 rpm101 N⋅m (74 lb⋅ft) at 3800–4200 rpm Opel Corsa A
13SH83 hp (62 kW) at 5800 rpm108 N⋅m (80 lb⋅ft) at 4200 rpm9,5:1 Multi-point fuel injection Bosch LE-Jetronic Opel Corsa A

1.4

The 1,389 cc (84.8 cu in) version has a 77.6 mm (3.06 in) bore and a 73.4 mm (2.89 in) stroke.

Engine [5] PowerTorqueCompression RatioFuel DeliveryEngine ManagementApplications
14NV74 hp (55 kW) at 5600 rpm108 N⋅m (80 lb⋅ft) at 3000 rpm9.4:1Pierburg 2E3 twin barrel carburettor
C14NZ60 hp (45 kW) at 5600 rpm103 N⋅m (76 lb⋅ft) at 2600 rpm9.4:1Single-point fuel injection
C14SE82 hp (61 kW) at 5200 rpm116 N⋅m (86 lb⋅ft) at 3400 rpm10.0:1 Multi-point Fuel Injection Opel Corsa A
Opel Corsa B
Opel Astra F
Chevrolet Kalos/Aveo
X14YFL89–97 hp (66–72 kW) at 6200 rpm122–127 N⋅m (90–94 lbf⋅ft)12.4:1 Multi-point fuel injection Chevrolet Prisma
X14YFH99–105 hp (74–78 kW) at 6000 rpm129–131 N⋅m (95–97 lbf⋅ft)12.4:1 Multi-point fuel injection
N14YF97–102 hp (72–76 kW) at 6000 rpm126–132 N⋅m (93–97 lbf⋅ft) at 3200 rpm12.4:1 Multi-point fuel injection

1.6

The 1,598 cc (97.5 cu in) version has a 79.0 mm (3.11 in) bore and an 81.5 mm (3.21 in) stroke.

Engine [5] PowerTorqueCompression RatioFuel DeliveryEngine ManagementApplications
C16NZ72–75 hp (54–56 kW) at 5200 rpm125 N⋅m (92 lb⋅ft) at 2800 rpm9.2:1Single-point Fuel Injection
C16SE100 hp (75 kW) at 5800 rpm135 N⋅m (100 lb⋅ft) at 3400 rpm9.8:1 multi-point fuel injection
C16SEI98 hp (73 kW) at 5600 rpm132 N⋅m (97 lb⋅ft) at 3400 rpm Opel Corsa A
E16SE100 hp (75 kW) at 5800 rpm135 N⋅m (100 lb⋅ft) at 3400 rpm Opel Corsa A
L7374 hp (55 kW) at 5600 rpm120 N⋅m (90 lb⋅ft) at 2800 rpm8.6:1 throttle-body fuel injection
G16SF92 hp (68 kW) at 5600 rpmthrottle-body fuel injectionGM Multec Central1988-1993 Pontiac LeMans LS

1988-1991 Passport Optima

Z16SE64 kW (86 hp) at 5400 rpm133 N⋅m (98 lb⋅ft) at 2600 rpm9.6:1 multi-point fuel injection
  • Opel Astra G
  • Opel Combo C
  • Opel Corsa C
L91
X16SZ52 kW (72 hp) at 5000 rpm128Nm at 2800 rpm10.0:1Single-point fuel injectionMultec-SZOpel Vectra A

Opel Astra F

16SV82 bhp@5400130 N⋅m (96 lb⋅ft) @ 2600 rpmCarburettorVauxhall Cavalier MK3

MK2 Astra

1.8

The 1,796 cc (109.6 cu in) version has an 80.5 mm (3.17 in) bore and an 88.2 mm (3.47 in) stroke.

