Buick Riviera

Last updated
Buick Riviera
SEPT 16TH BUICK RIVIERA HOLLYWOOD PHOTO PATRICE RAUNET.jpg
1963 Buick Riviera
Overview
Manufacturer Buick (General Motors)
Model years 1963–1993
1995–1999
Body and chassis
Class Personal luxury car
Chronology
Predecessor Buick Super

The Buick Riviera is a personal luxury car that was marketed by Buick from 1963 to 1999, with the exception of the 1994 model year.

Contents

As General Motors' first entry into the personal luxury car market segment, the Riviera was highly praised by automotive journalists upon its high-profile debut. It was a ground-up design on a new GM E platform debuting for the 1963 model year and was also Buick's first unique Riviera model.

Unlike its subsequent GM E platform stablemates, the Oldsmobile Toronado and Cadillac Eldorado, the Riviera was initially a front engine/rear-wheel drive platform, switching to front-wheel drive starting with the 1979 model year.

While the early models stayed close to their original form, eight subsequent generations varied substantially in size and styling. A total of 1,127,261 Rivieras were produced.

The Riviera name was resurrected for two concept cars that were displayed at auto shows in 2007 and in 2013.

Origins

The Riviera name

1949 Buick Roadmaster Riviera (one of the first hardtops) 1949 Buick Roadmaster Riviera Coupe - Flickr - exfordy.jpg
1949 Buick Roadmaster Riviera (one of the first hardtops)
1959 Buick Electra 225 Riviera 1959 Buick Elektra 225 Riviera Sedan side.JPG
1959 Buick Electra 225 Riviera

The name Riviera, Latin for coastline, was chosen to evoke the allure and affluence of the French Riviera. It first entered the Buick line in 1949, as the designation for the new two-door pillarless hardtop, described in advertising as "stunningly smart". The Buick Roadmaster Riviera coupe (along with the Cadillac Coupe de Ville and Oldsmobile 98 Holiday coupe) constituted the first mass production use of this body style, which was to become popular over the next 30 years. Buick added a two-door Riviera hardtop to the Super the following year, the Special in 1951 and the Century upon its return, after a 12-year absence, in 1954.

From 1951 to 1953 the Riviera designation was given to the existing long-wheelbase versions of the four-door Buick Roadmaster and Super sedans. The 1951–53 Buick Roadmaster and Super four-door Riviera sedans feature more standard features, more plush interior trim, and a wheelbase (and overall length) that is 4 inches (102 mm) longer than a regular Buick Roadmaster or Super four-door sedan. The 1951–52 Buick Super four-door Riviera sedan is still 0.75 inches (19 mm) shorter in wheelbase and length than the regular Buick Roadmaster and 4.75 inches (121 mm) shorter than the Roadmaster four-door Riviera sedan. In 1953, with the move from the Fireball straight-eight to the more compact Nailhead V8 engine, the Roadmaster and Super four-door Riviera sedans became the same length.

In the middle of the 1955 model year, Buick and Oldsmobile introduced the world's first mass-produced four-door hardtops, with Buick offering it only on the Century and Special models, and the Riviera designation was also applied to these body styles. Four-door Riviera hardtops were added to the Roadmaster and Super lines at the beginning of the following model year. However, since it was a body style designation and not a model, the Riviera name does not usually appear on the car.

In 1959, Buick became much more selective in applying the Riviera name. From then until 1962 it only was used to denote a premium trimmed six-window hardtop style which it initially shared exclusively with Cadillac (the Oldsmobile 98 would receive it in 1961) and was available only on the Electra 225. The last usage of the term Riviera to describe a luxury trim level was 1963, as the formal designation of the #4829 Electra 225 Riviera four-door hardtop, the same year the E-body model two-door hardtop coupe Riviera made its debut.

Debut as a personal luxury car

1963 Buick Silver Arrow concept car Sloan Museum at Courtland Center December 2018 06 (1963 Buick Silver Arrow).jpg
1963 Buick Silver Arrow concept car

In the late 1950s, GM lacked a personal luxury car to compete with the highly successful Ford Thunderbird—a uniquely styled, two-door that had dramatically increased in popularity when expanded from a two-seater to a four-passenger car. To fill this gap, an experimental Cadillac design, the XP-715, was created, dubbed the "LaSalle" after a former GM luxury marque. Its angular look was reportedly inspired by GM styling chief Bill Mitchell's visit to London during the period, when he was struck by the sight of a custom-bodied Rolls Royce. He later said that "knife-edged" styling was what he wanted for the new model, but with a lower profile. The design itself was penned by stylist Ned Nickles.

When Cadillac passed on the venture in 1960 the project was thrown open for competition by the other GM Divisions. Buick, desperate to revive its flagging sales, won the competition by enlisting the aid of the McCann-Erickson advertising agency to create its presentation. [1] [2] Initially referred to as the "Buick LaSalle" and later "Buick Riviera" concept cars, [3] [4] [5] the finished design was adapted to a shortened version of Buick's existing cruciform frame. It was again introduced as a concept car in 1963 called the Buick Riviera Silver Arrow. [6]

First generation (1963–1965)

First generation
Buick Riviera silver.jpg
Overview
Model years 1963–1965
Assembly Buick City, Flint, Michigan
Linden, New Jersey (Linden Assembly) United States
Designer Bill Mitchell
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door hardtop
Layout FR layout
Platform E-body
Powertrain
Engine 401 cu in (6.6 L) Nailhead V8
425 cu in (7.0 L) Nailhead V8
Transmission Twin Turbine automatic transmission
3-speed ST-400 automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 117.0 in (2,972 mm)
Length208.0 in (5,283 mm) [7]
Width76.3 in (1,938 mm)–76.6 in (1,946 mm)
Height53.0 in (1,346 mm)
1964 Buick Riviera 1964 Buick Riviera (29369827551).jpg
1964 Buick Riviera
1965 Buick Riviera GS GM Heritage Center - 029 - Cars - Riviera GS.jpg
1965 Buick Riviera GS
1965 Buick Riviera GS interior GM Heritage Center - 030 - Cars - Riviera GS Interior.jpg
1965 Buick Riviera GS interior

