|GM High Feature V6|
|Also called||Alloytec V6|
|Valvetrain||DOHC 4 valves x cyl. with VVT|
|Compression ratio||9.5:1, 10.0:1, 10.2:1, 10.3:1, 11.3:1, 11.5:1, 11.7:1, 12.2:1|
|Turbocharger||Twin-turbo (in some models)|
|Fuel system|| Sequential multi-port fuel injection |
|Fuel type||Gasoline, E85, LPG|
|Oil system||Wet sump|
|Power output||201–464 hp (150–346 kW; 204–470 PS)|
|Torque output||182–445 lb⋅ft (247–603 N⋅m)|
|Emissions target standard||Euro 6|
The GM High Feature engine (also known as the HFV6, and including the 3600 LY7 and derivative LP1) is a family of modern General Motors DOHC V6 engines. The series was introduced in 2004 with the Cadillac CTS and the Holden Commodore (VZ).
It is a 60° 24-valve design with aluminum block and heads and Sequential multi-port fuel injection. Most versions feature continuously variable cam phasing on both intake and exhaust valves and electronic throttle control. Other features include piston oil-jet capability, forged and fillet rolled crankshaft, sinter forged connecting rods, a variable-length intake manifold, twin knock control sensors and coil-on-plug ignition. It was developed by the same international team responsible for the Ecotec, including the Opel engineers responsible for the 54° V6, with involvement with design and development engineering from Ricardo plc.
Holden sells the HFV6 under the name Alloytec. The High Feature moniker on the Holden produced engine is reserved for the twin cam phasing high output version. The block was designed to be expandable from 2.8 L to 4.0 L. High Feature V6 engines were previously produced in Fishermans Bend, Port Melbourne, Australia and remain in production at the following four manufacturing locations: St. Catharines Engine Plant, St. Catharines, Canada; Flint Engine South in Flint, Michigan, United States; Romulus Engine Plant in Romulus, MI and Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila, Mexico. The assembly lines for the St. Catharines and Flint facilities were manufactured by Hirata Corporation at their powertrain facility in Kumamoto, Japan. Most of the designs of this motor happened in Flint. They were first produced for the Cadillac range. The engine block and cylinder heads are cast at Defiance Foundry in Defiance, Ohio.
The HFV6 was first designed, tested and produced in a joint program by Cadillac and Holden. A majority of designs into the new alloy construction, transmission pairing and first use in production were all undertaken in Detroit (and manufactured in St. Catharines, Ontario). Holden had the job of developing smaller engines (Holden 3.2, LP1 and Saab 2.8, LP9 Turbo) as well as their own Holden 3.6 HFV6 (called the Alloytec V6) for local models.
Cadillac and Holden both tested variations of these engines in US and Australia.
A 2.8 L (2,792 cc)LP1 variant was introduced in the 2005 Cadillac CTS. It was also used on the Chinese 2008 CTS. It has a 89 mm × 74.8 mm (3.50 in × 2.94 in) bore and stroke, Sequential multi-port fuel injection and a 10.0:1 compression ratio. The LP1 was built in St. Catharines, Ontario.
|2007–2009||Buick Park Avenue (China)||201 hp (150 kW; 204 PS) @ 6500 rpm||195 lb⋅ft (264 N⋅m) @ 2600 rpm|
|2005–2007||Cadillac CTS||210 hp (157 kW; 213 PS) @ 6500 rpm||194 lb⋅ft (263 N⋅m) @ 3300 rpm|
|2008-2010||Cadillac CTS||210 hp (157 kW; 213 PS) @ 6800 rpm||182 lb⋅ft (247 N⋅m) @ 3600 rpm|
|2007–2009||Cadillac SLS (China)||209 hp (156 kW; 212 PS) @ 6500 rpm||194 lb⋅ft (263 N⋅m) @ 3300 rpm|
This engine is also known as a A28NET, Z28NET, Z28NEL or B284.
The LP9 is a 2.8 L turbocharged version used for the Saab 9-3, Saab 9-5 and other GM vehicles. It has the same bore and stroke as the naturally aspirated LP1, however the compression ratio is reduced to 9.5:1. The engine is manufactured at Holden's Fishermans Bend engine factory in Port Melbourne, Australia, while GM Powertrain Sweden (formerly Saab Automobile Powertrain) is responsible for turbocharging the engine. Global versions of this engine use the same horsepower rating for both metric and imperial markets – mechanical horsepower – while the Europe-only versions are rated in metric horsepower.