EnginePowerTorqueCompression RatioFuel DeliveryEngine ManagementApplications
N18XFH106–108 hp (79–81 kW) at 5600 rpm161–168 N⋅m (119–124 lb⋅ft) at 3200 rpm10.5:1 Multi-point fuel injection

Applications:

SPE / 4

The SPE / 4 or (Smart Performance Economy 4 cylinders) engines are an evolution of the Econo.Flex engines that were made in Brazil at the Joinville plant. There are two available displacements: 1.0 L and 1.4 L. They feature an SOHC head with 2-valves per cylinder, and is fed by a multi-point fuel injection system, which allows it to run on either E100 (pure ethanol) or E25 gasoline (standard in Brazil). Major differences between previous engines include reduced friction, lowered weight, individual coil-near-plug ignition, and a new cylinder head design.

NameDisplacementBoreStrokeCompression RatioPowerTorqueApplications
1.0 L (999 cc)71.1 mm (2.8 in)62.9 mm (2.5 in)12.4:1
  • 78 hp (58 kW) at 6400 rpm (Petrol)
  • 80 hp (60 kW) at 6400 rpm (Ethanol)
  • 93 N⋅m (69 lb⋅ft) at 5200 rpm (Petrol)
  • 96 N⋅m (71 lb⋅ft) at 5200 rpm (Ethanol)
1.4 L (1389 cc)77.6 mm (3.1 in)73.4 mm (2.9 in)
  • 98 hp (73 kW) at 6000 rpm (Petrol)
  • 106 hp (79 kW) at 6000 rpm (Ethanol)
  • 127 N⋅m (94 lb⋅ft) at 4800 rpm (Petrol)
  • 136 N⋅m (100 lb⋅ft) at 4800 rpm (Ethanol)

DOHC

DOHC
X18XE1.JPG
X18XE1
Overview
Production(1.4, 1.6L engines):1992 [2] -present, (1.8L x18xe1):1999 [2] -2000, (1.8L z18xe):2000 [2] -2008
Layout
Configuration
Displacement
  • 1,389 cc (84.8 cu in)
  • 1,598 cc (97.5 cu in)
  • 1,796 cc (109.6 cu in)
Cylinder bore
  • 77.6 mm (3.06 in)
  • 79 mm (3.1 in)
  • 80.5 mm (3.17 in)
Piston stroke
  • 73.4 mm (2.89 in)
  • 81.5 mm (3.21 in)
  • 88.2 mm (3.47 in)
Valvetrain Dual overhead cam
Compression ratio
  • 10.5:1
Combustion
Fuel system
Fuel type

Pre-Ecotec

This was the first engine in this family, featuring a Lotus-developed 16-valve cylinder head and a cast-iron cylinder block which was essentially the same as in Opel's 8-valve engines. C16XE was available only in Corsa GSi, model years 1993 and 1994. C16XE was not yet badged Ecotec, and for later model Corsas and Opel Tigras it was replaced with X16XE Ecotec engine. The main difference between C16XE and X16XE Ecotec is emission control, C16XE lacks EGR and AIR-system, although the cylinder head is designed to enable these features. Other differences between C16XE and later versions of the engine include intake manifold, C16XE has a plastic upper intake manifold, which was replaced with a cast aluminium manifold, and fuel injection system, C16XE uses Multec fuel injection with MAF sensor and later models used Multec fuel injection with MAP sensor. Also, while C16XE had its own exhaust front section design, for X16XE it was replaced with a front section used also in Opel Astra, probably as a cost-saving measure.

NameDisplacementBoreStrokeCompression RatioPower
C16XE1.6 L (1598 cc)79 mm (3.1 in)81.5 mm (3.21 in)10.5:180 kW (110 hp)

Applications:

Ecotec

The first generation Ecotec engines are belt-driven 16-valve DOHC engines, with cast-iron cylinder blocks and aluminum cross-flow cylinder heads. They feature sodium-filled exhaust valves, a cast steel crankshaft, and a spheroidal graphite flywheel. They also feature exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), secondary air injection, and Multec M engine control with sequential multiport fuel injection. The 1.6 L version was also exported for use in the Brazilian Corsa GSi.