The production Riviera was introduced on October 4, 1962, as a 1963 model, its distinctive bodyshell was unique to the marque, unusual for a GM product. The design was substantially the same as the original, less expensively hidden headlights concealed in the fender grilles. [5] The elegant ground-up styling sported the new "Coke bottle look" introduced the year before on the arresting Studebaker Avanti, with a tapered midsection surrounded by flaring fenders. There was no trace of the "Sweepspear" used on beltlines of earlier Buicks with the Riviera package,

It rode a cruciform frame similar to the standard Buick frame, but shorter and narrower, with a 2.0 in (51 mm) narrower track. Its wheelbase of 117 in (3,000 mm) and overall length of 208 in (5,300 mm) were 6.0 inches (150 mm) and 7.7 in (200 mm) shorter, respectively, than a Buick LeSabre, but slightly longer than a contemporary Thunderbird. At 3,998 lb (1,813 kg), [8] :210 it was about 390 pounds (180 kg) lighter than either. It shared the standard Buick V8 engines, with a displacement of either 401 cu in (6.57 L) or 425 cu in (6.96 l), and the unique continuously variable design twin turbine automatic transmission. Power brakes were standard, using Buick's massive "Al-Fin" (aluminum finned) drums of 12 in (300 mm) diameter. Power steering was standard equipment, with an overall steering ratio of 20.5:1, giving 3.5 turns lock-to-lock.

The Riviera's suspension used Buick's standard design, with double wishbones in the front and a live axle located by trailing arms and a lateral track bar in the rear, but the roll centers were lowered to reduce body lean. Although its coil springs were actually slightly softer than other Buicks, the Riviera's lighter weight made its ride somewhat firmer. While still biased towards understeer, contemporary testers considered it one of the most driveable American cars, with an excellent balance of comfort and agility.

Buick's 325 hp (242 kW)401 cu in (6.6 l) "Nailhead" V-8 was initially the only available engine, [8] :204 fitted with dual exhaust as standard equipment, and the turbine drive the only transmission. [8] :206 Base price was $4,333, [8] :210 running upwards of $5,000 delivered with typical options. Buick announced an optional 340 hp (254 kW)425 cu in (7.0 l) version of the Nailhead in December 1962. Total production was deliberately limited to 40,000 vehicles (in a year that Buick sold 440,000 units overall) to emphasize the Riviera's exclusivity and to increase demand; only 2,601 were delivered with the delayed availability larger engine in the 1963 model year.

With the same power as the bigger Buicks and less weight, the Riviera had improved all-around performance: Motor Trend recorded 0–60 mph (0–97 km/h) in 8 seconds or less, the standing quarter mile in about 16 seconds, and an observed top speed of 115 miles per hour (185 km/h). Fuel economy was a 13.2 miles per US gallon (17.8 L/100 km; 15.9 mpgimp). Front leg room was 40.1 inches. [9]

Inside, the Riviera featured a luxurious four-place cabin with front bucket seats and bucket-style seats in the rear. A center console with floor shifter and storage compartment built into the instrument panel divided the front. Upholstery choices included all-vinyl, cloth and vinyl, or optional leather. A deluxe interior option included real walnut inserts on the doors and below the rear side windows. Extra-cost options included a tilt steering wheel, power windows, power driver's seat, air conditioning, a remote-controlled side-view mirror, and white sidewall tires.

Minimal trim and mechanical changes were made for 1964, with the most identifiable distinguishing features being a raised stylized "R" hood emblem and "R" emblems replacing the Buick crests in the taillight lenses. The interior is distinguished by moving the heater controls from controls under the dashboard eyebrow to slide controls in the forward fairing of the center console. Leather was dropped as an option, and the Dynaflow-based twin-turbine transmission was replaced by a new three-speed Super Turbine 400. This was a GM Turbo Hydra-Matic with a variable pitch torque converter like the Dynaflow's. It used a two-speed "D" and 'L" selector, but could automatically downshift from third to second until the car reached a suitable speed to downshift to first. This was the first year of the stylized "R" emblem, a trademark that would continue throughout the remainder of Riviera's 36-year production run. [10] The engine was upgraded to the previously optional 340 hp (254 kW)425 cu in (7.0 l) V8. A 360 hp (268 kW) 'Super Wildcat' version was available, with dual Carter AFB four-barrel carburetors.

1965 Buick Riviera 1965 Buick Riviera (36637392513).jpg
1965 Buick Riviera

In 1965 the 401 cu in (6.6 l) V8 returned as the standard engine, and the "Gran Sport" version made its debut, powered by the Super Wildcat V8 and outfitted with a more aggressive 3.42 axle ratio and stiffer, heavy-duty suspension. The Super Turbine 400 transmission retained its variable pitch torque converter, but was fitted with a three-speed gear selector. The stock dual exhaust pipes were increased from 2.0 inches (51 mm) to 2.25 inches (57 mm) inside diameter and had fewer turns to reduce backpressure. Externally, the headlamps, now vertically arranged, were hidden behind clamshell doors in the leading edges of each fender, as had been in the original design. The non-functional side scoops between the doors and rear wheel arches were removed, and the taillights moved from the body into the rear bumper. [11] A vinyl roof became available as an option, initially offered only in black, and the tilt steering wheel optional in previous years was now standard equipment.

Total sales for the 1963–1965 model years was a respectable 112,244. The Riviera was extremely well received from all quarters and considered a great success, giving the Thunderbird its first real competition as America's preeminent personal luxury car.

It has since earned Milestone status from the Milestone Car Society. Jaguar founder and designer Sir William Lyons remarked that Mitchell had done "a very wonderful job," and Sergio Pininfarina declared it "one of the most beautiful American cars ever built; it has marked a very impressive return to simplicity of American car design." At its debut at the Paris Auto Show, Raymond Loewy said the Riviera was the most handsome American production car—apart from his own Studebaker Avanti, in his view the Riviera's only real competition for 1963. [12] The first-generation Riviera is considered a styling landmark and has become a collectible car. [13]

Second generation (1966–1970)

