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During the Russian Civil War, the Soviet government allowed a variety of small arms and bladed weapons. Afterwards, the government made immediate alterations for those on whom it did not rely. The government had made it a point to "arm the working people" in the Declaration of the Rights of Working and Exploited People in January 1918.  The December decree of the CPC of 1918, "On the surrender of weapons", ordered people to surrender any firearms, swords, bayonets and bombs, regardless of the degree of serviceability. The penalty for not doing so was ten years' imprisonment.  Members of the Communist Party were allowed to have a single weapon (a pistol or a rifle) and possession of the weapon was recorded in the party membership book. Stalin's ally Sergey Kirov was assassinated by Leonid Nikolaev in 1934; Nikolaev was given a Nagant revolver and presumably a gun permit by NKVD agent Vania Zaporozhets.
On December 12, 1924, the Central Executive Committee of the USSR promulgated its degree "On the procedure of production, trade, storage, use, keeping and carrying firearms, firearm ammunition, explosive projectiles and explosives", all weapons were classified and divided into categories. Now the weapons permitted for personal possession by ordinary citizens could only be smoothbore hunting shotguns. Other categories of weapons were only possessed by those who were assigned duties by the Soviet state; for all others, access to these weapons was restricted to within state-regulated shooting ranges.  Illegal gun possession was severely punished. Since March 1933 the manufacture, possession, purchase, sale of firearms (except for smoothbore) hunting weapons without proper authorization was punishable by up to five years in prison. In 1935, the same penalty was imposed for possession of knives. During the Great Patriotic War, the civilian population had to hand over all personal hunting weapons to the Red Army for defence against the German invasion. The same was true for weapons left by retreating German invaders in the war. They were to be surrendered to Red Army troops, the NKVD or local Soviet authorities within 24 hours. Cases of stolen weapons were also brought to criminal justice.
After the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953, the USSR saw a small wave of liberalisations for civilian gun ownership. Soviet civilians were allowed to purchase smoothbore hunting shotguns again, even without mandatory submission of hunting licenses. However, this lasted for not more than six years. The buyer again had to pre-register in the Soviet Society of Hunters since 1959.  With the introduction of the new Criminal Code in 1960, penalties were significantly reduced for illegal possession of firearms, down to a mandatory two years of imprisonment, while the possession of melee weapons was no longer prohibited in the Soviet Union.
Fourteen years later, the punishment for illegal purchase, keeping and carrying of weapons was increased again to five years' imprisonment. However, unregistered rifles that were voluntarily surrendered were met without responsibility or punishment.
Gun laws and policies, collectively referred to as firearms regulation or gun control, regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, and use of small arms by civilians. Laws of some countries may afford civilians a right to keep and bear arms, and have more liberal gun laws than neighboring jurisdictions. Countries that regulate access to firearms will typically restrict access to certain categories of firearms and then restrict the categories of persons who may be granted a license for access to such firearms. There may be separate licenses for hunting, sport shooting, self-defense, collecting, and concealed carry, with different sets of requirements, permissions, and responsibilities.
Gun laws in Pakistan allow for the ownership of firearms in the country by the general population. Pakistan is one of the biggest open firearms markets in the world, and is in the modern era also known for its indigenous gunsmith tradition. The country is famous for producing clones of almost every notable weapon of the world. Although firearms are widely owned, heavy weaponry is only permitted in tribal areas within the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This includes the circulation of rocket-propelled grenades, short, medium, and long-range rockets, anti-aircraft guns, mortars and other types of firearms.
The Saiga-12 is a shotgun available in a wide range of configurations, patterned after the Kalashnikov series of rifles and named after the Saiga antelope native to Russia. Like the Kalashnikov rifle variants, it is a rotating bolt, long-stroke gas piston operated firearm that feeds from a box magazine. All Saiga-12 configurations are recognizable as Kalashnikov-pattern guns by the large lever-safety on the right side of the receiver, the optic mounting rail on the left side of the receiver and the large top-mounted dust cover held in place by the rear of the recoil spring assembly. Saiga firearms are meant for civilian domestic sale in Russia, and export to international markets.
The RMb-93 is a pump-action shotgun designed and manufactured by the KBP Instrument Design Bureau of Tula, Russia. It is the baseline model of the Rys ("Lynx") series of shotguns, taking the modelname of Rys-K. The RMb-93 has been conceived as a combat weapon for Special Forces and Police units that might face Close Quarters Battle situations. The weapon is thus engineered to reduce size and encumbrance as much as possible.
In the People's Republic of China, access by the general public to firearms is subject to some of the strictest control measures in the world. With the exception of individuals with hunting permits and some ethnic minorities, civilian firearm ownership is restricted to non-individual entities.
Ukrainian law allows firearm ownership on may-issue basis. With approximately 10 civilian firearms per 100 people, Ukraine is the 88th most armed country in the world per capita, and 22nd overall.
The TOZ-34 (ТОЗ-34) is a double-barreled shotgun.
The IZh-27 (ИЖ-27) is a double-barreled shotgun.
The MTs 21-12 is a Soviet semi-automatic shotgun.
The IZh-18 (ИЖ-18) is a single-shot, break-action shotgun.
The IZh-94 is a Russian double-barreled shotgun.
The MTs 20-01 is a Soviet bolt-action shotgun.
The IZh-43 (ИЖ-43) is a Soviet and Russian double-barreled shotgun.
The TOZ-55 «Zubr» is a Soviet double-barreled combination gun for big-game hunting.
The MTs 109 is a Soviet and Russian double-barreled high-quality custom hunting shotgun.
The MTs 110 is a family of Soviet and Russian double-barreled high-quality custom hunting shotguns and rifles.
The MTs 30 is a family of Soviet high-quality custom hunting combination guns.
Lithuanian law allows firearm possession on a shall-issue basis. With approximately 13.6 civilian firearms per 100 people, Lithuania is 58th most armed country in the world.
Firearms have been subject to government control and regulation in Venezuela since 1914.
Gun control in Russia is carried out in accordance with the Federal Law on Weapons. The law establishes three major categories of weapons: civil, service, and military.