NameDisplacementBoreStrokeCompression RatioPowerTorque
X14XE1.4 L (1389 cc)77.6 mm (3.1 in)73.4 mm (2.9 in)10.5:166 kW (89 hp)125 N⋅m (92 lb⋅ft)
X16XEL1.6 L (1598 cc)79 mm (3.1 in)81.5 mm (3.2 in)74 kW (99 hp)150 N⋅m (110 lb⋅ft)
X16XE78 kW (105 hp)
X18XE11.8 L (1796 cc)80.5 mm (3.2 in)88.2 mm (3.5 in)85 kW (114 hp)167 N⋅m (123 lb⋅ft)

Applications:

Electronic throttle

Updated version introduced from 2000, with lighter cast-iron cylinder block and camshaft driven by toothed belt. Features EGR valve and electronic throttle for reduced emissions.

NameDisplacementBoreStrokeCompression RatioPowerTorqueApplications
Z14XE1.4 L (1389 cc)77.6 mm (3.1 in)73.4 mm (2.9 in)10.5:166 kW (89 hp)120 N⋅m (89 lb⋅ft)
Z16XE1.6 L (1598 cc)79 mm (3.1 in)81.5 mm (3.2 in)74 kW (99 hp)150 N⋅m (110 lb⋅ft)
Z18XE1.8 L (1796 cc)80.5 mm (3.2 in)88.2 mm (3.5 in)
  • 90 kW (120 hp)
  • 92 kW (123 hp)
167 N⋅m (123 lb⋅ft)

Ecotec TwinPort Family 1 engine (Z16XEP) is used in:

E-TEC

E-TEC
GM E-TEC 1.5 16V DOHC engine in Daewoo Lanos.jpg
1.5 L E-TEC 16V
Overview
Also called
  • E-Tec
  • E-TEC II
  • E-TEC 16V
  • E-TEC II 16V
Production-2009
Layout
Displacement
  • 1,300 cc (79 cu in)
  • 1,498 cc (91.4 cu in)
  • 1,598 cc (97.5 cu in)
Cylinder bore
  • 76.5 mm (3.01 in)
  • 77.6 mm (3.06 in)
  • 79.0 mm (3.11 in)
Piston stroke
  • 73.4 mm (2.89 in)
  • 81.5 mm (3.21 in)
Valvetrain
Combustion
Fuel system Sequential multi-port fuel injection
Fuel type

Daewoo Motors licensed and produced a variant of the Family 1 engine. These engines were built exclusively at Bupyeong engine plant and marketed as E-TEC. Like all Family 1 engines they feature a toothed belt driven valvetrain, a cast-iron engine block and an aluminum cylinder head. Most models feature Euro III-compliancy, and the 1.4 L (1399 cc) and 1.6 L (1598cc) versions employ variable intake geometry. With the release of Chevrolet Cruze, the factory has been converted to produce the Ecotec Family 1 Gen III block.

SOHC

NameDisplacementBoreStrokeCompression RatioPowerTorque
A13SMS1.3 L (1299 cc)76.5 mm (3.01 in)71.5 mm (2.81 in)
A13SMS1.4 L (1349 cc)76.5 mm (3.01 in)73.4 mm (2.89 in)
LV81.5 L (1498 cc)76.5 mm (3.01 in)81.5 mm (3.21 in)

Applications:

DOHC

The E-TEC II 16V is an updated version of the E-TEC engines with DOHC.

NameDisplacementBoreStrokeCompression RatioPowerTorque
(L95)1.4 L (1399 cc)77.9 mm (3.1 in)73.4 mm (2.9 in)9.5:170 kW (94 hp) at 6200 rpm127 N⋅m (94 lb⋅ft) at 3400 rpm
(LDT)74 kW (99 hp) at 6400 rpm131 N⋅m (97 lb⋅ft) at 4200 rpm
A15MF1.5 L (1498 cc)76.5 mm (3.01 in)81.5 mm (3.21 in)63 kW (84 hp) at 5400 rpm131 N⋅m (97 lb⋅ft) at 3000 rpm
(L91)1.6 L (1598 cc)79 mm (3.1 in)77 kW (103 hp) at 6000 rpm145 N⋅m (107 lb⋅ft) at 3600 rpm
(LXT)77 kW (103 hp) at 5800 rpm145 N⋅m (107 lb⋅ft) at 3400 rpm