1966 Buick Riviera GS 1966 Buick Riviera -Side View.jpg
1966 Buick Riviera GS
Second generation
2nd Buick Riviera.jpg
1969 model (headlights deployed)
Overview
Model years 1966–1970
Assembly Flint, Michigan
Linden, New Jersey (Linden Assembly) United States
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door hardtop
Layout FR layout
Platform E-body
Related Cadillac Eldorado
Oldsmobile Toronado
Powertrain
Engine 425 cu in (7.0 L) Nailhead V8
430 cu in (7.0 L) Buick V8
455 cu in (7.5 L) Buick V8
Transmission 3-speed ST-400 automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 119.0 in (3,023 mm) [14]
Length211.2 in (5,364 mm) (1966–67) [15]
215.2 in (5,466 mm) (1968–1970)
Width78.8 in (2,002 mm)
79.3 in (2,014 mm) (1970)
Height53.2 in (1,351 mm)–53.6 in (1,361 mm)
1968 Buick Riviera GS Riviera GS.JPG
1968 Buick Riviera GS
1969 Buick Riviera 1969 Buick Riviera.JPG
1969 Buick Riviera
1970 Buick Riviera 1970 Buick Rivera Coupe (32986452965).jpg
1970 Buick Riviera

The Riviera was redesigned for the 1966 model year. [16] It retained its cruciform X-frame, powertrain, and brakes, but its curvaceous new body was longer, wider, and 200 pounds (91 kg) heavier. Vent windows, a feature GM had introduced in the 1930s, were absent. Headlamps remained concealed, but now pivoted behind the grille when not in use, and they were once again horizontally arranged. The car's added bulk slowed acceleration with the unchanged 425 engine. The Gran Sport package remained available as an option. Rear seat belts [17] and AM/FM radio [18] were optional.

The new front-wheel drive Oldsmobile Toronado shared the Riviera platform, and, a year later, the also front-wheel drive Cadillac Eldorado; however, the Riviera itself retained the rear-wheel drive layout.

Inside, the four-place cabin with front and rear bucket seats and center console were replaced by a choice of bucket seats or conventional bench seats as standard equipment, making the Riviera a full six-passenger car for the first time. Optionally available was a Strato-bench seat with armrest or Strato bucket seats with either a short consolette or a full-length operating console with a "horseshoe" shaped floor shifter and storage compartment. Both the buckets and Strato-bench seat were available with a reclining seat option for the passenger's side. Sales for 1966 rebounded to 45,308, a new record.

The most significant change for 1967 was Buick's replacement of its venerable 425 "Nailhead" with an entirely new 430 cu in (7.0 L) V8. Its 360 horsepower (270 kW) and 475 lb⋅ft (644 N⋅m) of torque were a performance improvement. Gasoline mileage improved slightly, but remained low. Powerful disc brakes with Bendix four-piston calipers became optional for the front wheels but most Riviera continued to be ordered with Buick's highly capable ribbed aluminum brake drums. Cosmetically, changes were few and were limited to the addition of a wide, full-width, center-mounted horizontal chrome grille bar that stretched over the headlight doors and outboard parking lights. Sales eased to 42,799 for the 1967 model year. The Riviera had full instrumentation. [19]

1967 saw the introduction of U.S. mandated safety equipment to improve occupant protection during a crash, including an energy-absorbing steering column, non-protruding control knobs, 4-way hazard flasher, soft interior surfaces, locking seat backs (on 2-door models), a dual-circuit hydraulic braking system (with warning light), and shoulder belt anchors. The Rivieras complied on all counts and featured the full range of safety features.

1968 models had reshaped loop-type bumpers that surrounded both the vehicle's recessed crosshatch front grille and tail lamps. Hidden wiper arms made their debut. Federally mandated side marker lights appeared, as inverted trapezoids on the lower leading edges of the front fenders, and circular in the rear. The interior was restyled and for the first time shared its instrument panel with the other full-size Buick models. Shoulder belts for front outboard occupants were made standard on all cars built from January 1, 1968. Mechanically, the transmission lost its variable pitch torque converter. A tilt steering wheel was standard. [20] Sales set another new record in 1968, as 49,284 units were sold.

Minor styling changes took place again in 1969, with grilles gaining a pattern of finely spaced, slim vertical bars overlaid by two wider horizontal bars, which jutted forward at their inboard edges. Front marker lights became far shorter and square. Inside, front outboard passengers received new headrests. The ignition switch was moved from the instrument panel to the steering column and locked the steering wheel and selector lever when the key was removed (a security feature that became mandatory for the 1970 model year). Chrome side trim was revised, as well. At the rear, the reverse lights moved from the rear bumper to new three-section tail-light lenses. Sales for 1969 improved again, to 52,872.

The 1970 Riviera was restyled, incorporating design cues from Bill Mitchell's 1968 "Silver Arrow II" concept car. [21] Exposed quad headlamps were nearly flush-mounted, while the new front bumper wrapped around and over the new vertical bar grille, set between the headlamp pods. A newly optional side trim feature accented the large coupe's flowing lines. Skirted rear wheels became standard, with exposed wheels an option. At the rear, a new rear bumper/taillight motif was seen. The engine was upgraded to 455 cu in (7.46 L), the largest engine Buick offered to date, rated at 370 horsepower (280 kW) gross, 245 hp (183 kW) net, and over 500 lb⋅ft (680 N⋅m) of torque. Despite the fact that 1970 sales dropped to 37,366, the second-generation Riviera proved more successful than the first, with 227,669 units sold over five the years.

Third generation (1971–1973)

Third generation
1972 Buick Riviera in Finland.jpg
1972 Buick Riviera
Overview
Model years 1971–1973
Assembly Flint, Michigan
Linden, New Jersey (Linden Assembly) United States
Designer Jerry Hirshberg under Bill Mitchell
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door hardtop
Layout FR layout
Platform E-body
Related Cadillac Eldorado
Oldsmobile Toronado
Powertrain
Engine 455 cu in (7.5 L) Buick V8
Transmission 3-speed TH-400 automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 122.0 in (3,099 mm) [22]
Length217.4 in (5,522 mm) (1971)
218.3 in (5,545 mm) (1972)
223.4 in (5,674 mm) (1973)
Width79.9 in (2,029 mm)
Height54.0 in (1,372 mm)
Curb weight 4,247 lb (1,926 kg)
1971 Buick Riviera 1971 Buick Riviera (15117991390).jpg
1971 Buick Riviera
1973 Buick Riviera GS rear Buick Riviera GS Heck.jpg
1973 Buick Riviera GS rear
1971 Buick Riviera interior 1971 Buick Riviera coupe (8706820216).jpg
1971 Buick Riviera interior

The Riviera was radically redesigned for the 1971 model year with flowing and dramatic "boat-tail" styling. [23] Designed under Bill Mitchell's direction, it was penned by Jerry Hirshberg, future head of design for Nissan, mating the two-piece vee-butted [8] :792 fastback rear window, inspired by the 1963 Corvette Sting Ray coupe, to the Riviera's platform.