|2005–2008||Opel/Vauxhall Vectra||227 hp (169 kW; 230 PS) @ 5500 rpm||330 N⋅m (243 lb⋅ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm|
|2005–2008||Opel/Vauxhall Signum||227 hp (169 kW; 230 PS) @ 5500 rpm||330 N⋅m (243 lb⋅ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm|
|2006–2008||247 hp (184 kW; 250 PS) @ 5500 rpm||350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm|
|2005||Opel/Vauxhall Vectra OPC/VXR||247 hp (184 kW; 250 PS) @ 5500 rpm||350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm|
|2006–2008||276 hp (206 kW; 280 PS) @ 5500 rpm||350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm|
|2006–2009||Cadillac BLS||247 hp (184 kW; 250 PS) @ 5500 rpm||350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm|
|2006–2008||Saab 9-3 Aero||247 hp (184 kW; 250 PS) @ 5500 rpm||350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm|
|2009||276 hp (206 kW; 280 PS) @ 5500 rpm||400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm|
|2008||Saab 9-3 Turbo X||276 hp (206 kW; 280 PS) @ 5500 rpm||400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm|
|2008||Saab 9-3 Aero Convertible||252 hp (188 kW; 255 PS) @ 5500 rpm||350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm|
|2009||276 hp (206 kW; 280 PS) @ 5500 rpm||370 N⋅m (273 lb⋅ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm|
|2009–2013||Opel/Vauxhall Insignia||256 hp (191 kW; 260 PS) @ 5500 rpm||350 N⋅m (258 lb⋅ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm|
|2009–2013||Opel/Vauxhall Insignia OPC/VXR||321 hp (239 kW; 325 PS) @ 5250 rpm||435 N⋅m (321 lb⋅ft) @ 1900-4500 rpm|
|2010–2012||Saab 9-5 Turbo6 XWD /Aero||296 hp (221 kW; 300 PS) @ 5500 rpm||400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) @ 2000 rpm|
|2010–2012||Saab 9-5 Hirsch Performance||330 hp (246 kW; 335 PS) @ 5500 rpm||430 N⋅m (317 lb⋅ft) @ 2500 rpm|
The LAU is GM's new code for the LP9 Turbo engine, its usage starting with the 2010 Cadillac SRX.In 2011, production of the Cadillac SRX with the LAU engine ceased, but the engine remained in use in the Saab 9-4X until 2012, when production of that model came to an end.
|2010-2011||Cadillac SRX||300 hp (224 kW; 304 PS) at 5500 rpm||295 lb⋅ft (400 N⋅m) at 2000 rpm|
|2011-2012||Saab 9-4X||300 hp (224 kW; 304 PS) at 5500 rpm||295 lb⋅ft (400 N⋅m) at 2000 rpm|
The LF1 is a 3.0-litre (2,994 cc) version with a bore and stroke of 89 mm × 80.3 mm (3.50 in × 3.16 in) produced between 2010 and 2014 equipped with spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) and a 11.7:1 compression ratio.
|2010||Buick LaCrosse||255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 6950 rpm||217 lb⋅ft (294 N⋅m) @ 5600 rpm|
|2010–2012||Buick Park Avenue (China)||251 hp (187 kW; 254 PS) @ 6700 rpm||218 lb⋅ft (296 N⋅m) @ 2900 rpm|
|2010–2011||Cadillac CTS||270 hp (201 kW; 274 PS) @ 7000 rpm||223 lb⋅ft (302 N⋅m) @ 5700 rpm|
|2011–2013||Cadillac SLS (China)||268 hp (200 kW; 272 PS) @ 7000 rpm||300 N⋅m (221 ft⋅lb) @ 5600 rpm|
|2010–2011||Cadillac SRX||265 hp (198 kW; 269 PS) @ 6950 rpm||223 lb⋅ft (302 N⋅m) @ 5100 rpm|
|2010||Chevrolet Equinox||264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS) @ 6950 rpm||222 lb⋅ft (301 N⋅m) @ 5100 rpm|
|2010||GMC Terrain||264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS) @ 6950 rpm||222 lb⋅ft (301 N⋅m) @ 5100 rpm|
|2010||Holden Commodore||255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 6700 rpm||214 lb⋅ft (290 N⋅m) @ 2900 rpm|
|2011||Saab 9-4X||265 hp (198 kW; 269 PS) @ 6950 rpm||223 lb⋅ft (302 N⋅m) @ 5100 rpm|
|2011||Chevrolet Captiva||255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 6900 rpm||212 lb⋅ft (287 N⋅m) @ 5800 rpm|
|2012||Chevrolet Malibu (Middle East)||260 hp (194 kW; 264 PS) @ 6900 rpm||214 lb⋅ft (290 N⋅m) @ 5600 rpm|
The LFW is a flexible fuel version of the LF1, capable of running on E85, gasoline, or any mixture of the two. Output is identical to the LF1.
|2011-2017||Buick GL8 (China only)||254 hp (189 kW; 258 PS) @ 6800 rpm||214 lb⋅ft (290 N⋅m) @ 5200 rpm|
|2011–2012||Chevrolet Equinox||264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS) @ 6950 rpm||222 lb⋅ft (301 N⋅m) @ 5100 rpm|
|2011–2012||GMC Terrain||264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS) @ 6950 rpm||222 lb⋅ft (301 N⋅m) @ 5100 rpm|
|2012–2013||Cadillac CTS||270 hp (201 kW; 274 PS) @ 7000 rpm||223 lb⋅ft (302 N⋅m) @ 5700 rpm|
|2012–2013||Chevrolet Captiva Sport||264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS) @ 6950 rpm||222 lb⋅ft (301 N⋅m) @ 5100 rpm|
|2010-2017||Holden Commodore||254 hp (189 kW; 258 PS) @ 6800 rpm||214 lb⋅ft (290 N⋅m) @ 5200 rpm|
Holden has built its own 3.2 L (3,195 cc) version of the High Feature engine in Australia produced between 2005 and 2010 with a bore and stroke of 89 mm × 85.6 mm (3.50 in × 3.37 in). Branded with the Alloytec name like the 3.6 litre version, this version produces 227 hp (169 kW; 230 PS) at 6600 rpm and 297 N⋅m (219 lb⋅ft) at 3200 rpm. It has a 10.3:1 compression ratio. Its fuel economy is 4–6 km/L (11–17 mpg‑imp; 9.4–14.1 mpg‑US) in city, and 7–9 km/L (20–25 mpg‑imp; 16–21 mpg‑US) on highway.[ citation needed ]. Holden also produced the 3.2 L engines that were used by Alfa Romeo as the basis of its JTS V6 engine.