Applications:

Generation III

Generation III
Overview
Also called
  • Fam1 Gen3
  • Gen III
  • Gen 3
  • Generation 3
Production2005–present
Layout
Configuration
Displacement
  • 1,598 cc (97.5 cu in)
  • 1,796 cc (109.6 cu in)
Cylinder bore
  • 79 mm (3.1 in)
  • 80.5 mm (3.17 in)
Piston stroke
  • 81.5 mm (3.21 in)
  • 88.2 mm (3.47 in)
Valvetrain Dual overhead cam
Combustion
Fuel system
Fuel type

The new Generation III or Gen III engine entered production in Spring 2005. These engines replaced both the previous generation Ecotec engines as well as Daewoo's E-TEC 16V engines. These engines are manufactured at Szentgotthárd, Hungary, Bupyeoung, Korea, Toluca, Mexico and Yantai, PRC (SGM).

In contrast to their predecessors, the Gen III engines feature lighter cast-iron blocks, as well as higher compression ratios. These engines also implement DCVCP (Double Continuous Variable Cam Phasing technology, a variant of VVT), piston cooling by oil jets, and an integrated catalytic converter. Non-turbocharged variants feature the TwinPort (Variable-length intake manifold) technology. Reliability improvements include a wider camshaft drive belt, and a water pump no longer driven by it.

The LDE engine meets Euro VI and KULEV emission standards. With the addition of secondary air injection to the LUW engine, the LWE achieves PZEV status.

These engines like their DOHC predecessors feature bucket tappets in contrast to the roller finger followers found on GM's other 4-cylinder engines.

NameDisplacementBoreStrokeCompression RatioPowerTorque
A16XER (LDE)1.6 L (1598 cc)79 mm (3.1 in)81.5 mm (3.2 in)10.8:185 kW (114 hp) at 6000 rpm155 N⋅m (114 lb⋅ft) at 4000 rpm
(LXV)81 kW (110 PS) at 6400 rpm142 N⋅m (105 lb⋅ft) at 4000 rpm
(LGE)10.5:1110 kW (150 PS) at 5000 rpm
  • 210 N⋅m (150 lb⋅ft) at 2300–5000 rpm (CNG)
  • 180 N⋅m (130 lb⋅ft) at 2300–5000 rpm (Gasoline)
Z16LEL8.8:1110 kW (150 PS) at 5000 rpm210 N⋅m (150 lb⋅ft) at 1850–5000 rpm
A16LEL
Z16LET132 kW (179 PS) at 5500 rpm230 N⋅m (170 lb⋅ft) at 2200–5400 rpm
A16LET (LLU)
Z16LER141 kW (192 PS) at 5000 rpm230 N⋅m (170 lb⋅ft) at 1980–5800 rpm
A16LER (LDW) (B16LER)141 kW (192 PS) at 5850 rpm
  • 230 N⋅m (170 lbf⋅ft)
  • 266 N⋅m (196 lbf⋅ft) at 1980–5850 rpm (Overboost)
A16LES (B16LES)154 kW (209 PS) at 5850 rpm
  • 250 N⋅m (180 lbf⋅ft)
  • 280 N⋅m (210 lbf⋅ft) at 2250–5850 rpm (Overboost)
X18XF (Flex)1.8 L (1796 cc)80.5 mm (3.2 in)88.2 mm (3.5 in)10.5:184 kW (113 hp) at 5600 rpm175 N⋅m (129 lb⋅ft) at 2800 rpm
Z18XER103 kW (140 PS) at 6300 rpm175 N⋅m (129 lb⋅ft) at 3800 rpm
A18XER (2H0) (F18DA)
P18XER (LWE)
U18XFR (LUW)
N18XFF (LFH)107 kW (143 hp) at 6300 rpm185 N⋅m (136 lb⋅ft) at 3800 rpm

Applications:

Turbocharged Gen III engines are used in:

See also

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References

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  2. 1 2 3 4 "Szentgotthard Plant. Facts and Figures". Opel Media. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
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  5. 1 2 Oversigt , p. 3