The design was originally intended for the smaller A-body or its related G-body, as shown by a full scale clay model of an A-body based boat-tail Riviera recently revealed. [24] Given the late stage of the 1968-72 A/G platform evolution and accretive cost to add another version to it, GM Management decreed that the next Riviera use the full sized GM B platform bodyexpanded for 1971 by 3 in (76 mm) in wheelbase and more than 120 lb (54 kg) heavier which produced controversial looks, making for a sharp departure from those of the Toronado and Eldorado. (Collectible Automobile ran an article about 1971–76 full-sized Buicks in which one sketch design for their 2-door coupes which was rejected resembled the 1971–73 Riviera).

This generation introduced a much more visual representation of the "sweepspear", with a more faithful representation to the version that appeared on 1950s Buicks in both the side molding and beltline. [25] Large, round wheel openings were intended to convery more of a sporty air. [25] The only engine available was Buick's own 455 ci V8 engine producing 315 hp (235 kW), with 330 hp (246 kW) with the Gran Sport (GS) package. [26]

The 455 engine had a lower compression ratio to meet EPA emissions requirements, together with the shift from SAE gross to SAE net ratings this reduced claimed power to 255 hp (190 kW), with 265 hp (198 kW) in the Gran Sport. Performance remained reasonably brisk, with a 0–60 time of 8.1 seconds for the GS, but the Riviera's sporty image was rapidly fading. One noteworthy advance was Buick's Max Trac limited-slip differential. [27] The 1971 Riviera also features GM's "Full-Flo" ventilation system and two large deck lid louvers are prominent on the trunk lid.

Despite these features, Riviera sales for 1971 dropped to 33,810, [8] :798 the lowest to date. The 1972 Riviera received a new, egg-crate grille and more substantial front bumpers to prepare for the new 5-mph impact legislation. The boat-tail was less pronounced at the rear and the louvers were removed from the trunk lid. The 1972 Riviera also featured a redesigned ventilation system, and the 455 engine switched to net power ratings, 225 hp (168 kW) or 250 hp (186 kW) in the Gran Sport, although the actual drop in net power was only 5 hp (4 kW). Sales remained moribund at 33,728. [8] :876

For 1973, the front end was even more upright and heavier in appearance than before. [28] The sizable bumper with its overdimensioned bumper guards was fully capable of meeting 1974's impact-bumper standards, while the front lamps wrapped around the corners. Sluggish sales of the third generation Riviera led GM to believe that the boattail deck lid was too radical for most customers' tastes, so in 1973 it was blunted and made slightly shorter. The taillights, meanwhile, were moved down from the sheet metal and into the bumper. [28] The 250 hp (186 kW) engine became standard, with 260 hp (194 kW) with the Stage One package. This also included a limited-slip differential and a chrome-plated air cleaner. The "Gran Sport" package was still available as a separate option package consisting of a ride-and-handling package that included a rear stabilizer bar, JR78-15 whitewall steel-belted radial tires, a specially tuned "radial roadability" suspension, additional sound insulation and special "Gran Sport" badging. The design changes however only led to a marginal increase in sales, with 34,080 being produced for the model year.

Fourth generation (1974–1976)

Fourth generation
Buick Riviera (Rassemblement Saint-Bruno-De-Montarville '10).jpg
Overview
Model years 1974–1976
Assembly Flint, Michigan
Linden, New Jersey (Linden Assembly) United States
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
Layout FR layout
Platform E-body
Related Cadillac Eldorado
Oldsmobile Toronado
Powertrain
Engine 455 cu in (7.5 L) Buick V8
Transmission 3-speed TH-400 automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 122.0 in (3,099 mm)
Length226.4 in (5,751 mm) (1974)
223.0 in (5,664 mm) (1975)
Width80.0 in (2,032 mm)
Height54.0 in (1,372 mm)

Although carrying over the same platform, mechanicals, and some body panels seen on the "Third Generation" Riviera, Buick replaced its distinctive 'boat tail' roofline with a more conventional-looking "Colonnade" treatment which was more in line with its LeSabre and Electra brethren than its front-wheel drive cousins. This turned the car from a hardtop coupe into a pillared coupe, as it featured wide B pillars and fixed quarter opera windows. A landau half-vinyl roof option was available. The car did retain its forward-jutting grille, albeit in slightly modified form. Thus modified, the car looked far less distinctive than its predecessors, and even its platform mates, the Oldsmobile Toronado and Cadillac Eldorado. The tamer-looking Riviera was no lighter, and its standard 455 V8 lost more power, dropping to 230 hp (172 kW) and 245 hp (183 kW) for standard and Stage One models respectively. Max Trac was dropped from the option list after 1974 due to a lack of buyer interest. The revised styling did not improve sales, which fell to 20,129 in 1974, although it is impossible to determine how much this was a result of the energy crisis and how much was due to the tame appearance. [29] This generation introduced a novelty that later became federally mandated in a modified form, two high-mounted taillights above the trunk and below the rear window, which was shared on its platform twin the Toronado.

For 1975, the Riviera received an updated front fascia, which lost its forward-jutting theme through the redesign of the fiberglass front end cap. Quad rectangular headlights were mounted horizontally. The new vertical-bar grille echoed the "stand-up" theme that many GM cars of the day incorporated. Parking lights wrapped around the fender sides. The Stage One performance package was dropped for 1975, though the Gran Sport handling package would continue to be offered. The standard engine's output dipped to 205 hp (153 kW). Sales for 1975 were 17,306.