|Displacement||3,564 cc (3.564 L)|
|Cylinder bore||94 mm (3.70 in)|
|Piston stroke||85.6 mm (3.37 in)|
|Compression ratio||10.2:1, 11.3:1, 11.5:1|
|Fuel type||Gasoline, Autogas (LPG), E85|
|Dry weight||168 kg (370 lb) (3.6 V6 High Feature engine)|
The 3.6 L; 217.5 cu in (3,564 cc)LY7 engine was introduced in the 2004 Cadillac CTS sedan. It has a 10.2:1 compression ratio, a bore and a stroke of 94 mm × 85.6 mm (3.70 in × 3.37 in). Lower powered versions only have variable cam phasing on the inlet cam (LE0). Selected models also include variable exhaust. The engine weighs 370 lb (170 kg) as installed.
This engine is produced in several locations: St. Catharines (Ontario), Flint Engine South (Michigan), Melbourne (Australia), Ramos Arizpe (Mexico), and Sagara (Japan) by Suzuki.
Suzuki's engine designation is N36A.
A dual fuel 235 hp (175 kW; 238 PS) version able to run on petrol and autogas (LPG) has also been produced by Holden in Australia.
|2004–2007||Buick Rendezvous CXL/Ultra||242 hp (180 kW; 245 PS) @ 6000 rpm||232 lb⋅ft (315 N⋅m) @ 3500 rpm|
|2004–2007||Cadillac CTS||255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 6200 rpm||252 lb⋅ft (342 N⋅m) @ 2800 rpm|
|2008–2009||Cadillac CTS||263 hp (196 kW; 267 PS) @ 6200 rpm||253 lb⋅ft (343 N⋅m) @ 3100 rpm|
|2004–2009||Cadillac SRX||255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 6500 rpm||254 lb⋅ft (344 N⋅m) @ 2800 rpm|
|2004–2005||Holden VZ Commodore||235 hp (175 kW; 238 PS) @ 6000 rpm||236 lb⋅ft (320 N⋅m) @ 2800 rpm|
|2006–2007||231 hp (172 kW; 234 PS) @ 6000 rpm||236 lb⋅ft (320 N⋅m) @ 2800 rpm|
|2004–2006||Holden VZ Commodore Holden WL Statesman Holden VZ Calais SV6||255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 6500 rpm||251 lb⋅ft (340 N⋅m) @ 3200 rpm|
|2006–2007||255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 6500 rpm||247 lb⋅ft (335 N⋅m) @ 3200 rpm|
|2005–2008||Buick LaCrosse CXS||240 hp (179 kW; 243 PS) @ 6000 rpm||225 lb⋅ft (305 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm|
|2005–2007||Cadillac STS||255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 6500 rpm||252 lb⋅ft (342 N⋅m) @ 3200 rpm|
|2006–2007||Holden VE Commodore Omega||240 hp (179 kW; 243 PS) @ 6000 rpm||243 lb⋅ft (329 N⋅m) @ 2600 rpm|
|2008–2009||235 hp (175 kW; 238 PS) @ 6500 rpm||240 lb⋅ft (325 N⋅m) @ 2400 rpm|
|2006–2009||Holden WM Statesman/Caprice||262 hp (195 kW; 266 PS) @ 6500 rpm||250 lb⋅ft (339 N⋅m) @ 2600 rpm|
|2007–2009||Buick Park Avenue (China)||255 hp (190 kW; 259 PS) @ 6600 rpm||250 lb⋅ft (339 N⋅m) @ 2800 rpm|
|2007–2009||Cadillac SLS (China)||251 hp (187 kW; 254 PS) @ 6500 rpm||252 lb⋅ft (342 N⋅m) @ 3200 rpm|
|2006–2011||Holden Rodeo/Colorado||211 hp (157 kW; 214 PS) @ 6500 rpm||231 lb⋅ft (313 N⋅m) @ 2600 rpm|
|2007–2008||GMC Acadia||275 hp (205 kW; 279 PS) @ 6600 rpm||251 lb⋅ft (340 N⋅m) @ 3200 rpm|
|2007||Pontiac G6 GTP||252 hp (188 kW; 255 PS) @ 6300 rpm||251 lb⋅ft (340 N⋅m) @ 3200 rpm|
|2007–2009||Saturn Aura XR||252 hp (188 kW; 255 PS) @ 6300 rpm||251 lb⋅ft (340 N⋅m) @ 3200 rpm|
|2007–2008||Saturn Outlook XE single exhaust||270 hp (201 kW; 274 PS) @ 6600 rpm||248 lb⋅ft (336 N⋅m) @ 3200 rpm|
|2007–2008||Saturn Outlook XR dual exhaust||275 hp (205 kW; 279 PS) @ 6600 rpm||251 lb⋅ft (340 N⋅m) @ 3200 rpm|
|2008||Buick Enclave||275 hp (205 kW; 279 PS) @ 6600 rpm||251 lb⋅ft (340 N⋅m) @ 3200 rpm|
