Opel Ascona

Last updated
Opel Ascona
Opel Ascona front 20071115.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Opel (General Motors)
Production1970–1988
Body and chassis
Class Large family car (D)
Related Holden Camira Vauxhall Cavalier
Chronology
Successor Opel Vectra
Opel Kadett (Ascona A wagon)

The Opel Ascona is a large family car (D-segment in Europe) that was produced by the German automaker Opel from 1970 to 1988. It was produced in three separate generations, beginning with rear-wheel-drive and ending up as a front-wheel drive J-car derivative.

Contents

The Ascona took its name from the lakeside resort of that name in Ticino, Switzerland, and already in the 1950s a special edition of the Opel Rekord P1 was sold as an Opel Ascona in Switzerland, where the name was again used in 1968 for a locally adapted version of the Opel Kadett B into which the manufacturers had persuaded a 1.7-litre engine borrowed from the larger Rekord model of the time. [1] The Opel Ascona A launched in 1970 and sold across Europe was, however, the first mainstream Opel model to carry the name.

The Ascona was introduced in September 1970, lasting for 18 years and 3 generations and ended production in August 1988, to be replaced by the Opel Vectra A.

In motorsport, Walter Röhrl won the 1982 World Rally Championship drivers' title with an Ascona 400.

Ascona A (1970–1975)

Ascona A
Opel Ascona 2 d Interlaken 1972.jpg
Overview
Also calledOpel 1900 (USA)
Production1970–1975
AssemblyGermany: Bochum
Body and chassis
Body style 2/4-door saloon
3-door estate
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 95.75 in (2,432 mm)
Length164.5 in (4,178 mm)
Width64.375 in (1,635 mm)
Height54.5 in (1,384 mm)

In the fall of 1970, Opel presented its completely new vehicle range in Rüsselsheim (internal project code 1.450). The Opel Manta coupé was launched on September 9, followed by the Opel Ascona on October 28 in two- and four-door sedan forms, plus a three-door station wagon called the Caravan or Voyage. These models were positioned between the existing Opel Kadett and the Opel Rekord.

The Ascona was developed as a replacement to the Kadett, but late in the car's development Opel chose to instead develop a new, smaller Kadett and instead positioned the Ascona as a competitor to the successful Ford mid-sized Taunus range. The Opel Ascona A stayed in production until 1975. By that time, almost 692,000 vehicles of the first series had been produced.

The range featured petrol engines from 1.2 L to 1.9 L, with power between 60 PS (44 kW) and 90 PS (66 kW). The 1.2 L had an overhead valve (OHV) head, while the 1.6 L and 1.9 L featured the Opel cam-in-head engine (CIH). The CIH was a compromise effort, with the camshaft mounted next to the valves rather than above them. All used a single barrel carburetor. Even with this simple design, the Ascona 1.9 SR had a successful career in motorsports, with Walter Röhrl winning the European Rally Championship in 1974. Tuner Steinmetz developed a special version of the Ascona SR, with two single-barrel Solex carburettors, lifting power to 125 PS (92 kW).

Engines

Opel 1900 (US)

From 1971 to 1975, the 1.9-liter Ascona was exported to the United States as the "Opel 1900" and sold through Buick-Opel dealerships. All three body styles were offered at first, but the four-door sedan was dropped after 1973. In 1974, heavy rubber-clad impact bumpers were added in response to federal regulations. All Opels sold in the US in 1975 were equipped with Bosch L-Jetronic fuel injection, which was not available on the European versions. The fuel injection was added because of the stricter emissions requirements that were in force that year. The compression ratio was dropped to 7.6:1, enabling the car to run on 91-octane unleaded gasoline but also lowering maximum power to 75 hp (56 kW; 76 PS) at 4800 rpm. [2]

Due to the unfavorable Deutsche Mark to US dollar exchange rate, after 1975, all Opels in Buick showrooms were replaced by Japanese-built Isuzu Gemini models wearing Opel badges.

Ascona B (1975–1981)

Ascona B
Ascona B rechts.jpg
Overview
Also calledChevrolet Ascona (South Africa)
Production1975–1981
Assembly
Body and chassis
Body style 2/4-door saloon
Layout FR layout
Related Opel OSV 40
Vauxhall Cavalier
Powertrain
Engine
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,518 mm (99.1 in) [3]
Length4,321 mm (170.1 in) [3]
Width1,670 mm (66 in) [3]
Height1,380 mm (54 in) [3]
Curb weight 1,050 kg (2,310 lb) [3] (approx)

The second generation Opel Ascona B was presented in August 1975 at the Frankfurt Motor Show. It was available as a two or four-door saloon. There were related two and three-door coupé models in the Opel Manta range. There was no estate ("Caravan") body available.