Minor changes greeted 1976 models, the most notable of which was a new crosshatch grille insert. The Gran Sport handling package was replaced by an 'S/R' package that had similar sporting pretensions. Sales rallied slightly to 20,082 for 1976. [30]

Fifth generation (1977–1978)

Fifth generation
1978 Buick Riviera.png
Overview
Model years 1977–1978
Assembly Flint, Michigan
Linden, New Jersey (Linden Assembly) United States
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
Layout FR layout
Platform B-body
Related Buick LeSabre
Buick Estate
Chevrolet Caprice
Chevrolet Impala
Oldsmobile 88
Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser
Pontiac Bonneville/Parisienne
Pontiac Catalina/Laurentian
Powertrain
Engine 350 cu in (5.7 L) Buick V8
403 cu in (6.6 L) Oldsmobile V8
Transmission 3-speed TH-400 automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 115.9 in (2,944 mm)
Length218.2 in (5,542 mm)
1978 Buick Riviera rear 1978 Buick Riviera rear.png
1978 Buick Riviera rear

Buick downsized the Riviera for 1977 onto the new smaller GM B platform. While the other E-bodies were front wheel drive since 1966 (1967 for Cadillac's Eldorado), the Buick E platform used a rear-wheel-drive B-body undercarriage (along with the cruciform frame of pre-1965 GMs for the 1966–70 generation). All B-bodies (including C and D platform GM RWDs) were downsized for the 1977 model year which prompted the short-lived 1977/78 generation.

It was, in most respects, a Buick LeSabre coupe with unique styling (with quarter windows mimicking the 1975–78 Cadillac Eldorado). Unlike its LeSabre counterpart, the front fascia is vertical as opposed to slanted. It was reduced to a wheelbase of 115.9 in (2,940 mm), down 6.1 in (150 mm), and an overall length of 218.2 in (5,540 mm), down 4.8 in (120 mm). Weight was reduced by appoximately 660 pounds (300 kg). The 455 engine was replaced by a 350 cu in (5.7 L) Buick V8 engine with 155 hp (116 kW) or an Oldsmobile-built 403 cu in (6.60 L) with 185 hp (138 kW). California models had a 170 hp (127 kW) Oldsmobile 350. [31]

Sales were up modestly to 26,138 for 1977 and then fell to 20,535 for 1978, [30] although this was a stopgap model until the all-new E-body cars would be ready for 1979. The 1977 and 1978 Rivieras were produced on the downsized GM B platform before the 1979 redesign on the FWD E-platform.

75th Anniversary Package

For 1978, a special "LXXV" edition was released to commemorate Buick's 75th anniversary on the market. Production total was 2,889 and included special silver & black paint with gray leather seats with black trim, four-wheel disc brakes, brushed chrome trim, deep pile carpeting, and special LXXV name plates.

The interior of a 1978 Buick Riviera LXXV 1978 Buick Riviera LXXV special edition interior.jpg
The interior of a 1978 Buick Riviera LXXV

Sixth generation (1979–1985)

Sixth generation
1984 Buick Riviera coupe in two-tone blue, front left.jpg
1984 Buick Riviera Coupe
Overview
Model years 1979–1985
Assembly Linden Assembly, Linden, New Jersey United States
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door convertible
2-door coupe
Layout Longitudinal front-engine, front-wheel drive
Platform E-body
Related Cadillac Eldorado
Oldsmobile Toronado
Powertrain
Engine 231 cu in (3.8 L) Buick V6
252 cu in (4.1 L) Buick V6
307 cu in (5.0 L) Oldsmobile V8
350 cu in (5.7 L) Oldsmobile V8
350 cu in (5.7 L) Oldsmobile diesel V8
Transmission 3-speed TH-325 automatic
4-speed THM325-4L automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 114.0 in (2,896 mm) [32]
Length206.0 in (5,232 mm)
Width72.8 in (1,849 mm) [32]
Buick Riviera coupe BuickRivera.jpg
Buick Riviera coupe

The 1979 model year was the debut of the first front wheel drive Riviera, which was also the first front-drive production model in Buick history. Built on a 114 in (2,900 mm) wheelbase, it once again shared its mechanical design and platform with the Cadillac Eldorado and Oldsmobile Toronado. The Olds 403 and Buick 350 were dropped, but the Olds 350 remained, as did a new turbocharged Buick V6 of 231 cu in (3.8 L) displacement with 185 hp (138 kW). The Riviera became Motor Trend 's Car of the Year. Sales more than doubled, to 52,181 for 1979 and 48,621 for the similar 1980 models. [31]

The 1983 Buick Riviera XX special edition 1983 Buick Riviera XX, front right (Hershey 2019).jpg
The 1983 Buick Riviera XX special edition
Rear view of 1984 Riviera convertible 1984 Riviera Convertible.jpg
Rear view of 1984 Riviera convertible

1981 saw the Turbo renamed T-Type and the demise of the 350 engine in favor of the Oldsmobile-built 307 cu in (5.0 L) with 140 hp (104 kW) (phased in during the 1980 MY). The standard engine was now Buick's 125 hp (93 kW)252 cu in (4.1 L) V6, and a new option was an Oldsmobile diesel engine with a mere 105 hp (78 kW) offered through 1985. 1982 also saw the first-ever Riviera convertible, although relatively few were built, owing to a high price - US$23,944. The Riviera convertible was available in only two color choices-white or red firemist with the only interior color of red leather. A twin-turbocharged Riviera convertible was chosen to be the pace car at the 1983 Indianapolis 500, tuned to produce 410 hp (306 kW). [33] Most convertible Rivieras had the V8 engine, which saw an increase in rated SAE net HP to 150 for both convertibles and coupes fitted with it from 1982 through the 1985 model year.

In 1983 a special edition of 500 "Riviera XX" were offered, celebrating twenty years since the introduction of the first Riviera (502 were built in the end). These have a special two-tone exterior paint, real wire wheels, a leather and walnut interior as well as 24-karat gold plated "Riviera XX" badging. [33] The Riviera XX also received a special grille, which then became part of the 1984 model year facelift model. [33] Overall sales made the 1980s Riviera a great success, reaching 65,305 for the 1985 model year. [30]

Seventh generation (1986–1993)

Seventh generation
Buick Riviera T-Type -- 10-29-2010.jpg
Overview
Model years 1986–1993
Assembly Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly, Michigan, United States
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive
Platform E-body
Related Cadillac Eldorado
Oldsmobile Toronado
Buick Reatta
Powertrain
Engine 1986: 3.8L 140 hp (100 kW) V6
1987: 3.8L 150 hp (110 kW) V6
1988–1990: 3.8L 165 hp (123 kW) V6
1991–93: 3.8L 170 hp (130 kW) V6
Transmission 4-speed THM440-T4 automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 108.0 in (2,743 mm)
Length1986–88: 187.8 in (4,770 mm)
Width1986–1990: 71.7 in (1,821 mm)
1991–93: 73.1 in (1,857 mm)
Height1986–88: 53.5 in (1,359 mm)
1989–1990: 53.6 in (1,361 mm)
1991–93: 52.9 in (1,344 mm)
Curb weight 3,309 lb (1,501 kg)
Buick Graphic Control Buick-TouchScreen-x.jpg
Buick Graphic Control

The E-body coupes were converted to unibody construction and further downsized for 1986 to a 108 in (2,700 mm) wheelbase. The V6 was now the only engine, rated initially at 142 hp (106 kW) SAE and 200 lb⋅ft (270 N⋅m) of torque. It used the Turbo-Hydramatic 440-T4 automatic with a 2.84:1 final drive ratio.