|2008–2012||Chevrolet Malibu||252 hp (188 kW; 255 PS) @ 6300 rpm||251 lb⋅ft (340 N⋅m) @ 3200 rpm|
|2008–2009||Chevrolet Equinox Sport||264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS) @ 6500 rpm||250 lb⋅ft (339 N⋅m) @ 2300 rpm|
|2008–2009||Pontiac G6 GXP||252 hp (188 kW; 255 PS) @ 6300 rpm||251 lb⋅ft (340 N⋅m) @ 3200 rpm|
|2008–2009||Pontiac G8||256 hp (191 kW; 260 PS) @ 6300 rpm||248 lb⋅ft (336 N⋅m) @ 2100 rpm|
|2008–2009||Pontiac Torrent GXP||264 hp (197 kW; 268 PS) @ 6500 rpm||250 lb⋅ft (339 N⋅m) @ 2300 rpm|
|2008–2009||Saturn Vue XR / Red Line||257 hp (192 kW; 261 PS) @ 6500 rpm||248 lb⋅ft (336 N⋅m) @ 2100 rpm|
|2007-2009||Suzuki XL7||252 hp (188 kW; 255 PS) at 6500 rpm||243 lb⋅ft (329 N⋅m) at 2300 rpm|
The 3.6 L (3,564 cc)LLT is a direct injected version based on the earlier LY7 engine. It was first unveiled in May 2006, and the DI version was claimed to have 15 percent greater power, 8 percent greater torque, and 3 percent better fuel economy than its port-injected counterpart. The LLT engine has a compression ratio of 11.3:1, and has been certified by the SAE to produce 302 hp (225 kW; 306 PS) at 6300 rpm and 272 lb⋅ft (369 N⋅m) of torque at 5200 rpm on regular unleaded (87 octane) gasoline. This engine debuted on the 2008 Cadillac STS and CTS. GM used a LLT in all 2009 Lambda-derived crossover SUVs to allow class-leading fuel economy in light of the new Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. In the Lambdas, LLT engine produces 288 hp (215 kW; 292 PS) and 270 lb⋅ft (366 N⋅m) of torque.
|2008–2011||Cadillac CTS||304 hp (227 kW; 308 PS) @ 6400 rpm||273 lb⋅ft (370 N⋅m) @ 5200 rpm|
|2008–2011||Cadillac STS||302 hp (225 kW; 306 PS) @ 6300 rpm||272 lb⋅ft (369 N⋅m) @ 5200 rpm|
|2009–2017||Buick Enclave||288 hp (215 kW; 292 PS) @ 6300 rpm||270 lb⋅ft (366 N⋅m) @ 3400 rpm||2016 link|
|2009–2017||Chevrolet Traverse single exhaust||281 hp (210 kW; 285 PS) @ 6300 rpm||266 lb⋅ft (361 N⋅m) @ 3400 rpm||2016 link (red)|
|2009–2017||Chevrolet Traverse dual exhaust||288 hp (215 kW; 292 PS) @ 6300 rpm||270 lb⋅ft (366 N⋅m) @ 3400 rpm||2016 link (blue)|
|2009–2016||GMC Acadia||288 hp (215 kW; 292 PS)||270 lb⋅ft (366 N⋅m)||2016 link|
|2009||Saturn Outlook single exhaust||281 hp (210 kW; 285 PS) @ 6300 rpm||266 lb⋅ft (361 N⋅m) @ 3400 rpm|
|2009||Saturn Outlook dual exhaust||288 hp (215 kW; 292 PS) @ 6300 rpm||270 lb⋅ft (366 N⋅m) @ 3400 rpm|
|2009–2011||Holden VE Commodore SV6||281 hp (210 kW; 285 PS) @ 6400 rpm||258 lb⋅ft (350 N⋅m) @ 2900 rpm|
|2009–2011||Holden WM Statesman/Caprice||281 hp (210 kW; 285 PS) @ 6400 rpm||258 lb⋅ft (350 N⋅m) @ 2900 rpm|
|2010–2011||Buick LaCrosse CXS||280 hp (209 kW; 284 PS) @ 6400 rpm||259 lb⋅ft (351 N⋅m) @ 5200 rpm|
|2010-2011||Chevrolet Camaro||312 hp (233 kW; 316 PS) @ 6400 rpm||278 lb⋅ft (377 N⋅m) @ 5200 rpm|
|2010–2011||Cadillac SLS (China)||307 hp (229 kW; 311 PS) @ 6400 rpm||276 lb⋅ft (374 N⋅m) @ 5200 rpm|
The LFX is an enhanced version of the LLT engine. Introduced in the MY2012 Chevrolet Camaro LS, it is 20.5 pounds (9.3 kg) lighter than the LLT, due to a redesigned cylinder head and integrated exhaust manifold, and composite intake manifold. Other components like the fuel injectors, intake valves, and fuel pump have also been updated. Power and torque are up slightly from the LLT. The compression ratio is 11.5:1. The LFX also features E85 flex-fuel capability.