The Ascona B retained the same engine range as its predecessor, versions with higher compression ratio and needing 98 octane petrol, dubbed S, were available alongside the 90 octane models. The first change took place in January 1976, when laminated window glass became available as a no-cost option. The 1.9 L "S" cam-in-head engine was replaced by the modernised 2.0 L (20S) in September 1977. The 20N became available in January 1978, and all models now also received electric windscreen washers. A 2.0 L diesel motor was added to the Ascona B range in 1978, mostly targeted at the BeNeLux countries and Italy, where local tax structures provided an incentive for diesel-powered automobiles - in 1979, 97% of diesels were exported, while 59% of petrol powered cars went in the export. [4]

By the end of 1978 the 1.6 S engine was discontinued in Germany (where it was replaced by the 19N, with the same power but lower fuel consumption), but continued to be available in some markets in a somewhat down-tuned version with 70 PS (51 kW). In January 1979 the street legal version of the Ascona 400 with 2.4-liter engine (16 valves, 144 PS) appeared, followed a month later by the more prosaic 1.3 liter OHC engine. This largely replaced the old 1.2 liter pushrod unit which dated back to 1962, but production continued in dwindling numbers into 1980 for some export markets. [5]

In September 1979 the Ascona received a minor facelift, including plastic bumpers and a grey front grille with a larger mesh. The 2.0 E model with a Bosch L-Jetronic electronic fuel injection arrived in January 1980, after having been first installed in the Manta and Rekord models. [6] In addition to a front spoiler, the 2.0 E equipped Ascona also received an upgraded clutch and transmission, differential, radiator, and other parts shared with the sporting Manta GT/E. [6] In January 1981 the Ascona underwent its last changes, when adjustments made to the 16N and 20N engines. The 1.9 N and 2.0 N engines were discontinued in the German market, while the 1.6 N engine was now only available coupled with an automatic transmission.

Over 1.2 million Ascona B units were produced worldwide until August 1981. The two millionth Ascona was an Ascona B, built in April 1980, and the one millionth Ascona sold in Germany was registered in July of that same year. [7] The related Manta coupé versions however, remained in production until 1988.

Engines

Export models

In the United Kingdom, the Vauxhall Cavalier badge was used on both saloon and coupé models from late 1975, which came out of the same factory in Belgium — the first Vauxhall to be built abroad. The front ends were different, featuring Vauxhall's trademark "droop snoot", as designed by Wayne Cherry.

South Africa

In South Africa there was a locally assembled version called the Chevrolet Ascona, identical in many respects to the four-door Opel Ascona B. The Ascona came with a locally built 1.3 liter inline-four from the Vauxhall Viva. A preceding upmarket version with the Vauxhall Cavalier's longer front end was sold as the Chevrolet Chevair, equipped with bigger engines of Chevrolet origins. The Ascona was launched in July 1978, and replaced the Vauxhall-based Chevrolet 1300/1900-series. It was available in De Luxe or S trim, with the S receiving a sportier treatment with a three-spoke steering wheel, tartan seat inserts, and Rostyle rims. [8]

Ascona 400 rally car

The Rothmans Ascona 400 which won the 1983 Safari Rally in the hands of Ari Vatanen. Opel Ascona Rallye Rothmans.JPG
The Rothmans Ascona 400 which won the 1983 Safari Rally in the hands of Ari Vatanen.

First shown at Frankfurt in September 1979, the Ascona 400 was a homologation special sold only to make it eligible for rallying's Group 4 category. [9] The Ascona 400s were built at General Motors' plant in Antwerp. The 1980 world champion Walter Röhrl took the rally car to victory and won the World Rally Championship drivers' title in the 1982 season.

The car was developed by Opel alongside the Manta B 400 model which consisted of the same changes. Irmscher and Cosworth were hired as partners for the project, Cosworth to deliver a 16 valve double cam crossflow head for the engine, and Irmscher for the exterior and interior styling. Cosworth delivered the heads to Opel and Opel soon discovered a major mistake. The plan was to use the 2.0 litre engine block but this did not produce enough power. Time was running out and Opel badly needed to do something. Opel took the 2.0E block, installed forged pistons, different connecting-rods, and forged crankshaft with 85mm stroke. The result was a 2.4 litre engine. The 2.4 litre engine gave rise to some massive power outputs using the 16 valve head. The street versions of the 400 therefore came with 144 hp (107 kW) engines, using the Bosch fuel injection of the Manta GSi and GT/E series. However, in race trim they were delivered putting out 230 hp (172 kW), which could be improved further to 340 hp (254 kW), while still using normally aspirated engine components.