This generation featured an advanced electronic instrumentation display on a dash-mounted 9-inch (230 mm) CRT. The CRT controlled the vehicle's climate control system and stereo, and also supplied advanced instrumentation such as a trip computer and maintenance reminder feature. Four-wheel disc brakes were standard. With a choice of three suspension packages available, up to the performance-oriented FE3 setting, handling was notably improved. The Riviera placed fourth for Motor Trend 's 1986 Car of the Year contest. This generation saw the installation of Dynaride, which was an air compressor that would pressurize the rear Chapman Struts to maintain a level overall ride height. A badge was installed on the dashboard to the left of the steering column on all vehicles equipped. It was not available on vehicles equipped with Gran Touring Suspension.

1989-1993 Buick Riviera Buick Riviera -- 07-23-2009.jpg
1989–1993 Buick Riviera

Fuel economy was also notably improved for the 1986 Riviera but the investment in the downsized, transverse engine front wheel drive platform resulted in a substantial price increase to $19,831 for the base model and $21,577 for the T-Type. The smaller exterior dimensions and lack of a V8 led to sales plummeting to 22,138 for 1986, 15,223 for 1987, and only 8,625 for 1988. 1988 also saw the introduction of Buick's new Reatta coupe, a two-seat personal luxury car.

The Riviera was restyled for 1989, adding 11 inches (280 mm) to the overall length (on an unchanged wheelbase). Sales improved to 21,189 for 1989, but dropped to a low of 4,555 for 1993, the abbreviated final model year of this generation. [30] The last 1993 Riviera rolled off the Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly plant line on December 10, 1992.

Eighth generation (1995–1999)

Eighth generation
1995-1999 Buick Riviera.jpg
Overview
ProductionMay 23, 1994 – November 25, 1998
Model years 1995–1999
Assembly Lake Orion, Michigan, U.S.
Designer William L. Porter
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive
Platform G-body
Related Oldsmobile Aurora
Cadillac Seville
Buick Park Avenue
Powertrain
Engine 3.8L 205 hp (153 kW) L36 Buick V6
3.8L 225 hp (168 kW) SC L67 Buick V6
3.8L 240 hp (180 kW) SC L67 Buick V6
Transmission 4-sp auto 4T60E (1995–96 N/A)
4-sp auto 4T60E-HD (1996 Supercharged)
4-sp auto 4T65E-HD (1997–99)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 113.8 in (2,891 mm)
Length207.0 in (5,258 mm)
Width75.0 in (1,905 mm)
Height55.2 in (1,402 mm)
Curb weight 3,788 lb (1,718 kg)

After a hiatus in 1994, the Riviera returned in 1995 with radical styling that departed from the previous generations' traditional image. A 205 hp (153 kW) naturally aspirated 3800 V6 was standard, with a supercharged version rated at 225 hp (168 kW) and 275 lb⋅ft (373 N⋅m) available as an option. Rivieras were now built in Lake Orion, Michigan, riding the same Cadillac-derived G platform as the 4-door Oldsmobile Aurora. The first of 41,422 Rivieras made in 1995 rolled off the assembly line on May 23, 1994.

In 1996, supercharged versions saw an increase in power to 240 hp (179 kW) and 280 lb·ft (380 N·m), as well as the 4T60E-HD transmission. 18,036 Rivieras were manufactured in 1996.

1997 saw suspension revisions, removing excess weight. An upgraded 4T65E-HD transmission featuring a larger 258 mm (10.2 in) torque converter and heavy-duty gearbox were added. 18,827 were made in 1997.

For 1998, the 240 hp (180 kW) supercharged V6 became standard. GM's OnStar service was added as an option, along with minor interior design changes. A total 10,953 units were produced for 1998.

With sales of all coupes declining in the North American market, GM decided to discontinue the Riviera. 1999 was the car's last model year with production of 1,956 cars ceasing on November 25, 1998. The final 200 cars had special silver paint and trim, and were denoted "Silver Arrow" [34] models, a designation which hearkened back to several Silver Arrow show cars that had been built off Riviera bodies by Bill Mitchell.

Eighth-generation Rivieras received the most powerful V6 Buick engine since the Grand Nationals of the 1980s. The supercharged OHV V6 provided high torque and acceleration allowing 0 to 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) in under 7 seconds, and turning the 14 mile in 15.5 seconds. Supercharged Rivieras achieved a fuel efficiency figure of 18/27 (city/highway mpg).

Engines

ModelYearEnginePowerTorque
Riviera19953.8 L L67 3800 Series I Supercharged V6225 hp (168 kW) @ 5000 rpm275 lb⋅ft (373 N⋅m) @ 3200 rpm
Riviera1995–19973.8 L L36 3800 Series II V6205 hp (153 kW) @ 5200 rpm230 lb⋅ft (312 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm
Riviera1996–19993.8 L L67 3800 Series II Supercharged V6240 hp (179 kW) @ 5200 rpm280 lb⋅ft (380 N⋅m) @ 3600 rpm

Concept cars

2007 concept

2007 Riviera Concept
NAIAS 304.JPG
Overview
Designer James C. Shyr
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,870 mm (113.0 in)
Length4,710 mm (185.4 in)
Width1,940 mm (76.4 in)
Height1,415 mm (55.7 in)

At the 2007 Shanghai Motor Show, Buick debuted a concept coupe named Riviera, based on the GM Epsilon II platform. [35] [36] The concept was later shown at the 2008 North American International Auto Show.

It was designed by the Pan Asia Technical Automotive Center (PATAC). The design was inspired by classic Buicks, ancient Chinese artifacts, and modern electronic icons. It includes "icy green" backlighting, Shell Blue body, gull-wing doors, a 2+2 seating configuration, and 21-inch 10-spoke forged aluminum wheels.