|2012–2016||Buick LaCrosse||303 hp (226 kW; 307 PS) @ 6800 rpm||264 lb⋅ft (358 N⋅m) @ 5300 rpm||link|
|2013–2015||Cadillac ATS||321 hp (239 kW; 325 PS) @ 6800 rpm||274 lb⋅ft (371 N⋅m) @ 4800 rpm||link|
|2012–2014|| Cadillac CTS |
(2014 Wagon & Coupe only)
|318 hp (237 kW; 322 PS) @ 6800 rpm||275 lb⋅ft (373 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm||link|
|2014–2015|| Cadillac CTS |
(2014 Sedan only)
|321 hp (239 kW; 325 PS) @ 6800 rpm||275 lb⋅ft (373 N⋅m) @ 4900 rpm||link|
|2012–2016||Cadillac SRX||308 hp (230 kW; 312 PS) @ 6800 rpm||265 lb⋅ft (359 N⋅m) @ 2400 rpm||link|
|2013–2019||Cadillac XTS||304 hp (227 kW; 308 PS) @ 6800 rpm||264 lb⋅ft (358 N⋅m) @ 5200 rpm||link|
|2012–2015||Chevrolet Camaro||323 hp (241 kW; 327 PS) @ 6800 rpm||278 lb⋅ft (377 N⋅m) @ 4800 rpm||link|
|2012–2017||Chevrolet Caprice PPV||301 hp (224 kW; 305 PS) @ 6700 rpm||265 lb⋅ft (359 N⋅m) @ 4800 rpm||link|
|2015–2016||Chevrolet Colorado||305 hp (227 kW; 309 PS) @ 6800 rpm||269 lb⋅ft (365 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm||link|
|2013–2017||Chevrolet Equinox||301 hp (224 kW; 305 PS) @ 6500 rpm||272 lb⋅ft (369 N⋅m) @ 4800 rpm||link|
|2012–2016||Chevrolet Impala||302 hp (225 kW; 306 PS) @ 6500 rpm||262 lb⋅ft (355 N⋅m) @ 5300 rpm|
|2014–2020||Chevrolet Impala||305 hp (227 kW; 309 PS) @ 6500 rpm||262 lb⋅ft (355 N⋅m) @ 5300 rpm||link|
|2013–2017||GMC Terrain||301 hp (224 kW; 305 PS) @ 6500 rpm||272 lb⋅ft (369 N⋅m) @ 4800 rpm||link|
|2011–2015||Holden Caprice||281 hp (210 kW; 285 PS) @ 6700 rpm||258 lb⋅ft (350 N⋅m) @ 2800 rpm|
|2011–2013||Holden Commodore VE II (MY 2012)||281 hp (210 kW; 285 PS) @ 6700 rpm||258 lb⋅ft (350 N⋅m) @ 2800 rpm|
|2013–2017||Holden Commodore VF||281 hp (210 kW; 285 PS) @ 6700 rpm||258 lb⋅ft (350 N⋅m) @ 2800 rpm|
The LWR is dedicated LPG 3.6-liter engine. Introduced in the MY2012 Holden Commodore, Based on the 3.6-litre LY7 engine, the LWR had a vapour injection system. The vapour injection system injected gas directly into the air intake runner, thereby preventing excess gas from circulating through the air intake system. Although liquid LPG injection generally produces more power, Holden justified vapour injection on the grounds of lower fuel consumption, lower CO
2 emissions, reduced pumping and parasitic losses, and start-up reliability in hot weather.
The dedicated LPG LWR engine produced peak power and torque of 180 kW (245 PS; 241 hp) at 6000 rpm and 320 N⋅m (236 lb⋅ft) at 2000 rpm. The LWR engine was engine was mated to GM's six-speed 6L45 automatic transmission and, over the combined ADR 81/02 test cycle, the Commodore Omega achieved fuel consumption of 11.8 L/100 km (24 mpg‑imp; 19.9 mpg‑US) – an improvement of 1.6 L/100 km (180 mpg‑imp; 150 mpg‑US) compared to its dual fuel LW2 predecessor. Furthermore, the LWR engine exceeded Euro 6 emissions standards.
|2012–2013||Holden Commodore VE II (MY 2012)||241 hp (180 kW; 244 PS) @ 6000 rpm||236 lb⋅ft (320 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm|
|2013–2015||Holden Commodore VF||241 hp (180 kW; 244 PS) @ 6000 rpm||236 lb⋅ft (320 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm|
|2012–2015||Holden Caprice||241 hp (180 kW; 244 PS) @ 6000 rpm||236 lb⋅ft (320 N⋅m) @ 2000 rpm|
The 3.6 L (3,564 cc)LCS is derived from the direct-injected LLT for use in hybrids, using the two-mode system. Differences from the LLT include a slightly lower compression ratio, 11.3:1, and lower power and torque peaks. It was to debut in the 2009 Saturn Vue Hybrid, where it would make 262 hp (195 kW; 266 PS) at 6100 rpm and 250 lb⋅ft (339 N⋅m) of torque at 4800 rpm. Fuel economy 6–8 km/L (17–23 mpg‑imp; 14–19 mpg‑US) in city, 9–11 km/L (25–31 mpg‑imp; 21–26 mpg‑US) on highway Applications:
The 3.6 L twin-turbocharged version for the 2014 Cadillac CTS and 2014 Cadillac XTS was announced at the 2013 NYAS.