Irmscher delivered the rally trim for the exterior. Large and widened wings, light weight hood, front wings, rear boot lid and doors were also installed.

By 1984, the Audi Quattro appeared more powerful than ever and the Ascona 400 was rendered obsolete. But the Ascona 400 still has some remarkable records. The Ascona 400 was the last rear wheel drive rally car to win the drivers' world championship, ensuring its place in motorsports history.

WRC victories

No.EventSeasonDriverCo-driverCar
1 Flag of Sweden.svg 30th International Swedish Rally 1980 Flag of Sweden.svg Anders Kulläng Flag of Sweden.svg Bruno Berglund Opel Ascona 400
2 Flag of Monaco.svg 50éme Rallye Automobile de Monte Carlo 1982 Flag of Germany.svg Walter Röhrl Flag of Germany.svg Christian Geistdörfer Opel Ascona 400
3 Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg 14ème Rallye Côte d'Ivoire 1982 Flag of Germany.svg Walter Röhrl Flag of Germany.svg Christian Geistdörfer Opel Ascona 400
4 Flag of Kenya.svg 31st Marlboro Safari Rally 1983 Flag of Finland.svg Ari Vatanen Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Terry Harryman Opel Ascona 400

Ascona C (1981–1988)

Ascona C
Opel Ascona C front 20130104.jpg
Overview
Also called Chevrolet Monza (South America)
Vauxhall Cavalier Mk II
Production1981–1988 1983-1996 (Brazil)
Assembly
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
4-door saloon
5-door fastback/hatchback
Layout FF layout
Platform GM J platform
Related Buick Skyhawk
Cadillac Cimarron
Chevrolet Cavalier
Isuzu Aska
Oldsmobile Firenza
Holden Camira
Pontiac J2000
Vauxhall Cavalier
Daewoo Espero
Powertrain
Transmission 4/5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,574 mm (101.3 in)
Length4,366 mm (171.9 in)(sedan)
4,264 mm (167.9 in) (hatchback)
Width1,668 mm (65.7 in)
Height1,395 mm (54.9 in) (sedan)
1,385 mm (54.5 in) (hatchback)
Curb weight 920–1,090 kg (2,028–2,403 lb)
The Ascona C3, introduced for 1986, featured a body-coloured grille, in contrast with the black "CD" grille used across the Ascona range since 1984 (on the C2). Opel Ascona x 2.JPG
The Ascona C3, introduced for 1986, featured a body-coloured grille, in contrast with the black "CD" grille used across the Ascona range since 1984 (on the C2).

The Ascona C was launched in August 1981 as part of General Motors' J-car project. This was Opel's second front-wheel drive car since the introduction of the Kadett D in 1979. This car was manufactured in Rüsselsheim, Germany, Antwerp, Belgium, São Caetano do Sul, Brazil and Luton, England, and was sold in the UK under the name Vauxhall Cavalier and Chevrolet Monza in Latin America. The Cavalier Coupé was phased out, but the Opel Manta was retained in the UK (the last car to be badged as an Opel in the UK before the brand was phased out there in 1988). There were no longer sheet metal differences between Opel and Vauxhall models after 1982. The Ascona C won the "Goldenes Lenkrad" (Golden Steering Wheel) at the end of 1981 and was West Germany's biggest selling car. The new Ascona no longer had the sporty character of its predecessors, being a more unadulterated family car which was considerably more space-efficient than earlier models. [10]

It was narrowly beaten to the European Car of the Year award by the Renault 9 in 1982. It took another 27 years before its successor model, the Opel Insignia, won the 2009 European Car of the Year award by only 1 point, from the Second placed Ford Fiesta. The Ascona C underwent two notable facelifts during its term of production.

The range added an option of a five-door fastback/hatchback Bodystyle, named CC in a few markets - short for "Combi Coupé." The hatchback model was shorter than the saloons, with a marginally smaller luggage compartment and 5 cm (2.0 in) less headspace in the backseat. [11] All engines were now SOHC crossflow designs with a breakerless ignition system and hydraulic tappets. [10] The base model was the 1.3 L introduced in 1978 in the Ascona B, with 60 PS (44 kW), followed by a 1.6 L with 75 PS (55 kW). "S" versions with higher compression ratio had power increased by as much as twenty per cent. The top of the line was the sporty GTE model, with electronic fuel injection, pushing power to 130  PS (96 kW) in the last two model years. Diesel power came from an Isuzu-developed block, with 1.6  litres. Catalytic converters were optional in the larger petrol units starting from 1986.