2013 concept

2013 Riviera Concept
Buick Riviera Concept at Auto Shanghai 2013.JPG
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door coupe

Another concept Riviera was shown at the 2013 Shanghai Motor Show, again developed by the Pan Asia Technical Automotive Center PATAC. It has gull-wing doors and a plug-in electric driveline as well as four wheel steering, electromagnetically controlled suspension with air springs, built in 4G LTE connection, transparent A pillar and wireless charging. [37] [38]

Related Research Articles

Buick Mid-level luxury division of General Motors

Buick is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors (GM). Started by automotive pioneer David Dunbar Buick, it was among the first American marques of automobiles, and was the company that established General Motors in 1908. Before the establishment of General Motors, GM founder William C. Durant had served as Buick's general manager and major investor.

Personal luxury car

Personal luxury car is a North American car classification describing somewhat sporty, sophisticated mass-market coupés that emphasized comfort over performance. The North American manufacturers most often combined engineering, design, and marketing to develop upscale, distinctive "platform sharing" models that became highly profitable.

Buick Skylark Series of passenger automobiles produced by Buick

The Buick Skylark is a passenger car produced by Buick. The model was made in six production runs, during 46 years, over which the car's design varied dramatically due to changing technology, tastes, and new standards implemented over the years. It was named for the species of bird called skylark.

Cadillac Eldorado American personal luxury car

The Cadillac Eldorado is a luxury car manufactured and marketed by Cadillac from 1952 to 2002 over twelve generations.

Oldsmobile Cutlass American car model

The Oldsmobile Cutlass was a range of automobiles produced by General Motors' Oldsmobile division between 1961 and 1999. At its introduction, the Cutlass was Oldsmobile's entry-level model; it began as a unibody compact car, but saw its greatest success as a body-on-frame intermediate. The Cutlass was named after the type of sword, which was common during the Age of Sail.

Buick Electra Motor vehicle

The Buick Electra is a full-size luxury car manufactured and marketed by Buick from 1959 to 1990 over six generations — having been named after heiress and sculptor Electra Waggoner Biggs by her brother-in-law Harlow H. Curtice, former president of Buick and later president of General Motors. The Electra was offered in coupe, convertible, sedan, and station wagon body styles over the course of its production — with rear-wheel drive (1959-1984) or front-wheel drive. For its entire production run, it utilized some form of GM's C platform. The Electra was superseded by the Buick Park Avenue in 1991.

Pontiac Grand Prix automobile model made by Pontiac

The Grand Prix is a line of automobiles produced by the Pontiac Division of General Motors from 1962 to 2002 for coupes and 1989–2008 for sedans. First introduced as part of Pontiac's full-size car model offering for the 1962 model year, the marque varied repeatedly in size, luxury, and performance during its production. Among the changes were positioning in the personal luxury car market segment and mid-size car offering from the second generation to the fifth generation for the sedan and from the second generation to the sixth generation from the coupe. The Grand Prix returned to a full-size car from the sixth generation to the seventh generation for the sedan, positioned below the larger Bonneville in Pontiac's model lineup.

Oldsmobile 98 Motor vehicle

The Oldsmobile 98 is the full-size flagship model of Oldsmobile that was produced from 1940 until 1996. The name — reflecting a "Series 90" fitted with an 8-cylinder engine — first appeared in 1941 and was used again after American consumer automobile production resumed post-World War II. It was, as it would remain, the division's top-of-the-line model, with lesser Oldsmobiles having lower numbers such as the A-body 66 and 68, and the B-body 76 and 78. The Series 60 was retired in 1949, the same year the Oldsmobile 78 was replaced by the 88. The Oldsmobile 76 was retired after 1950. This left the two remaining number-names to carry on into the 1990s as the bread and butter of the full-size Oldsmobile lineup until the Eighty Eight-based Regency replaced the 98 in 1997.

Oldsmobile 88 American full-size car built by Oldsmobile

The Oldsmobile 88 is a full-size car that was sold and produced by Oldsmobile from 1949 until 1999. From 1950 to 1974, the 88 was the division's most profitable line, particularly the entry level models such as the 88 and Dynamic 88. The 88 series was also an image leader for Oldsmobile, particularly in the early years (1949–51), when it was one of the best performing automobiles, thanks to its relatively small size, light weight, and advanced overhead-valve high-compression V8 engine. This engine, originally designed for the larger C-bodied and more luxurious 98 series, also replaced the straight-8 on the smaller B-bodied 78. With the large, high performance V8, the Oldsmobile 88 is considered by some to be the first muscle car, although this title is disputed.

Pontiac Bonneville Motor vehicle

The Pontiac Bonneville is an automobile built by Pontiac from 1957 to 2005. Bonnevilles were full-sized, with the exception of a brief period of mid-size between 1982–1986. The brand was introduced as a limited production performance convertible during the 1957 model year. The Bonneville, and its platform partner, the Grand Ville, are some of the largest Pontiacs ever built; in station wagon body styles they reached just over 230 inches (5.8 m) long, and at 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg) and more were also some of the heaviest cars produced at the time. They were also used as a basis for various specialty cars such as hearses.

Oldsmobile Toronado Motor vehicle

The Oldsmobile Toronado is a personal luxury car manufactured and marketed by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors from 1966 to 1992 over four generations. The Toronado was noted for its transaxle version of GM's Turbo-Hydramatic transmission, making it the first U.S.-produced front-wheel drive automobile since the demise of the Cord in 1937.

Buick Century Line of upscale performance cars

Buick Century is the model name that was used by Buick for a line of upscale full-size cars from 1936 to 1942 and 1954 to 1958, as well as from 1973 to 2005 for mid-size cars.

Oldsmobile Starfire Motor vehicle

The Oldsmobile Starfire is an automobile nameplate used by Oldsmobile, produced in three non-contiguous generations beginning in 1954. The Starfire nameplate made its debut with the 1954–1956 Ninety-Eight series convertibles. For 1957 only, all Ninety-Eight series models were named "Starfire 98".

