List of GM engines

Last updated

This list of GM engines encompasses all engines manufactured by General Motors and used in their cars.

Contents

Divisions

When General Motors was created in 1908, it started out with Buick and soon after acquired Oldsmobile, Cadillac and Oakland. There were dozens of other smaller companies that William Durant acquired during his first employment term until he was let go due to financially overextending his purchases. He regained control when he brought on Chevrolet in 1917 which was short lived until he was let go for the second time. This meant that the different core brands designed and manufactured their own engines with few interchangeable parts between brands, while sharing chassis, suspension and transmissions. One of the companies Durant bought in 1909 was the Northway Motor and Manufacturing Company founded by Ralph Northway who had previously supplied engines to Buick, Oakland, Cartercar and other 1900s manufacturers, including V8 engines to Oldsmobile, Oakland and Cadillac. [1] When Durant bought companies that became part of GM, Northway continued to supply engines to his former clients and added Cadillac, GMC and Oldsmobile to the list, then Northway Motors became the Northway Motor and Manufacturing Division in 1925 and became part of the GM Intercompany Parts Group. [2] When Fisher Body was bought in 1925, coachwork was shared and with the introduction of the Art and Color Section also in the late 1920, GM products shared appearances. The core items that made each brand unique were the engines. Buick and Chevrolet used overhead valves while Cadillac, Oldsmobile, Oakland used side valve or flathead engines and the divisions no longer outsourced their engines and manufactured them according to particular brand requirements. The original factory location was located at Maybury Grand Avenue and the G.T.R.R. in Detroit then later became GM truck Plant No. 7 in 1926 to manufacture front and rear axles and parts for past model Chevrolets. Starting around 1925 engine blocks and cylinder heads were now developed at each brand but were cast at Saginaw Metal Casting Operations. [3] In the mid-1960s, there were 8 separate families of GM V8 engines on sale in the USA. [4] [5]

By the 1970s, GM began to see problems with their approach. For instance, four different North American divisions (Chevrolet, Pontiac, Oldsmobile and Buick) offered four completely different versions of a 350 cu in V8 engine - very few parts would interchange between the four designs despite their visual similarities, resulting in confusion for owners who naturally assumed that replacement parts would be usable across brands. In addition to these issues and the obvious overlap in production costs, the cost of certifying so many different engines for tightening worldwide emissions regulations threatened to become very costly.

Thus, by the early 1980s, GM had consolidated its powertrain engineering efforts into a few distinct lines. Generally, North American and European engineering units remained separate, with Australia's Holden and other global divisions borrowing designs from one or the other as needed. GM also worked out sharing agreements with other manufacturers such as Isuzu and Nissan to fill certain gaps in engineering. Similarly, the company also purchased other automotive firms (including Saab and Daewoo), eventually folding their engine designs into the corporate portfolio as well. GM later reorganized its Powertrain Division into GM Global Propulsion Systems, located in Pontiac, Michigan. [6]

GM's German subsidiary, Opel, relies on a range of three-, four- and six-cylinder gasoline and diesel engines. A survey[ citation needed ] of their range shows a reliance on petrol and diesel four-cylinders, and in 2014, there was only one 3-cylinder engine and one 6 cylinder engine in service in Opel's passenger car range.

In addition to automobile and truck engines, GM produced industrial engines, which were sold by brands such as Detroit Diesel, Allison, and Electro-Motive. Most of these engine designs are unrelated to GM's automotive engines.[ citation needed ]

Automotive gasoline engines

Two-cylinder

Three-cylinder

Daewoo M-TEC inline-three engine Silnik M-Tec 0,8 l, Daewoo Matiz.JPG
Daewoo M-TEC inline-three engine

Inline-3

GM Family 1 inline-four engine Car show 013.jpg
GM Family 1 inline-four engine

Four-cylinder

Cadillac inline-four engine 1917 Cadillac.jpg
Cadillac inline-four engine
Saab H inline-four engine 91-900-2,1.jpg
Saab H inline-four engine

Inline-4

Flat-4

Five-cylinder

GM Atlas inline-five engine GMC Canyon Vortec 3500 engine.jpg
GM Atlas inline-five engine

Six-cylinder

Chevrolet Stovebolt inline-six engine 1929 Chevrolet 2-door sedan engine.JPG
Chevrolet Stovebolt inline-six engine

Inline-6

Chevrolet Corvair flat-six engine Chevrolet Corvair 164 Turbo engine.jpg
Chevrolet Corvair flat-six engine

Flat-6

Buick V6 engine Buick lesabre engine 1.jpg
Buick V6 engine

V6

Eight-cylinder

From the 1950s through the 1970s, each GM division had its own V8 engine family. Today, there are only two families of V8 engines in production for road vehicles: the Generation IV small-block and its Generation V small-block derivative.