The Ascona C was also assembled in South Africa, where it was sold by GM South Africa, replacing the Chevrolet Ascona which was based on the Ascona B. It was dropped in 1986 and replaced by a sedan version of the Kadett E called the Opel Monza. [12]

As before, there was no estate car version of the Ascona, although Vauxhall in the UK brought in the rear ends of the Holden Camira wagon (estate car) and adapted them to the Cavalier. [13] [14] Opel continued to use the Ascona nameplate until the Vectra was launched in 1988, while the Cavalier name was retained by Vauxhall until 1995.

Timeline
Models

The following versions of the Ascona C were available, all with inline fours. Data is for the German market. There were certain differences in various export market models: [18] [19] [20] [21]

EngineCat.PowerTorqueTransmissionTop speedFueltypeEquipment levelsYears
PSkWhp@ rpmN·mlb·ft@ rpmkm/hmphbefore faceliftafter facelift
1.3N1297 cc604459580094693400–38004MT15093normalStd/J/Luxus/BerlinaLS/GL/GLS81–86
1.3S1297 cc7555745800101743800–46004MT, 3AT16099superStd/J/Luxus/BerlinaLS/GL/GLS81–86
1.6N1598 cc7555745600123913000–40004/5MT, 3AT16099normalStd/J/Luxus/BerlinaLS/GL/Touring/GLS81–88
1.6E1598 cc75557452001218934004/5MT, 3AT16099unleadedLS/GL/Touring/GLS86–88
1.6S1598 cc9066895800126933800–42004/5MT, 3AT170106superStd/J/Luxus/Berl./SRLS/GL/GLS/GT/CD81–86
8260815400130962600165103LS/GL/GLS86–87 [22]
1.8N1796 cc846283540014310526004/5MT, 3AT168104normalLS/GL/Touring/GLS/GT87–88
1.8E1796 cc11585113580015111148005MT, 3AT187116superLuxus/Berl./SRE/CDGL/Touring/GLS/GT/CD82–86
100749958001401003000180112LS/GL/GLS/GT/CD85–86 [23]
2.0E1998 cc11585113580017512930005MT, 3AT187116superGL/Touring/GLS/GT86–87
5400170130sup. unld.LS/GL/Touring/GLS/GT86–88
13096128560018013046005MT193120GT87–88
1.6D1598 cc5440534600967124004/5MT, 3AT14389dieselStd/J/Luxus/Berl./CDLS/GL/Touring/GLS/CD82–88

Chevrolet Monza

In Brazil, the Ascona C was sold from May 1982 until 1996 as the Chevrolet Monza. [24] Chevrolet did not use the Ascona brand because the Spanish and Portuguese word "asco" means "disgust, repugnance".

It was originally only available as a three-door hatchback, a body style unique to Latin America. [25] However, two and four-door sedans appeared in March 1983. [26] GM do Brasil also considered offering the Monza as a station wagon, and produced two full-size clay models, one with five doors and one with three doors, with a similar rear to the Holden Camira in Australia, which was also used as the basis of the Vauxhall Cavalier in the UK, but it never entered into production. [27] However, Envemo began converting the four-door Monza sedan into a station wagon called the Camping, although it retained the rear doors and taillights of the sedan. [28] Envemo also converted the two-door Monza sedan into a convertible. [29] In 1989 the slow-selling liftback was discontinued, leaving only the two- and four-door three-box sedans. [30]

Originally it was available with either a 1.6 or a 1.8 engine with 75 or 84 PS (55 or 62 kW). [31] These were changed to more powerful 1.8 and 2.0s in 1986. [26]

The Monza received a number of facelifts, the last one bringing its looks in line with those of current European GM products, with new fenders front and rear to accommodate new head and taillights. Diesel versions were available for export markets, most notably Uruguay and Argentina, powered by Isuzu's 4EC1 engine.[ citation needed ]

In Colombia the sedan version was sold from 1987 to 1992 as the Monza Classic, two versions were available: a five-speed manual 'Sport', and a DeLuxe equipped with a four-speed automatic transmission assembled by GM-Colmotores. [32] In Venezuela it was assembled and sold from 1985 to 1990. Originally it was equipped with a carburetted 1.8-litre engine, but this was later replaced with a fuel-injected 2-litre unit.

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