Oldsmobile Omega Motor vehicle

The Oldsmobile Omega is a compact car that was manufactured and sold from 1973 through 1984 by Oldsmobile. It was Oldsmobile's most affordable, entry level product sharing a platform within the GM brand names. The name omega was used to imply the last, the end, or the ultimate limit of a set, in contrast to alpha, the first letter of the Greek alphabet. There were three generations of Omegas, all being badge-engineered Chevrolet models, and each of the three using one of two GM X platform architectures:

Buick Roadmaster Automobile

The Buick Roadmaster is an automobile that was built by Buick from 1936 to 1958, and again from 1991 to 1996. Roadmasters produced between 1936 and 1958 were built on Buick's longest non-limousine wheelbase and shared their basic structure with entry-level Cadillac and, after 1940, senior Oldsmobiles. Between 1946 and 1957 the Roadmaster served as Buick's flagship.

Buick Limited Line of upscale cars

The Limited was Buick's flagship limousine between 1936 and 1942 and, during model year 1958 during GM's Fiftieth Anniversary, the halo car for Buick. After the vehicle was retired in 1959, Buick has intermittently used the "Limited" name for several decades to denote those models which featured a high level of trim and standard options in its various model ranges. Vehicles given the Limited nameplate were in direct competition with Cadillac senior sedans for clientele who wanted a GM luxury sedan but regarded Cadillac as "ostentatious" or "flamboyant" as Buick had over time earned a reputation of low-key conservative appearance while focusing on durability and reliability. The Limited nameplate returned in the mid-1960s denoting the top trim package on Buick vehicles for several decades thereafter.

Cadillac Series 62 Motor vehicle

The Cadillac Series 40-62 is a series of cars which was produced by Cadillac from 1940 through 1964. Originally designed to complement the entry level Series 65, it became the Cadillac Series 6200 in 1959, and remained that until it was renamed to Cadillac Calais for the 1965 model year. The Series 62 was also marketed as the Sixty-Two and the Series Sixty-Two. The Series 62 was used to introduce the Cadillac Coupe de Ville and the Cadillac Eldorado which started out at special appearance packages that were later placed into production.

Cadillac Series 61 Motor vehicle

The Cadillac Series 61 was Cadillac's mainstream product model range. It was priced and equipped more modestly below the limousine, GM D platform Cadillac Series 85, Cadillac Series 90, Cadillac Series 72, Cadillac Series 67, and Cadillac Fleetwood Series 75. It was upgraded by the Series 62 in 1940 only to return to production in model year 1941, replacing the cancelled LaSalle Series 50. While production was suspended from model years 1943–1945 due to World War II, it remained as the junior level product line until 1951. The size, equipment list and quality level were the most popular with buyers who wanted a prestigious luxury car that was usually driven by the owner, while the larger cars were chauffeur driven. It combined the most popular features of the previous Series 60 and Series 65 and was priced at the same level as Buick products of the time.

The GM A platform was a rear wheel drive automobile platform designation used by General Motors from 1925 until 1959, and again from 1964 to 1981. In 1982, GM introduced a new front wheel drive A platform, and existing intermediate rear wheel drive products were redesignated as G-bodies.

Buick Super Motor vehicle

The Buick Super is a full-sized automobile produced from the 1940 through the 1958 model years. It was built on Buick's larger body shared with the Roadmaster and was replaced by the Electra in 1959.

References

  1. "Cadillac Personal Luxury Car Concepts". Car Design News. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  2. "1961 Cadillac LaSalle XP-715". Automobile Brands of the Past. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  3. "1963 Buick La Salle Concept Car Poster". GMPhotoStore. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  4. "1963 Buick Riviera Show Car Poster". GMPhotoStore. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  5. 1 2 "1963 Buick La Salle Concept Poster (front view)". GMPhotoStore. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  6. Vaughan, Daniel (September 2007). "1963 Buick Riviera Silver Arrow I". Conceptcarz. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  7. "1963 Buick Riviera Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. p. 16. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Flory, J. "Kelly" Jr. (2004), American Cars 1960–1972, McFarland
  9. "1965 Buick Full Line Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. p. 44. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  10. "Image of Riviera hood ornament". Riviera Owners Association. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  11. "Image of rear quarter of car". Riviera Owners Association. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  12. Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (15 October 2007). "1963-1965 Buick Riviera". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  13. "Riviera History 1963-1975". Muscle Car Club. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  14. Ristic-Petrovic, Dusan. "Buick Riviera". Oldcarbrochures.com. pp. 14–15. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  15. "1966 Buick Riviera brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. p. 12. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  16. "1966 Buick Riviera brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com.
  17. "1966 Buick Riviera brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. p. 11. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  18. "1967 Buick Riviera Owners Manual". Oldcarbrochures.com. p. 18. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  19. "1967 Buick Riviera Owners Manual". Oldcarbrochures.com. p. 29. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  20. "1968 Buick Riviera brochure". oldcarbrochures.com. p. 15. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  21. Savage, Jeff S. (1993). "Electra with a Centurion and a Le Sabre and a boat-tail Riviera". AutoPhyle. Watsonville, CA. 2 (Winter, #4): 51.
  22. "1971 Buick Riviera Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. p. 3. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  23. "Muscle Car Club". Archived from the original on 2003-01-24.
  24. Brooks, Bruce (2020-06-09). "1971 Boat-Tail Riviera A-body". Dean's Garage. Performance Design. Archived from the original on 2020-11-30.
  25. 1 2 Savage (1993), p. 54
  26. Savage (1993), p. 63
  27. "1971 Buick Riviera Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. p. 5. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  28. 1 2 Savage (1993), p. 60
  29. Savage (1993), p. 61
  30. 1 2 3 4 "Riviera Production Numbers". Riviera Owners Association. Archived from the original on 2007-03-07.
  31. 1 2 "Evolution of the Riviera". Riviera Owners Association. Retrieved 2007-02-17.
  32. 1 2 "1984 Buick Riviera brochure (Canadian)". Archived from the original on 2016-09-17. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  33. 1 2 3 Traver Adolphus, David (September 2012). "Special Edition Coupes – 1983 Buick Riviera, 1985 Ford Thunderbird". Hemmings. American City Business Journals.
  34. "Special Report". Riviera Owners Association. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  35. Nunez, Alex (2007-04-14). "Shanghai Motor Show Preview: Buick Riviera Concept". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  36. "The Buick Riviera Concept : Car Makes And Models". News.carjunky.com. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
  37. Kable, Greg (May 13, 2013). "Best in Show: Buick Riviera". Autoweek. 63 (10): 8.
  38. "Buick unveils new Riviera concept in Shanghai". Road & Track. 2013-04-19. Retrieved 2018-05-02.

Works cited