Oldsmobile Rocket V8 engine Rocket v8.jpg
Oldsmobile Rocket V8 engine
GM LS V8 engine 2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 LS7 engine.jpg
GM LS V8 engine

Inline-8

Pontiac Silver Streak eight engine Pontiac Straight-8.jpg
Pontiac Silver Streak eight engine

V8

Cadillac Twelve engine 1931Cadillac370AcoupeV12-engine.jpg
Cadillac Twelve engine

Twelve-cylinder

Sixteen-cylinder

Gasoline-electric hybrid

Automotive diesel engines

Three-cylinder

Four-cylinder

Six-cylinder

Eight-cylinder

Other diesel engines

Detroit Diesel Series 92 engines Shop engines.jpg
Detroit Diesel Series 92 engines

GM entered the diesel field with its acquisition of the Cleveland-based Winton Engine Company in 1930. Winton's main client was the Electro Motive Company, a producer of internal combustion-electric rail motorcars. GM acquired Electro Motive at roughly the same time as Winton.

A partnership of GM's Research and Development Division and their Winton Engine Corporation delivered their first diesel engines suitable for mobile use starting in 1934. The engines were also sold for marine and stationary applications. In a 1938 reorganization, Winton Engine Corporation became the GM Cleveland Diesel Engine Division, and GM's Detroit Diesel Engine Division began production of smaller (50–149 cu in (0.8–2.4 l) per cylinder) diesel engines. Locomotive engines were moved under the GM Electro Motive Division (EMD) in 1941, while Cleveland Diesel retained development and production of large marine and stationary engines.

Cleveland Diesel was dissolved in 1962 and their remaining production moved to EMD. In 1988, the Detroit Diesel Engine Division was incorporated as an independent company, later acquired by DaimlerChrysler in 2005. EMD was sold off by GM in 2005 and is now a subsidiary of Progress Rail Services.

Locomotive engines

Marine/stationary diesel engines

Heavy and off-road diesel engines

Aircraft engines

Piston

Propfan

1987-1989 *Allison 578-DX

Turboprop

Turboshaft

Turbojet

See also

Related Research Articles

Buick Mid-level luxury division of General Motors

Buick is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors (GM). Started by automotive pioneer David Dunbar Buick, it was among the first American marques of automobiles, and was the company that established General Motors in 1908. Before the establishment of General Motors, GM founder William C. Durant had served as Buick's general manager and major investor.

Pontiac (automobile) Defunct automobile brand owned by General Motors

Pontiac was an American automobile brand owned, manufactured, and commercialized by General Motors. Introduced as a companion make for GM's more expensive line of Oakland automobiles, Pontiac overtook Oakland in popularity and supplanted its parent brand entirely by 1933.

GM Delta platform Motor vehicle platform

Delta is General Motors' compact front-wheel drive automobile and crossover SUV platform, a successor to the GM T platform; it also replaced GM J platform and the Z platform used by the Saturn S-Series. The platform debuted in the 2003 Saturn Ion. Vehicles of this platform generally carry the letter "A" in the fourth character of their VINs.

GM Kappa platform

Kappa was General Motors' subcompact rear-wheel drive automobile platform for roadster applications. The architecture debuted in the 2006 Pontiac Solstice and 2007 Saturn Sky, and ended production in 2009. These vehicles generally have a "M" in the fourth digit of their VIN.

GM Epsilon platform Motor vehicle platform

Epsilon is General Motors' mid-size front-wheel drive automobile platform. The architecture was developed by Opel, and debuted in the 2002 Opel Vectra and 2003 Saab 9-3. Since this platform falls squarely in the center of the worldwide automobile market, GM plans to produce a great many Epsilon vehicles with over a dozen variations. As of 2005, it was GM's highest volume worldwide platform. Even after the dissolution of the GM/Fiat partnership, both companies retain the rights to continue developing Epsilon-derived models.

General Motors 60° V6 engine Motor vehicle engine

The General Motors 60° V6 engine family was a series of 60° V6 engines which were produced for both longitudinal and transverse applications. All of these engines are 12-valve cam-in-block or overhead valve engines, except for the LQ1; which uses 24 valves driven by dual overhead cams. These engines vary in displacement between 2.5 and 3.4 litres and have a cast-iron block and either cast-iron or aluminum heads. Production of these engines began in 1980 and ended in 2005 in the U.S., with production continued in China until 2010. This engine family was the basis for the GM High Value engine family. These engines have also been referred to as the X engines due to their first usage in the X-body cars.