The engine is rated at 420 hp (313 kW; 426 PS) of power at 5750 rpm and 430 lb⋅ft (583 N⋅m) of torque at 3500-4500 rpm (with 90% of torque being available at 2500-5500 rpm) and helps the CTS achieve 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) time of 4.6 seconds with an 8-speed automatic transmission.
In essence, the twin-turbo 3.6L V6 is the forced-induction variant of the popular LFX V6 found in the Cadillac ATS, XTS, and SRX, among many other GM models, with several important upgrades, including:
|2014–2019||Cadillac XTS||404 hp (301 kW; 410 PS) @ 6000 rpm||369 lb⋅ft (500 N⋅m) @ 1900-5600 rpm||link|
|2014–2019||Cadillac CTS||420 hp (313 kW; 426 PS) @ 5750 rpm||430 lb⋅ft (583 N⋅m) @ 3500-4500 rpm||link|
The LF4 is a higher-performance variant of the LF3 for use in the Cadillac ATS-V. Changes to the LF3 include:
|2016–2019||Cadillac ATS-V, Cadillac ATS-V Coupe||464 hp (346 kW; 470 PS) @ 5850 RPM||445 lb⋅ft (603 N⋅m) @ 3500 RPM||2016 link|
|2022-present||Cadillac CT4-V Blackwing||472 hp (352 kW; 479 PS)||445 lb⋅ft (603 N⋅m)|
The LFR is a bi-fuel variant of the LFX, although multi-point fuel injection is used for both the gasoline and CNG instead of direct-injection.
|2015–2017||Chevrolet Impala Bi-Fuel||CNG232 hp (173 kW; 235 PS) @ 6000 RPM||CNG218 lb⋅ft (296 N⋅m) @ 5200 RPM||2016 CNG link|
|Gasoline258 hp (192 kW; 262 PS) @ 5900 RPM||Gasoline244 lb⋅ft (331 N⋅m) @ 4800 RPM||2016 Gas link|
The LFY is similar to the LFX, but adds stop-start technology and has improved airflow.
|2018–||Buick Enclave||310 hp (231 kW; 314 PS) @ 6800 rpm||266 lb⋅ft (361 N⋅m) @ 2800 rpm|
|2018–||Chevrolet Traverse||310 hp (231 kW; 314 PS) @ 6800 rpm||266 lb⋅ft (361 N⋅m) @ 2800 rpm|
Starting with 2016 Cadillac models a new generation of High Feature V6s were developed. 103 mm (4.055 in) on prior HFV6 engines to 106 mm (4.173 in) and a redesigned cooling system to target the hottest areas while also facilitating faster warm-up. They also incorporate engine start-stop technology, cylinder-deactivation, 2-stage oil pumps, and updated variable valve timing featuring intermediate park technology for late-intake valve closure. Both engines debuted in the 2016 Cadillac CT6.These new engines have redesigned block architectures with bore centers increased from
Bore and stroke of 86 mm × 85.8 mm (3.39 in × 3.38 in) are used, along with a 9.8:1 compression ratio and twin turbos with titanium-aluminide turbine wheels. Maximum engine speed is 6500 RPM. Premium unleaded fuel is required.
|2016–2019||Cadillac CT6||404 hp (301 kW; 410 PS) @ 5700 RPM||400 lb⋅ft (542 N⋅m) @ 2500-5100 RPM||dyno chart|
Bore and stroke of 86 mm × 85.8 mm (3.39 in × 3.38 in) are used, along with a 9.8:1 compression ratio and twin turbos with titanium-aluminide turbine wheels. Maximum engine speed is 6500 RPM. Premium unleaded fuel is required.
|2020-present||Cadillac CT5||335 hp (250 kW; 340 PS) @ 5600 RPM||400 lb⋅ft (542 N⋅m) @ 2400-4400 RPM|
|V: 360 hp (268 kW; 365 PS) @ 5600 RPM||V: 405 lb⋅ft (549 N⋅m) @ 2400-4400 RPM|
Along with the increased bore spacing, the new 3.6 L DI V6 has larger bores than before, growing from 94 mm (3.701 in) to 95 mm (3.740 in) with the same 85.8 mm (3.378 in) stroke as the 3.0L LGW, for a displacement of 3.6 L (3,649 cc). Intake and exhaust valves are also increased in size along with other changes to the cylinder head. Compression ratio is 11.5:1 and maximum engine speed is 7200 RPM.