The Chevrolet straight-six engine was an inline-6 engine made in three versions between 1929 and 1988 by the Chevrolet Division of General Motors. It replaced Chevrolet's [[Chevrolet Straight-4 engine|171-cubic-inch (2.8 L) inline-four as the maker's sole engine from 1929 through 1954, and was the company's base engine starting in 1955 when it added the small block V8 to the lineup. It was completely phased out in North America by 1990; in Brazil, GM held on to its fuel-injected version through the 1998 model year. It was replaced by more recently developed V6 and four-cylinder engines. Chevrolet did not offer another inline-six until the 2002 General Motors Atlas engine's debut in the Chevrolet TrailBlazer.

Quad 4 engine Motor vehicle engine

The Quad 4s is a family of principally DOHC inline four-cylinder engines produced by General Motors' Oldsmobile division between 1987 and 2002; a single SOHC version was built between 1992 and 1994.

General Motors 122 engine Motor vehicle engine

The 122 engine was designed by Chevrolet and was used in a wide array of General Motors vehicles. The 122 was similar to the first two generations of the General Motors 60° V6 engine; sharing cylinder bore diameters and some parts. The 122 was available in the US beginning in 1982 for the GM J platform compact cars and S-series trucks.

GMC V8 engine Motor vehicle engine

GMC shares engines with other General Motors divisions. But like their straight-6, GMC formerly had its own line of V8 engines.

Oakland Motor Car Company Michigan carmaker and division of General Motors, active 1908-1931

The Oakland Motor Car Company of Pontiac, Michigan, was an American automobile manufacturer and division of General Motors. Purchased by General Motors in 1909, the company continued to produce modestly priced automobiles until 1931 when the brand was dropped in favor of the division's Pontiac make.

Ecotec is a General Motors (GM) and Opel Automobile GmbH (Opel) trademark that refers to a series of emissions technologies that were implemented throughout a range of GM engines. ECOTEC can refer to the following diesel and petrol engines originally produced by General Motors:

The Family 1 is a straight-four piston engine that was developed by Opel, a former subsidiary of General Motors and now a subsidiary of PSA Group, to replace the Opel cam-in-head engines for use on mid-range cars from Opel/Vauxhall. Originally produced at the Aspern engine plant, production was moved to the Szentgotthard engine plant in Hungary with the introduction of the DOHC version. GM do Brasil at São José dos Campos, GMDAT at Bupyeong and GM North America at Toluca also build these engines.

The Family II is a straight-4 piston engine that was originally developed by Opel in the 1970s, debuting in 1979. Available in a wide range of cubic capacities ranging from 1598 to 2405cc, it simultaneously replaced the Opel OHV, Opel CIH and Vauxhall Slant-4 engines, and was GM Europe's core powerplant design for much of the 1980s.

General Motors companion make program Automotive marques

In the late 1920s, American automotive company General Motors (GM) launched four companion makes to supplement its existing lineup of five car brands, or "makes". The companion makes were LaSalle introduced for the 1927 model year to supplement Cadillac, Marquette introduced in 1929 for 1930 to supplement Buick, Pontiac introduced for 1926 to supplement Oakland, and Viking introduced for 1929 to supplement Oldsmobile. GM's fifth existing make, Chevrolet, did not receive a companion make. With the exception of Viking, each of the companion makes were slotted below their "parent make" in GM's hierarchy.

History of General Motors Aspect of history

The history of General Motors (GM), one of the world's largest car and truck manufacturers, dates to more than a century and involves a vast scope of industrial activity around the world, mostly focused on motorized transportation and the engineering and manufacturing that make it possible. Founded in 1908 as a holding company in Flint, Michigan, as of 2012 it employed approximately 209,000 people around the world. With global headquarters at the Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan, United States, General Motors manufactures cars and trucks in 35 countries. In 2008, 8.35 million GM cars and trucks were sold globally under various brands. Current auto brands are Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, and Wuling. Former GM automotive brands include La Salle, McLaughlin, Oakland, Oldsmobile, Opel, Pontiac, Hummer, Saab, Saturn, Vauxhall, Daewoo and Holden.

Chevrolet Orlando car manufactured by GM Korea under the Chevrolet division

The Chevrolet Orlando is a crossover-styled three-row compact MPV manufactured by General Motors under the Chevrolet brand since 2011. The first-generation model was mainly developed and manufactured by GM Korea, while also assembled in four other countries. Its main markets were South Korea, Europe, Canada, Latin America, and several other Asian countries. It was not marketed in the United States.

A V8 engine is an engine with eight cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of four cylinders.

Saginaw Metal Casting Operations is an automobile engine foundry plant in Saginaw, Michigan. Opened under GM management in 1919, the factory produces engine blocks and cylinder heads for General Motors vehicles. The factory currently occupies 1.9 million square feet on 490 acres. The location was originally the Marquette Motor Company until acquired by William Durant in 1909 when the car was discontinued in 1911. During World War I, it was used to manufacture mortar shells for the US Ordnance Corps, then was repurposed for engine block casting when operations at Northway Motor and Manufacturing Division ended in 1925. Historically in September 1927 it was known as the Chevrolet Grey Iron Foundry. In the past when it was called GM-Saginaw Product Company (SPC) a cloverleaf casting symbol mark was cast onto the iron component.

References

  1. "Northway Motor (Detroit, Michigan)". Wikimapia. Wikimapia. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  2. "100 years GMC History" (PDF). GM Heritage Center. General Motors. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  3. "Olds FAQ - Engines". 442.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
  4. "Class of 1965: When GM Had Eight V8 Engine Families". The Truth About Cars. 2010-12-18. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
  5. "Northway Motor (Detroit, Michigan)". Wikimapia. Wikimapia. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  6. GM Global Propulsion Systems
  7. e (2007-06-05). "HowStuffWorks "How Buick Works"". Auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
  8. "Pontiac Buggy Company | Pontiac Spring & Wagon Works | Oakland Motor Car | Pontiac |". My1955.com. 1941-03-01. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
  9. 1 2 Archived August 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  10. "1906, Buick Goes Four-Cylinder - Generations of GM". History.gmheritagecenter.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
  11. "Buick Pre 1930 General Specs".
  12. "Buick Pre 1930 General Specs".
  13. "1922 Buick 22-35 specifications, information, data, photos 44759". Carfolio.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
  14. "1909 Oakland Model 40". Conceptcarz.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
  15. "customs-n-classics.dk". customs-n-classics.dk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
  16. http://media.gm.com/media/de/de/opel/company_opel/Werke/Kaiserslautern.html . Retrieved 23 May 2014.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. "Holden stops Family II engine Production". ZerCustoms . Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  18. . http://history.gmheritagecenter.com/wiki/index.php/GM_do_Brasil_Milestones:_1980_-_1989.Missing or empty |title= (help); External link in |publisher= (help); Missing or empty |url= (help)
  19. "Werk Aspern Plant. Facts and Figures" . Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  20. "1988 Opel Omega A 2.3 TD Specs". media.opel.de. 2011-10-15. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
  21. "New Diesels Power Chevy's Global Midsize Trucks". media.opel.de. 2011-10-15. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
  22. "New 1.6-liter diesel engine continues powertrain renewal at Opel". media.opel.de. 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
  23. "All-new Opel 2.0 CDTI: New Generation Large Diesel Debuts in Paris". media.opel.de. 2014-09-10. Retrieved 2014-12-14.
General Motors automotive engine timeline, 1980 to present
1980s1990s2000s2010s2020s
01234567890123456789012345678901234567890
Gasoline Flat 4 EJ
Inline OHV Ecotec
Iron Duke Family 0
CIH H AZ
G Quad 4 ZZ ZR
Slant-4 A S-TEC
Starfire Saturn Atlas MGE
Family II SGE
Family 1
122 L3B
X G
J
5Atlas
3GS-TEC
Family 0
SGE
E-Turbo
6 Chevrolet
Red Blue Black RB30 Atlas
CIH E-TEC
V Buick
90°
60°
54° High Feature
H J
Shortstar High Value Ecotec3
16 16
8 Rocket Northstar Blackwing
Pontiac High Technology
Big Block
Holden
Cadillac LS
Small Block
Diesel Detroit Duramax
Oldsmobile
6 Oldsmobile DMAX
Inline M51 Duramax
Detroit 60
4 JTD
RA Family Z
E Circle L
Family II Family B
A
MDE
6H
  • non-GM engines used in
  • GM vehicles italicized
01234567890123456789012345678901234567890
1980s1990s2000s2010s2020s

Coordinates: 42°39′45″N83°17′08″W / 42.6623635°N 83.2856193°W / 42.6623635; -83.2856193