|2016–2019||Cadillac ATS||335 hp (250 kW; 340 PS) @ 6800 RPM||285 lb⋅ft (386 N⋅m) @ 5300 RPM||2016 link|
|2016–2019||Cadillac CT6||335 hp (250 kW; 340 PS) @ 6800 RPM||284 lb⋅ft (385 N⋅m) @ 5300 RPM||2016 link|
|2016–2019||Cadillac CTS||335 hp (250 kW; 340 PS) @ 6800 RPM||285 lb⋅ft (386 N⋅m) @ 5300 RPM||2016 link|
|2016–present||Chevrolet Camaro||335 hp (250 kW; 340 PS) @ 6800 RPM||284 lb⋅ft (385 N⋅m) @ 5300 RPM||2016 link|
|2017–present||Buick LaCrosse||310 hp (231 kW; 314 PS) @ 6800 RPM||282 lb⋅ft (382 N⋅m) @ 5200 RPM|
|2018–present||Buick Regal GS||310 hp (231 kW; 314 PS) @ 6800 RPM||282 lb⋅ft (382 N⋅m) @ 5200 RPM|
|2018–2020||Holden Commodore||315 hp (235 kW; 319 PS) @ 6800 RPM||281 lb⋅ft (381 N⋅m) @ 5200 RPM|
|2017–present||Cadillac XT5||310 hp (231 kW; 314 PS) @ 6600 RPM||271 lb⋅ft (367 N⋅m) @ 5000 RPM|
|2017–present||GMC Acadia||310 hp (231 kW; 314 PS) @ 6600 RPM||271 lb⋅ft (367 N⋅m) @ 5000 RPM|
|2019–present||Chevrolet Blazer||308 hp (230 kW; 312 PS) @ 6600 RPM||269 lb⋅ft (365 N⋅m) @ 5000 RPM|
|2020–present||Cadillac XT6||310 hp (231 kW; 314 PS) @ 6600 RPM||271 lb⋅ft (367 N⋅m) @ 5000 RPM|
The LGZ is a variant of the LGX designed for pickup truck use.
|2017–present||GMC Canyon||308 hp (230 kW; 312 PS) @ 6800 RPM||275 lb⋅ft (373 N⋅m) @ 4000 RPM|
On March 21, 2007 AutoWeek reported that GM was planning to develop a 60-degree V12 based on this engine family to power the top version of Cadillac's upcoming flagship sedan. This Cadillac would essentially have had two 3.6 L High Feature V6s attached crankshaft-to-crankshaft and would have featured high-end technologies including direct injection and cylinder deactivation. If this engine would have been developed, it would have displaced 7.2 liters, and produced approximately 600 hp (447 kW; 608 PS) and 540 lb⋅ft (732 N⋅m) of torque. Development of the engine was reportedly being conducted in Australia by Holden.
In August, 2008, GM announced that development of the V12 had been cancelled.
Mainly earlier production 2.8, 3.0, 3.2, and 3.6 liter engines with the three chain design suffered from premature timing chain failures due to a faulty PCV system and extended oil change intervals. Most of the problems occurred on pre LFX engines.
The Cadillac CTS is an executive car that was manufactured and marketed by General Motors from 2003 to 2019 across three generations. Historically, it was priced similar to cars on the compact luxury spectrum; but it has always been sized closely to its mid-size rivals. The third generation competes directly with the mid-size luxury cars. Initially available only as a 4-door sedan on the GM Sigma platform, GM had offered the second generation CTS in three body styles: 4-door sedan, 2-door coupe, and 5-door sport wagon also using the Sigma platform — and the third generation was offered only as a sedan, using a stretched version of the GM Alpha platform.
The GM Ecotec engine, also known by its codename L850, is a family of all-aluminium inline-four engines, displacing between 1.4 and 2.5 litres. While these engines were based on the GM Family II engine, the architecture was substantially re-engineered for the new Ecotec application produced since 2000. This engine family replaced the GM Family II engine, the GM 122 engine, the Saab H engine, and the Quad 4 engine. It is manufactured in multiple locations, to include Spring Hill Manufacturing, in Spring Hill, Tennessee while the engine block and cylinder heads are cast at Saginaw Metal Casting Operations in Saginaw, Michigan.
The Northstar engine is a family of high-performance 90° V engines produced by General Motors between 1993 and 2011. Regarded as GM's most technically complex engine, the original double overhead cam, four valve per cylinder, aluminum block/aluminum head V8 design was developed by Oldsmobile R&D, but is most associated with Cadillac's Northstar series.
The LS based small-block engine is the primary V-8 used in General Motors' line of rear-wheel-drive cars and trucks. Introduced in January 1995, it is a "clean sheet" design with only rod bearings, lifters, and bore spacing in common with the longstanding Chevrolet small-block V-8 that preceded it as the basis for GM small-block V-8s. The basic LS variations use cast iron blocks, while performance editions are all aluminum with cast iron cylinder liners. The engine block and cylinder heads are cast at Saginaw Metal Casting Operations in Saginaw, Michigan.
The Chevrolet small-block engine is a series of V8 automobile engines used in normal production by the Chevrolet division of General Motors between 1954 and 2003, using the same basic engine block. Referred to as a "small-block" for its comparative size relative to the physically much larger Chevrolet big-block engines, The small block family spanned from 262 cu in (4.3 L) to 400 cu in (6.6 L) in displacement. Engineer Ed Cole is credited with leading the design for this engine. The engine block and cylinder heads were cast at Saginaw Metal Casting Operations in Saginaw, Michigan.
The General Motors 60° V6 engine family was a series of 60° V6 engines which were produced for both longitudinal and transverse applications. All of these engines are 12-valve cam-in-block or overhead valve engines, except for the LQ1; which uses 24 valves driven by dual overhead cams. These engines vary in displacement between 2.5 and 3.4 litres and have a cast-iron block and either cast-iron or aluminum heads. Production of these engines began in 1980 and ended in 2005 in the U.S., with production continued in China until 2010. This engine family was the basis for the GM High Value engine family. These engines have also been referred to as the X engines due to their first usage in the X-body cars.
The Buick V6, popularly referred to as the 3800 in its later incarnations, originally 198 cu in (3.2 L) and initially marketed as Fireball at its introduction in 1962, was a large V6 engine used by General Motors. The block is made of cast iron and all use two-valve-per-cylinder iron heads, actuated by pushrods. The engine, originally designed and manufactured in the United States, was also produced in later versions in Australia. It was the first six-cylinder engine designed exclusively for Buick products since the Buick straight-six was discontinued in 1930.
The Duramax V8 engine is a General Motors Diesel V8 engine family for trucks. The 6.6-liter Duramax is produced by DMAX, a joint venture between GM and Isuzu in Moraine, Ohio. The Duramax block and heads are poured at The Defiance GM Powertrain foundry in Defiance County, Ohio. This engine was initially installed in 2001 Chevrolet and GMC trucks, and has been an option since then in pickups, vans, and medium-duty trucks. In 2006, production at Moraine was reportedly limited to approximately 200,000 engines per year. On May 9, 2007, DMAX announced the production of the 1,000,000th Duramax V-8 diesel at its Moraine facility. The 2,000,000th Duramax V8 engine rolled off the line in Moraine on March 24, 2017.
Mazda has a long history of building its own Diesel engines, with the exception of a few units that were built under license.
The Oldsmobile V8, also referred to as the Rocket, is series of engines that was produced by Oldsmobile from 1949 to 1990. The Rocket, along with the 1949 Cadillac V8, were the first post-war OHV crossflow cylinder head V8 engines produced by General Motors. Like all other GM divisions, Olds continued building its own V8 engine family for decades, adopting the corporate Chevrolet 350 small-block and Cadillac Northstar engine only in the 1990s. All Oldsmobile V8s were manufactured at plants in Lansing, Michigan while the engine block and cylinder heads were cast at Saginaw Metal Casting Operations.
The term Cadillac V8 may refer to any of a number of V8 engines produced by the Cadillac Division of General Motors since it pioneered the first such mass-produced engine in 1914.
General Motors' Opel subsidiary in Europe designed a compact V6 engine with an unusual 54° vee angle. It was an iron block/aluminum head DOHC design with 4 valves per cylinder. All 54° engines were assembled at Ellesmere Port in England.
The Mitsubishi Astron or 4G5/4D5 engine, is a series of straight-four internal combustion engines first built by Mitsubishi Motors in 1972. Engine displacement ranged from 1.8 to 2.6 litres, making it one of the largest four-cylinder engines of its time.
The J-series is Honda's fourth production V6 engine family introduced in 1996, after the C-series, which consisted of three dissimilar versions. The J-series engine was designed in the United States by Honda engineers. It is built at Honda's Anna, Ohio, and Lincoln, Alabama, engine plants.
The Family 1 is a straight-four piston engine that was developed by Opel, a former subsidiary of General Motors and now a subsidiary of PSA Group, to replace the Opel cam-in-head engines for use on mid-range cars from Opel/Vauxhall. Originally produced at the Aspern engine plant, production was moved to the Szentgotthard engine plant in Hungary with the introduction of the DOHC version. GM do Brasil at São José dos Campos, GMDAT at Bupyeong and GM North America at Toluca also build these engines.
The Suzuki G engine is a series of three- and four-cylinder internal combustion engines manufactured by Suzuki Motor Corporation for various automobiles, primarily based on the GM M platform, as well as many small trucks such as the Suzuki Samurai and Suzuki Vitara and their derivatives.
The Honda F-Series engine was considered Honda's "big block" SOHC inline four, though lower production DOHC versions of the F-series were built. It features a solid iron or aluminum open deck cast iron sleeved block and aluminum/magnesium cylinder head.
General Motors introduced a line of Diesel V8 engines for their C/K pickup trucks in 1982. This engine family was produced by GM through 2000, when it was replaced by the new Duramax line. AM General's subsidiary General Engine Products (GEP) still produces a military variant of this engine for the HMMWV.
The Toyota NR engine family is a series of small inline four piston engines designed and manufactured by Toyota, with capacities between 1.2 and 1.5 litres.
The GM Small Gasoline Engine (SGE) is a family of small-displacement three- and four-cylinder gasoline engines ranging from 1.0 L to 1.5 L, developed by Adam Opel AG, Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC), MG Motor (MG), Shanghai GM (SGM) and the Pan-Asia Technical Automotive Center (PATAC).
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